Zahra Savand-Roomi's scientific contributions

Publications (168)

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Mitral stenosis (MS) is often due to rheumatic fever; about 25% of patients with rheumatic heart disease have isolated MS, 40% have MS and MR, and 38% have multivalve involvement; involvement of pulmonary valve is rare [1].
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Infective endocarditis may involve native cardiac valves or prosthetic valves and devices.
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Pulmonary stenosis is often a congenital heart disease; involvement of pulmonary valve due to acquired disease like carcinoid is rare.
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The most common cause of aortic stenosis (AS) in developing countries is rheumatismal involvement of aortic valve often in association with involvement of other valves, while in developed countries, AS is often due to senile degenerative changes.
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A 55-year-old woman presented by dyspnea on exertion functional class II–III of recent exacerbation.
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Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is one of the most common congenital heart diseases. In fetal life, there may be muscular or perimembranous VSD in septum, most of them are closed until birth or in early life or until puberty.
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A 55-year-old woman presented with fatigue of 1-month duration. She underwent MVR with bileaflet prosthetic valve and TVR with bioprosthetic valve 8 years ago and 3 months after her first operation; the second surgery was performed on her due to infective endocarditis and fistula between LA and LV.
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For differentiation cardiac masses, it is essential to consider the underlying disease, the cardiac chamber involved, and hyper or hypovascularity of the mass.
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Paravalvular leak of prosthetic valve occurs between 5–17% [1] in some studies and 3–6% in other reports [2]. Most of paravalvular leaks are mild and do not need interventions. If paravalvular leak produces symptoms of heart failure or hemolysis, it needs intervention.
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There is a spectrum of degenerative mitral valve disease from fibroelastic deficiency to Barlow disease [1].
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This atlas presents outstanding three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images of structural heart diseases, including congenital and valvular diseases and cardiac masses and tumors. The aim is to enable the reader to derive maximum diagnostic and treatment benefit from the modality through optimal image acquisition and interpretation. To this end...
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A 30-year-old symptomatic woman, who had undergone total correction for the tetralogy of Fallot at childhood, was referred to our center for an evaluation of the need for reoperation. She had edema at the lower extremities. Cardiac auscultation revealed a systolic ejection murmur at the left sternal border and an early diastolic murmur in the pulmo...
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A 26-year-old pregnant woman, who had undergone surgical atrial septal defect (ASD) closure 2 years previously, referred to our clinic for checkup. This was her second pregnancy. During her first pregnancy, she was diagnosed with an ASD (ostium secundum type) with pulmonary arterial hypertension. The first transthoracic echocardiography and transes...
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A 17-year-old boy was referred to our echocardiography laboratory with a diagnosis of an unroofed coronary sinus. He had dyspnea on exertion (functional class I) since childhood.
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A 13-year-old girl with a history of an extracardiac conduit and a total cavopulmonary connection was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for the evaluation of the extracardiac conduit.
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A 38-year-old woman presented with a history of palpitation and a systolic ejection murmur at the upper left sternal border. She had given birth to two children without symptoms, and her body surface area was equal to 1.7/m2. Echocardiography revealed normal left ventricular and right ventricular sizes and systolic functions.
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A 24-year-old man, who had previously undergone device closure for a ventricular septal defect (VSD) in our center, was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for follow-up echocardiography. He was totally asymptomatic.
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A 20-year-old woman presented with slowly progressive cyanosis, clubbing, and dyspnea on exertion (functional class II). She was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for echocardiography. Physical examination revealed a loud S2. Electrocardiography showed normal sinus rhythm, northwest axis, and tall R in the right precordial leads.
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A 32-year-old man was referred to our center for precise echocardiography. He had dyspnea on exertion (functional class III).
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A 33-year-old male athlete presented with palpitation and dyspnea of recent duration (within the previous 3 months). Electrocardiography was normal. Physical examination revealed a faint continuous murmur at the lower sternal border.
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A 25-year-old woman presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class I). Physical examination showed a continuous murmur at the left second intercostal space. Electrocardiography was normal.
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A young man with a history of palpitation and two episodes of syncopal attacks and a systolic murmur (grade IV/VI) in the aortic area was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for an evaluation of the cardiac cause of the syncopal attacks. Echocardiography revealed normal left and right ventricular sizes and systolic functions as well as conc...
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A 70-year-old man presented with chest pain and new recent inferior myocardial infarction. Physical examination revealed S1, S2, and S4 together with a normal jugular venous pressure. There was no cyanosis or clubbing.
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A 26-year-old man presented with atypical chest pain. Physical examination revealed a holosystolic murmur at the left lower sternal border.
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A 27-year-old athletic man presented with atypical chest pain of 1-year duration. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed mild left ventricular dilation with a normal systolic function.
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A young man presented with a history of frequent episodes of palpitation and exercise intolerance of 3-month duration. Physical examination showed a blood pressure of 130/80 mmHg, regular pulse rate of 85 beats per minute, normal jugular venous pressure, widely split S1 with a loud tricuspid component (sail sound), right-sided third heart sound, an...
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A 40-year-old woman presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class II) of recent duration.
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A young woman with a history of palpitation was referred to our echocardiography laboratory. Physical examination was normal, and echocardiography revealed normal left and right ventricular sizes and functions as well as a dilated coronary sinus.
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A 14-day-old neonate was referred to our center due to cyanosis.
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A 46-year-old woman presented with dyspnea on exertion and frequent episodes of palpitations. Physical examination revealed a systolic–diastolic murmur (grade III/VI) in the aortic area. Echocardiography demonstrated a mild left ventricular dilation with a good systolic function as well as mild concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, normal aortic...
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A 32-year-old woman referred to our center because of dyspnea on exertion (functional class III). Physical examination revealed a faint systolic murmur, and the electrocardiogram showed a tall R in the right precordial leads. Chest X-ray demonstrated cardiomegaly, prominent pulmonary knob, and mild pulmonary congestion. She had given birth to two c...
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A 4-year-old boy was referred to our center for an evaluation of cyanosis. Electrocardiography (ECG) showed a tall P wave, and the axis of the frontal leads was superior.
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A 32-year-old man was referred for the evaluation of the cause of a stroke. He had suffered an ischemic cerebral stroke 2 months previously.
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A 37-year-old man presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class II). Transthoracic echocardiography showed normal left ventricular size and systolic function, severe right atrial and ventricular dilation, mild tricuspid regurgitation, and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure of about 42 mmHg.
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A 12-year-old girl, weighing 45 kg, referred to our center. Physical examination showed a holosystolic murmur at the apex and left sternal border. She was asymptomatic.
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A 13-year-old boy presented with frequent episodes of syncopal attacks. Physical examination showed a systolic ejection murmur (grade IV/VI) in the aortic area with radiation into the jugular notch and along the carotid vessels. An ejection click was not heard, and the blood pressure was 120/80 mmHg in the left arm and 140/80 mmHg in the right arm....
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A 24-year-old man presented with newly diagnosed hypertension. Physical examination revealed an early diastolic murmur (grade II/VI) on the aortic side. Echocardiography showed mild concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, a bicuspid aortic valve with mild aortic insufficiency, and no aortic stenosis.
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A 4-year-old girl referred for cyanosis and dyspnea. She had recurrent respiratory tract infection.
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A 22-year-old woman presented with atypical chest pain of 2-year duration. Physical examination revealed a holosystolic murmur at the left sternal border.
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A 13-year-old girl with an 11-year history of valvular disease presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class III) and two episodes of pulmonary edema. Physical examination revealed a diastolic rumble (grade III/VI) in the mitral area.
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A 32-year-old woman was referred to us for fetal heart echocardiography. Her first child was 9 years old and completely healthy. She was at 35 weeks of pregnancy, and all her screening tests were normal.
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A 29-year-old man presented with only atypical chest pain during exercise. Physical examination revealed a fixed splitting of S2. Echocardiography showed atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial concordance, normal left ventricular size and function, moderately dilated right atrium and ventricle, and the Qp/QS of about 1.8.
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A 25-year-old man presented with palpitation and dyspnea on exertion (functional class II) of recent duration. Physical examination revealed a harsh systolic murmur at the fourth and third left sternal borders. The left ventricle was moderately dilated (64 mm), and there was mild left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Also, there was mild tricuspid...
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A 17-year-old female, who had been followed up in our center for the previous 10 years, was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for follow-up echocardiography. She was asymptomatic with normal growth and development.
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A 26-year-old woman presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class II) of 1-year duration. Physical examination revealed a harsh systolic murmur at the apex and the left sternal border.
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A 24-year-old woman, who had a history of typical chest pain and one episode of ventricular tachycardia as well as a continuous murmur (grade II/VI) in the second right intercostal space, was referred to our clinic. Echocardiography revealed normal left and right ventricular sizes and functions.
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A 12-year-old boy, who had undergone the Senning operation at 2 years old because of the transposition of the great arteries, was referred to our center due to dyspnea on exertion (functional class I). The systemic ventricle showed a mildly reduced ejection fraction.
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A 22-year-old man with dyspnea on exertion (functional class I) of recent duration referred to our echocardiography laboratory. He had an ejection-type systolic murmur at the pulmonic area. The electrocardiogram showed a tall R in the right precordial leads.
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An 8-year-old boy, who had been under observation since he was 1, presented with a harsh systolic murmur at the lower left sternal border and apex. He weighed about 30 kg, and he had no respiratory infection.
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A 12-year-old boy, who had a history of dyspnea on exertion (functional class II), cyanosis, and a palliative surgical operation several years before, was referred to our center. Because his family refused corrective surgery, the patient was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for further cardiac evaluation.
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A 24-year-old woman was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for the evaluation of the feasibility of the Amplatzer device closure of an atrial septal defect (ASD). Transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe right ventricular dilation and a large ASD (ostium secundum type).
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A 22-year-old man, who had undergone surgery for subvalvular aortic stenosis 3 years previously, presented with atypical chest pain and was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for echocardiography.
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A young pregnant woman, who was asymptomatic with a very good functional class, was referred to us for further evaluation. Physical examination revealed a holosystolic murmur at the lower left sternal border, which increased with inspiration, and the wide splitting of S1. The O2 saturation was 93 % in room air. She was referred for an evaluation of...
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A 23-year-old woman presented with hypertension.
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A 44-year-old man presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class II) of recent duration. Transthoracic echocardiography showed moderate right atrial and ventricular dilation.
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An infant was referred to our center for an evaluation of cyanosis.
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A 43-year-old man was referred for the evaluation of the cause of a transient ischemic attack.
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A 22-year-old woman presented with hypertension. She had previously undergone coarctoplasty and stenting of the descending aorta.
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A 29-year-old woman was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for fetal heart echocardiography. She was pregnant with twins.
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A 30-year-old pregnant woman (gestational age of 25 weeks) with a history of previous fetal cardiac anomaly was referred for fetal heart echocardiography.
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A young woman with a history of easy fatigability and cyanosis with clubbing was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for cardiac evaluation.
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A 34-year-old pregnant woman (gravida 2, para 1) was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for fetal heart echocardiography. She had no history of congenital heart disease either in herself or in her family, and her previous child was normal. A previous sonographic examination had demonstrated nothing abnormal, but lab screen tests were sugge...
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A 29-year-old man referred for the evaluation of a holosystolic murmur. He had no symptoms.
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A 35-year-old woman was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for the evaluation of cardiac disease. She had dyspnea on exertion (functional class II).
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A 12-year-old boy with a history of balloon dilation and stenting of the right pulmonary artery branch stenosis was referred to our echocardiography laboratory. Physical examination showed an ejection systolic murmur (grade II/VI) at the first and second left intercostal spaces.
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An 8-year-old girl was referred due to a previous Kawasaki disease 6 years before.
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An 11-year-old girl presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class II). Physical examination showed a fixed S2 splitting and an ejection systolic murmur at the upper left sternal border. Electrocardiography revealed right axis deviation and right ventricular hypertrophy.
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A boy with a history of cyanosis and dyspnea on exertion (functional class III–IV) was referred to our echocardiography laboratory. Echocardiography revealed right ventricular dilation with moderate atrioventricular valve regurgitation and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (peak systolic arterial pressure of about 100 mmHg).
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A 33-year-old man was referred to our center due to sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT).
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A 17-year-old girl presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class II) since childhood. Physical examination revealed a harsh holosystolic murmur at the left sternal border and apex. Electrocardiography showed normal sinus rhythm and left axis deviation.
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An 18-year-old old female, who had dyspnea on exertion (functional class III) and cyanosis, was referred to our echocardiography laboratory.
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A 25-year-old pregnant woman (gestational age of 32 weeks) was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for fetal heart echocardiography because of gestational diabetes mellitus.
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A young woman presented with a history of long-standing easy fatigability and recent exacerbation of dyspnea on exertion. Physical examination revealed a harsh systolic murmur (grade IV/VI) at the left sternal border and clubbing.
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A 39-year-old man, who had undergone subvalvular web resection and aortic valve repair 8 years previously, presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class II) of 1-month duration.
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A 32-year-old woman was referred to our center for fetal heart echocardiography.
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A 26-year-old obese man presented with a history of multiple episodes of respiratory infections. Physical examination revealed a systolic ejection murmur in the aortic area. Echocardiography showed normal left and right ventricular sizes and functions.
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A middle-aged woman with a history of palpitation and a continuous murmur (grade II/VI) in the second intercostal space was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for further evaluation. Echocardiography revealed a mild left ventricular dilation with a normal systolic function.
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A 30-year-old pregnant woman (24 weeks of pregnancy) was referred for fetal heart echocardiography.
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A 44-year-old woman presented with recent dyspnea on exertion (functional class II). Physical examination revealed a systolic murmur at the left sternal border and a fixed S2 splitting.
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A 57-year-old woman, who had undergone device closure for an atrial septal defect (ASD) (ostium secundum type) 2 months previously, was referred for transthoracic echocardiography. She had no symptoms.
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A 17-year-old female presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class II) since childhood. Physical examination showed cyanosis and clubbing. Oxygen saturation was 80 % in air room. The electrocardiogram revealed right-axis deviation and a tall R in lead V1.
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A 55-year-old man was referred to our clinic due to one episode of transient ischemic attack. He was a known case of diabetes mellitus and had left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction of about 30 %). However, angiography revealed normal coronary arteries.
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A 20-year-old woman with a history of atypical chest pain was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for more precise evaluation. Physical examination showed a systolic ejection murmur (grade III/VI) and a diastolic murmur (grade II/VI) in the second left intercostal space. Echocardiography revealed normal left and right ventricular sizes and...
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A middle-aged man presented with a history of dizziness during exercise and atypical chest pain. Physical examination revealed a systolic ejection murmur (grade III/VI) at the apex and at the left sternal border.
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A 32-year-old woman, who had been followed up in our center for the previous 8 years, developed atypical chest pain. Physical examination showed a holosystolic murmur at the left sternal border.
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A 12-year-old girl with a history of dyspnea on exertion (functional class II–III) was referred to our echocardiography laboratory. Physical examination revealed a systolic murmur (grade III/VI) in the pulmonic area.
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A 30-year-old woman presented with recent dyspnea on exertion (functional class II). Physical examination revealed an ejection systolic murmur at the second left intercostal space and fixed S2 splitting. Electrocardiography showed normal sinus rhythm, right axis deviation, and rsr’ in leads V1 and V2.
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A 34-year-old woman presenting with dyspnea on exertion (functional class III) was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for a precise evaluation of her severe mitral regurgitation and left ventricular systolic dysfunction prior to surgery.
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A 42-year-old man, who had undergone total correction for the tetralogy of Fallot at childhood, was referred to our echocardiography laboratory. His complaint was lower extremity edema.
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A young woman with a history of palpitation and dyspnea on exertion (functional class II–III) and a history of an atrial septal defect (ASD) (ostium secundum type) was admitted for surgery. She had a systolic ejection murmur (grade III/IV) in the pulmonic area and a fixed splitting S2.
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A 33-year-old man presented with a seizure of recent onset. He was a known case of a ventricular septal defect (VSD) from childhood. Physical examination showed a harsh systolic murmur at the lower sternal border and apex.
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A 27-year-old pregnant woman (gravida 2) was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for fetal heart echocardiography. Her first infant had died of unknown reason at 7 months.
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A 36-year-old woman presented with dyspnea on exertion (functional class II). Physical examination revealed a holosystolic murmur at the lower left sternal border.
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A 16-year-old male, completely asymptomatic with a history of surgery for ventricular septal defect (VSD) closure 2 years previously, was referred to us for follow-up echocardiography. Physical examination revealed a continuous murmur (grade IV/VI) at the left sternal border.
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A 25-week pregnant woman with a familial history of congenital heart disease was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for fetal heart echocardiography.