Ziva Kunda's research while affiliated with University of Waterloo and other places

Publications (37)

Article
The authors describe a theoretical framework for understanding when people interacting with a member of a stereotyped group activate that group's stereotype and apply it to that person. It is proposed that both stereotype activation and stereotype application during interaction depend on the strength of comprehension and self-enhancement goals that...
Article
Full-text available
In 3 studies, the authors demonstrated that individuals are motivated by role models who encourage strategies that fit their regulatory concerns: Promotion-focused individuals, who favor a strategy of pursuing desirable outcomes, are most inspired by positive role models, who highlight strategies for achieving success; prevention-focused individual...
Article
In 3 studies, the authors demonstrated that individuals are motivated by role models who encourage strategies that fit their regulatory concerns: Promotion-focused individuals, who favor a strategy of pursuing desirable outcomes, are most inspired by positive role models, who highlight strategies for achieving success; prevention-focused individual...
Article
Full-text available
Stereotypes activated upon initial exposure to a stereotyped individual may dissipate as the exposure continues. Participants observing a videotaped interview with a Black person showed activation of the stereotype of Black people following 15 s of observation but not following 12 min of observation. However, the discovery of a disagreement with th...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation may provoke stereotype use. In a field study of students’ evaluations of university instructors and in a controlled experiment, participants viewed women as less competent than men after receiving negative evaluations from them but not after receiving positive evaluations. As a result, the evaluation of women depended more on the favorab...
Article
Full-text available
The motivation to form a particular impression of an individual can prompt the inhibition of applicable stereotypes that contradict one's desired impression and the activation and application of stereotypes that support it. Participants, especially those high in prejudice, inhibited the Black stereotype when motivated to esteem a Black individual (...
Article
The accessibility of people's highest hopes and achievements can affect their reactions to upward comparisons. Three studies showed that, under normal circumstances, individuals were inspired by an outstanding role model; their motivation and self-evaluations were enhanced. However, when their most positive self-views were temporarily or chronicall...
Article
The accessibility of people's highest hopes and achievements can affect their reactions to upward comparisons. Three studies showed that, under normal circumstances, individuals were inspired by an outstanding role model; their motivation and self-evaluations were enhanced. However, when their most positive self-views were temporarily or chronicall...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we review evidence showing that both the activation and the application of stereotypes may be influenced by motivation. When an applicable stereotype supports their desired impression of an individual, motivation can lead people to activate this stereotype, if they have not already activated it spontaneously. Motivation can also le...
Article
The authors propose that superstars are most likely to affect self-views when they are considered relevant. Relevant superstars provoke self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seems attainable but self-deflation when it seems unattainable. Participants' self-views were affected only when the star's domain of excellence was self-relevant...
Article
The authors examined how the extent to which counterstereotypic individuals deviate from perceivers' stereotypes affects their impact on these stereotypes and found that extremely deviant group members provoke less stereotype assimilation than do moderately deviant ones. Extremely deviant examples can even provoke boomerang effects, that is, enhanc...
Article
Full-text available
The same trait may imply different behaviors when applied to members of differently stereotyped groups. For example, these studies show that aggressive connotes physical violence when applied to a construction worker, but verbal abuse when applied to a lawyer. Such stereotype-driven construals of traits can be more readily explained by a parallel-...
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose a parallel-constraint-satisfaction theory of impression formation that assumes that social stereotypes and individuating information such as traits or behaviors constrain each other's meaning and jointly influence impressions of individuals. Building on models of text comprehension (W. Kintsch, see record 1988-28529-001), the a...
Article
Full-text available
People encountering deviants who violate a stereotype try to maintain the stereotype by subtyping the deviants. They use the deviants' additional attributes to justify subtyping them. Participants read about counterstereotypic targets. Participants who were given no additional information about targets, and so had no grounds for subtyping them, did...
Article
People prefer controllable risks over less dangerous uncontrollable ones. Two kinds of evidence suggest that people′s belief that they are more capable than others at controlling dangerous outcomes contributes to this preference: In Study 1, the preference for controllable risks was reduced when subjects were choosing risks for another person rathe...
Article
Full-text available
People believe that they perform fewer health-threatening behaviors than their average peer Men such beliefs were challenged by information about the actual average behavior frequencies reported by their peers, subjects shifted their own self-views and reported engaging in these behaviors less frequently than controls did. Evidently, this biased re...
Article
When stereotypes affect judgment about individuals in the presence of individuating information, they may do so by affecting the construal of that information. Therefore stereotypes may affect judgment even if perceivers subsequently neglect the stereotypes or base rates and base their impressions only on these stereotype-driven construals of the i...
Article
Three studies with university students demonstrated that directional questions can affect which memories people access, and showed that people use these accessed memories to formulate their current self-conceptions. Ss asked whether they are characterized by a given attribute tended to believe that they had higher levels of that attribute than did...
Article
We propose that people motivated to hold particular beliefs about another person attempt to construct justifications for these desired beliefs. In so doing, they construct general beliefs from which the desired ones may be inferred. In Study 1 subjects motivated to see a target as high or low in ability (because he was to be their partner or oppone...
Article
We examined whether motivation affects people's use of statistical heuristics. In two studies, subjects had to decide how many instances to observe before making predictions. Half the subjects were led to believe that the observation of each instance would be relatively high in cost, and half were led to believe that it would be relatively low in c...
Article
It is proposed that motivation may affect reasoning through reliance on a biased set of cognitive processes--that is, strategies for accessing, constructing, and evaluating beliefs. The motivation to be accurate enhances use of those beliefs and strategies that are considered most appropriate, whereas the motivation to arrive at particular conclusi...
Article
Four studies examined how people combine social concepts that have conflicting implications (e.g., Harvard-educated and carpenter). Several kinds of evidence indicated that such combinations are guided by causal reasoning that draws upon both causal relations contained within the constituent concepts and on broader world knowledge. Open-ended descr...
Article
We hypothesized that people motivated to believe that they possess a given trait search for autobiographical memories that reflect that trait, so as to justify their desired self-view. We led subjects to believe that either extraversion or introversion was desirable, and obtained convergent evidence from open-ended memory-listing tasks as well as f...
Article
Two studies suggest that the content of people's self-conceptions at a given time may be influenced by the perceived desirability of different attributes. Subjects induced to theorize that a given attribute—extraversion or introversion—was related to academic success came to view themselves as possessing relatively higher degrees of that attribute....
Article
We examined people's beliefs about how well an individual's evaluations can predict the average evaluations of a group and how well a group's average evaluations can predict those of an individual. The individual in question was either the self or a stranger. Subjects believed that the group predicts a stranger better than the stranger predicts the...
Article
The results of four studies suggest that people tend to generate and evaluate causal theories in a self-serving manner. They generate theories that view their own attributes as more predictive of desirable outcomes, and they are reluctant to believe in theories relating their own attributes to undesirable events. As a consequence, people tend to ho...
Article
The self-concept literature is characterized by a continuing controversy over whether the self-concept is stable or malleable. In this article we suggest that it is both but that the stability observed for general descriptions of the self may mask significant local variation. In this study the social environment was varied by creating a situation i...
Article
We examined people's understanding of the implications of the law of large numbers for prediction of social behavior and abilities. We found that people possess a partial understanding of the law: They sometimes recognize that one can predict more confidently from larger samples, but do not recognize that one can predict more confidently to larger...
Article
We examined people's ability to assess everyday life correlations such as the degree of agreement that exists for various kinds of evaluations and the degree of consistency that characterizes social behavior from occasion to occasion. We found substantial accuracy for correlation estimates if two conditions were met: (1) subjects were highly famili...
Article
Accurate representation of the distribution of social attitudes and behaviors can guide effective social behavior and is often essential for correct inferences. We examined the accuracy of people's beliefs about the distributions of a large number of attitudinal and behavioral dimensions. In two studies we measured actual attitudes and behaviors in...
Article
In reasoning about everyday problems, people use statistical heuristics (i.e., judgmental tools that are rough intuitive equivalents of statistical principles). Statistical heuristics have improved historically and they improve ontogenetically. Use of statistical heuristics is more likely when (a) the sample space and the sampling process are clear...

Citations

... Thus, employees with a high promotion focus may be easily convinced by messages that express opportunities for reaping rewards (Appelt & Higgins, 2010). Indeed, Lockwood and Kunda (2000) suggested that information about targets who have achieved success (which is also attainable for themselves) can motivate people for self-improvement by allowing them to imagine their future success. Furthermore, positive gossip has instrumental value for those who seek to develop their competencies (Martinescu et al., 2014), and this is likely to be the case especially for promotion-focused employees, because they are particularly inclined to pursue growth and advancement in the organization. ...
... Ideal model-fit indicators are: χ 2 /df < 3, RMSEA < 0.08, CFI > 0.9, TLI > 0.9, SRMR < 0.08 Finally, our conclusions further extend the breadth and depth of regulatory focus theory in the Eastern context. Following regulatory focus theory (Brockner & Higgins, 2001;Lockwood et al., 2002;Higgins & Pinelli, 2020), the present study verified the theoretical hypothesis that supervisors can exert different influences on subordinates by arousing different situational regulatory focus with Chinese samples. These findings also scientifically further verify the explanatory power and applicability of the hypothesis of regulatory focus theory in explaining the mechanism of supervisor negative feedback on subordinate in-role performance and extra-role performance in the Chinese context. ...
... Inspiration as a concept is used in many disciplines today such as education ([***]Tjas et al., 1997), psychology (Hart, 1998;Lockwood & Kunda, 1999), anthropology ([***]Leavitt, 1997), theology ([***]Canale, 1994), arts, design and literature ([***]Harvey, 1999), management (Dess and Picken, 2000) and engineering ([***]Beer et al., 1997). One could say that the word inspiration is highly linked with a unique sustained intrinsic energization that influences the behaviour or even transforms it to a new level ([***] Elliot, 1997). ...
... Cependant, l'objectif ici n'est pas de discuter l'impact des stéréotypes dans l'évaluation du sexe des leaders basée sur les méthodologies de recherche. Cela d'autant plus que l'utilisation ou pas des stéréotypes dans la formation de l'impression dépend de plusieurs facteurs (e.g., la motivation ou la charge cognitive ; Fiske et Neuberg, 1990 ;Kunda & Sinclair, 1999). Mais, analysant des évidences à ce sujet (i.e., les méta-analyses), les résultats indiquent que les deux catégories méthodologiques tendent à converger vers une évaluation stéréotypée du sexe des leaders (e.g., Eagly Makhijani & Klonsky, 1995 ;Bowen, Swim, & Jacobs 2000 ;Koch, Mello & Sackett, 2015). ...
... Such assimilation effects have been obtained in numerous studies. For example, people are more likely to project new properties from prototypical category members to less prominent members than vice versa (Rips, 1975), and are more willing to make inferences and predictions about others based on the self than vice versa (e.g., Kunda & Nisbett, 1988;McFarland & Miller, 1990). Whenever such assimilation occurs, the representation of the deviant item is changed to make it more concordant with that of the reference item. ...
... However, a growing body of evidence that has remained largely untapped by organizational scholars—including those who study leadership—suggests that predictable occasions exist when the goals of perceivers promote or inhibit the application of stereotypes. Researchers have labeled this phenomenon goal-based stereotyping (Blair, 2002; Kunda, Davies, Hoshino-Browne, & Jordan, 2003; Kunda & Spencer, 2003; Macrae & Bodenhausen, 1995; Sinclair & Kunda, 1999). One set of important goals are those related to comprehension . ...
... One way to reduce this discrepancy is to engage in cognitively biased self-serving processes. Specifically, research has shown that individuals who want to achieve a desirable outcome (vs not) are more likely to engage in a variety of biased cognitive processes to assure themselves that the desired outcome is achievable (Jain and Maheswaran, 2000;Kunda, 1990;Kunda and Sanitioso, 1989). For example, individuals who had academic success goals and were told that academic success was associated with either extroverted or introverted personality traits actually viewed themselves as possessing a high level of whichever trait they believed was associated with academic success (Kunda and Sanitioso, 1989). ...
... This was surprising, in light of previous studies in which students more negatively evaluated or expected more from female faculty versus male faculty (e.g., MacNell et al., 2015;El-Alayli et al., 2018). On the other hand, information about a failed replication may not make salient the fact that faculty not only conduct research, but also, as teachers and mentors, are frequently in positions in which they are critical of students, which is a key driver of students' denigration of women faculty (e.g., Sinclair and Kunda, 2000). ...
... In line with best practice advice (Rohrer, 2018), however, the findings remained significant above and beyond potentially alternative explanations such as a role of perceived knowledge, the affect heuristic, denial of responsibility, and political orientation. Moreover, we only assessed self-report measures of behavior and risk responses, which are prone to systematic biases (e.g., Klein & Kunda, 1993;Leviston & Uren, 2020). Although self-reports are predictive of actual behavior (Kormos & Gifford, 2014), future research should run experimental field studies to increase the strength of evidence. ...
... The broader concern in these incidents is that the individuals who called the police construed the mundane activities of Black people as suspicious and threatening, and that they would not have construed the activities in the same way if the targets had been White people. Such effects of social category cues on the interpretation of target information have been demonstrated in numerous experimental studies (e.g., Darley & Gross, 1983;Duncan, 1976;Gawronski et al., 2003;Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003;Kunda & Sherman-Williams, 1993;Sagar & Schofield, 1980). For example, in a study by Hugenberg and Bodenhausen (2003), participants perceived the same neutral facial expressions as more hostile when the target was Black than when the target was White (see also Bijlstra, Holland, Dotsch, Hugenberg, & Wigboldus, 2014;Hutchings & Haddock, 2008). ...