Zoltán Dörnyei's research while affiliated with University of Nottingham and other places

Publications (94)

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Although temporal conceptualizations of motivational processes have not held center stage in motivation science, the situation is currently changing. Drawing on work in the subfield of language learning motivation, where the motivational endurance needed to master a second language has been a major concern, the aim of this article is to contribute...
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This paper provides an overview of the emerging interface of psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It begins with a discussion of the linguistic dominance of the field of SLA in the past, then describes the growing influence of psychology in the present, with a special emphasis on examining why psychology is more suited to the study of...
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Future second language (L2) self-images have proven integral to L2 motivation, prompting several attempts to purposefully develop learners’ ideal L2 selves over the past decade through the use of vision-building techniques. Some of these ‘vision interventions’ have reported successfully enhancing learners’ L2 self-images and motivation; other studi...
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The present study employed a mixed methods quasi-experimental design to investigate the effectiveness of applying motivational strategies and mental imagery (i.e. visionary techniques) to facilitate second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Four treatment sessions were integrated into a six-week language course offered to 150 intermediate students...
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Role models can exert considerable influence in shaping individuals’ values, attitudes, and beliefs. A large body of work in the social sciences has investigated the influence of celebrity role models, and in the context of education, several disciplines have a rich research history in this area (e.g. medical education). However, in the context of...
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The theoretical emphasis within the L2 Motivational Self System has typically been on the two future self-guides representing possible (ideal and ought-to) selves, leaving the third main dimension of the construct, the L2 Learning Experience, somewhat undertheorized. Yet, this third component is not secondary in importance, as evidenced by empirica...
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Sustained motivation is crucial to learning a second language (L2), and one way to support this can be through the mental visualisation of ideal L2 selves (Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014). This paper reports on an exploratory study which investigated the possibility of using technology to create representations of language learners’ ideal L2 selves dig...
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This special issue takes a critical look at a largely uncharted area of language learning motivation: the motivation to learn languages other than English (LOTEs) in an era of globalization and multilingualism. Most 21st-century literature on motivation in second language acquisition has focused on the learning of English, whose dominant status as...
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In this paper we introduce a new concept termed “teacher immunity”. We propose that this immunity emerges from the accrued experiences of coping with disturbances and problems in stressful teaching environments, and that it functions as an indispensable protective armor allowing language teachers to survive the unavoidable hassles of classroom prac...
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Preface One thing is certain; there is no shortage of materials written about language learning motivation. Besides the ever-growing number of books and edited volumes published on the topic over the past decade (now easily into double figures), literally hundreds of articles—both theoretical and practical—have appeared in journals, periodicals and...
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Abstract The study of L2 motivation has seen an unprecedented boom during the past decade, with the number of published studies in the area far exceeding not only the amount of work done in other domains of language learner characteristics but, in fact, most strands within the whole of SLA research. This study examines the origins and nature of thi...
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This study reports on the second phase of a large-scale stratified survey in China, examining the role of vision and imagery in the learners’ motivation to learn English as a foreign language. Understanding visualization has been a featured area of recent developments in second language (L2) motivation theory, and this study is the first to offer a...
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Muir & Dörnyei, 2013) have recently identified a particular motivational phenomenon— periods of intense and enduring motivation in pursuit of a specific goal or vision—that, although instantly recognizable, has nevertheless failed to receive attention in the research literature. The Directed Motivational Currents (DMCs) they describe differ from ot...
Book
Over the past decade, the focus of inquiry into the psychology of SLA has shifted from the analysis of various characteristics within individuals towards a greater consideration of individuals’ dynamic interactions with diverse contexts. This revisit of the bestselling The Psychology of the Language Learner reflects on these developments by challen...
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This landmark volume offers a collection of conceptual papers and empirical research studies that investigate the dynamics of language learning motivation from a complex dynamic systems perspective. The contributors include some of the most well-established scholars from three continents, all addressing the question of how we can understand motivat...
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Motivation as a variable in L2 development is no longer seen as the stable individual difference factor it was once believed to be: Influenced by process-oriented models and principles, and especially by the growing understanding of how complex dynamic systems work, researchers have been focusing increasingly on the dynamic and changeable nature of...
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Research results over the past decades have consistently demonstrated that a key reason why many second language learners fail--while some learners do better with less effort--lies in various learner attributes such as personality traits, motivation, or language aptitude. In psychology, these attributes have traditionally been called "individual di...
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A DMC is a potent motivational surge that emerges from the alignment of a number of personal, temporal and contextual factors/parameters, creating momentum to pursue an individually defined future goal/vision that is personally significant and emotionally satisfying. The experience of a DMC carries with it the excitement of journeying down a ‘motiv...
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Cultivating motivation is crucial to a language learner's success - and therefore crucial for the language teacher and researcher to understand. This fully revised edition of a groundbreaking work reflects the dramatic changes the field of motivation research has undergone in recent years, including the impact of language globalisation and various...
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Vision, that is, the mental representation of the sensory experience of a future goal state (involving imagination and imagery), is currently at the forefront of motivational innovation, and in recent years it has been seen increasingly more often in the motivational tool kit of practicing language teachers. Theories such as Dornyei’s L2 motivation...
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Recent theorizing on second language (L2) motivation has proposed viewing motivation as a function of the language learners’ vision of their desired future language selves. This would suggest that the intensity of motivation is partly dependent on the learners’ capability to generate mental imagery. In order to test this hypothesis, this study inve...
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While approaching second language acquisition from a complex dynamic systems perspective makes a lot of intuitive sense, it is difficult for a number of reasons to operationalise such a dynamic approach in research terms. For example, the most common research paradigms in the social sciences tend to examine variables in relative isolation rather th...
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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The notion of language as a complex adaptive system has been conceived within an agent-based framework, which highlights the significance of individual-level variation in the characteristics and contextual circumstances of the learner/speaker. Yet, in spite of this emphasis, currently we know relatively little about the interplay among language, ag...
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The teacher’s use of motivational strategies is generally believed to enhance student motivation, yet the literature has little empirical evidence to support this claim. Based on a large-scale investigation of 40 ESOL classrooms in South Korea involving 27 teachers and more than 1,300 learners, this study examined the link between the teachers’ mot...
Chapter
IntroductionForeign Language AptitudeForeign Language Aptitude and SLASLA-Informed Aptitude ResearchAptitude: Conclusion Cognitive and Learning StyleLanguage Learning StrategiesMotivationIndividual Differences: Conclusions
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With motivation being one of the key factors determining success in foreign/second language (L2) learning, strategies in motivating learners should be seen as an important aspect of the study of L2 motivation. However, empirical investigations focusing on motivational strategies are scarce in L2 research, with one exception being Dörnyei and Csizér...
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This chapter addresses the complex question of what makes a classroom environment motivating. It will be argued that in order to understand the psychological tapestry of classroom life, we need to adopt an interdisciplinary approach and draw on research findings from a number of different areas within the social sciences, such as group dynamics, mo...
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Ever since the early days of its existence, the field of psychology has been trying to achieve two different and somewhat contradictory objectives: to understand the general principles of the human mind and to explore the uniqueness of the individual mind. The latter direction has formed an independent subdiscipline within the field, usually referr...
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This study investigates the components of motivation in foreign-language learning (FLL)–which involves learning the target language in institutional/academic settings without regularly interacting with the target language community. It was assumed that the results obtained from second-language acquisition (SLA) contexts–those in which the target la...
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This article draws on work done in educational psychology to propose a new approach to generating a psychometrically-based measure of second language learners’ strategic learning, operationalized as their self-regulatory capacity, as an alternative to the scales traditionally used to quantify language learning strategy use. The self-regulation inst...
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This volume presents the results of the largest ever language attitude/motivation survey in second language studies. The research team gathered data from over 13,000 Hungarian language learners on three successive occasions: in 1993, 1999 and 2004. The examined period covers a particularly prominent time in Hungary’s history, the transition from a...
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This article investigates attitude-mediated contact effects on language learners’ motivational disposition by addressing the question as to whether increased intercultural contact through tourism will lead to enhanced language attitudes and language learning motivation. The analysis is based on empirical data gathered in a repeated cross-sectional...
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Language learning motivation is a complex, composite construct, and although past research has identified a number of its key components, the interrelationship of these components has often been subject to debate. Similarly, the exact contribution of the various motivational components to learning behaviors and learning achievement has also been in...
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This edited volume contains the proceedings of a conference on the role of individual differences in instructed SLA held at Aoyama Gakuin University in 1999. It includes 11 studies as well as an introductory chapter written by the editors. The first two papers, by Yamashiro and McLaughlin and by Hiser, Croker, Kenudson, and Stribling, present multi...
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This article intends to achieve two purposes: (a) to provide an overview of recent advances in research on motivation to learn a foreign or second language (L2), and (b) to create the theoretical context of the articles selected for this anthology. The past few years have seen a number of comprehensive summaries of relevant research (e.g., Clément...
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This paper examines trends in second language (L2) communication strategy (CS) research to date. We give a comprehensive review of the relevant literature from the last two decades, with particular consideration of the different ways in which CSs have been defined and of corresponding influences on the organization of strategy taxonomies. We first...
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In. Z. Dörnyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 399-432). Honolulu: University of Hawaii.
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Background: This paper focuses on the temporal dimension of student motivation; that is, rather than considering motivation a stable emotional or mental state, the emphasis is placed on portraying motivation processes as they happen in time. Aims: 1. To account for the dynamic development of motivation in prolonged learning processes such as the...
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The study of L2 motivation has reached an exciting turning point in the 1990s, with a variety of new models and approaches proposed in the literature, resulting in what Gardner and Tremblay (1994) have called a ‘motivational renaissance.’ In this chapter I provide an overview of some of the current themes and research directions that I find pa...
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This paper reports on a data-based study in which we explored - as part of a larger-scale British-Hungarian research project - the effects of a number of affective and social variables on foreign language (L2) learners’ engagement in oral argumentative tasks. The assumption underlying the investigation was that students’ verbal behaviour in oral ta...
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This paper reports on a data-based study in which we explored - as part of a larger-scale British-Hungarian research project - the effects of a number of affective and social variables on foreign language (L2) learners’ engagement in oral argumentative tasks. The assumption underlying the investigation was that students’ verbal behaviour in oral ta...
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Why do some students seek, while others avoid, second language (L2) communication? Many language teachers have encountered students high in linguistic competence who are unwilling to use their L2 for communication whereas other students, with only minimal linguistic knowledge, seem to communicate in the L2 whenever possible. Despite excellent commu...
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This paper investigates the various waysspeakers manage problems and overcome difficulties in L2 communication. FollowingDörnyei and Scott (1997), we distinguish four main sources of L2 communicationproblems: (a) resource deficits, (b) processing time pressure, (c) perceived deficiencies inone's own language output, and (d) perceived deficiencies i...
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The question of how to motivate language learners has been a neglected area in L2 motivation research, and even the few available analyses lack an adequate research base. This article presents the results of an empirical survey aimed at obtaining classroom data on motivational strategies. Two hundred Hungarian teachers of English from various langu...
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L2 learners often develop grammatical competence in the absence of concomitant pragmatic competence (Bardovi-Harlig & Hartford, 1990, 1993). In an attempt to better understand how this developmental stage arises, this study explores the extent to which instructed L2 learners of English are aware of differences in learners' and target-language produ...
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As part of a long-term project aimed at designing classroom interventions to motivate language learners, we have searched for a motivation model that could serve as a theoretical basis for the methodological applications. We have found that none of the existing models we considered were entirely adequate for our purpose for three reasons: (1) they...
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Cooperative learning (CL) has been found to be a highly effective instructional approach in education in general and this has been confirmed with regard to second language (L2) learning as well. This article investigates reasons for the success of CL from a psychological perspective, focusing on two interrelated processes: the unique group dynamics...
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This paper highlights the importance of the dynamics of the learner group in shaping the L2 learning process. We argue that group characteristics and group processes significantly contribute to any success or failure in the L2 classroom, and therefore language teachers could potentially benefit from an awareness of the principles of group dynamics....
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The TESOL Quarterly invites commentary on current trends or practices in the TESOL profession. It also welcomes responses to rebuttals to any articles or remarks published here in The Forum or elsewhere in the Quarterly.
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Because a significant proportion of real-life L2 communication is problematic, L2 learners might benefit from instruction on how to cope with performance problems. Such instruction could include the specific teaching of' communication strategies, which involve various verbal and nonverbal means of dealing with difficulties and breakdowns that occur...
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Defining the motivational basis of second and foreign language acquisition has been at the center of much research and controversy for many years. The present study applied social psychological constructs to the acquisition of English in the unicultural Hungarian setting. A total of 301 Grade 11 students from the region of Budapest answered a quest...
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Eredményeink három fő téma köré csoportosíthatóak: a nyelvi globalizáció folyamata, a nyelvtanulók nyelvtanulói énképe és az interkulturális kontaktus szerepe az idegen nyelvtanulásban. Kutatásunk azt mutatja, hogy az angol nyelvi globalizáció folyamata Magyarországon is jelentős, az angol nyelv mindinkább háttérbe szorítja a regionálisan fontos id...

Citations

... This study considers multiple external components which shape student motivation in learning L2s and assesses their interconnection with psychological and cognitive reactions belonging to the learner's internalisation of a large amount of information such as a language system. At the same time, by paying close attention to emotions and internal reactions to the L2 learning process, it follows studies by Dewaele (2011), Dörnyei (2005Dörnyei ( , 2009b and Ryan (2020) who recognise the importance of learners' individual differences and psychological traits when learning L2s. ...
... Linguists put forward the hope to determine the correctness of language use in the process of determining the usage of sentence patterns, that is, to consider the accuracy of language use on the basis of context. e Polish human linguist Malinowski believes: "Discourse and environment are closely intertwined, and language environment is essential for understanding language" [8]. Any linguistic analysis involving context will belong to the field of linguistics research. ...
... Past studies have identified some major factors which influence students' demotivation such as teachers' competence [13]- [21], classroom characteristics [13]- [15], [22], negative attitude of classmates [14], [17], and lack of facilities [17], [20], [21]. Whereas, Dörnyei and Ushioda [28] figured out that the demotivation among the learners extracted nine factors: i) Teachers' attitude and teaching method; ii) Lack of facilities available at school; iii) Lack of self-confidence; iv) Negative attitude towards the foreign language studied; v) Foreign language study as a compulsion; vi) Interference of other foreign languages which the students are studying; vii) No positive attitude towards the English spoken communities; viii) Group attitude; and ix) Course books studied in class. These factors have contributed a lot in the field of demotivation research, as many students go through demotivation, they lose both integrative and instrumental motivation to continue their efforts in learning English [29]. ...
... Nine demotivators were summarized in a qualitative study (Dörnyei, 1998), that is, the teacher (personality, commitment, competence, and teaching method), inadequate school facilities (the group is too big or not the right level; frequent change of teachers), reduced self-confidence (experience of failure or lack of success), negative attitude toward the L2, compulsory nature of L2 study, interference of another foreign language being studied, negative attitude toward the L2 community, attitudes of the group members, and the coursebook. Dörnyei and Ushioda (2021) developed this definition and thought of demotivation as "a negative process that reduces or diminishes a person's motivation in relation to a behavioral intention or an ongoing action" (p. 140). ...
... Doctoral dissertations were also included, since they were sufficiently peer-reviewed. It is worth noting that some works that were not empirical studies but were well acknowledged by peers were also included (e.g., Dörnyei, 2001;Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2021). Such records would be discarded if they were theoretical articles or reviews, since they were not conducted within the space of theory and practice (Rose et al., 2021). ...
... This new approach to studying IDs has definitively put CDST on the research map. The increasing adoption of CDST methodological tools for researching why some language learners are more successful than others, and what makes them so, has resulted in a new research landscape in which CDST has firmly established its relevance and explanatory potential (Dörnyei, 2017). ...
... Thus, we see that while some students meet their goals and learn the foreign language, others do not go beyond the basic level and are discouraged in their first steps. For this reason the affective and motivational variables that underlie the learning of a second language (L2, from now on) have been the subject of research since the nineties of the 20th century [1]- [4]. This line of research starts from an attempt to overcome the cognition-emotion division into two different blocks that relegated emotions to the background [1], [5]. ...
... However, it is important to delve into the relationship between both variables and the role they play in academic effort and performance. If we follow the notion of the ideal self from Dörnyei, one of the main problems we encounter in language teaching-learning is that students do not have a clear notion of their ideal self or their deontic self, regardless of the methodology in the class [4], [15]. In other words, they have not done that visualization exercise that athlete do when faced with a difficult challenge. ...
... The basis for identifying the types of motivation was derived from previous work and adapted for application in this study. The foundation for identifying social, professional/career, and educational motivation as the most suitable types of motivation was drawn from the findings of the work of Zheng et al. (2019), Dörnyei (2020), and Mahmoodi and Yousefi (2022). ...