Yosef Bhatti's research while affiliated with Roskilde University and other places

Publications (41)

Article
Government outsourcing to third-party vendors is widespread and intended to strengthen the organizational incentive to deliver public services more efficiently. However, it is unclear how outsourcing influences the public workforce, and little is known about the effect on employees who change from working for the government to working for the vendo...
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Scholars have long noted that couples are more likely to vote compared to individuals who live alone, and that partners' turnout behavior is strongly correlated. This study examines a large administrative dataset containing detailed information about validated turnout and the timing of individuals moving in together, and finds evidence of a substan...
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A fundamental question in public policy and management research is whether large-centralized or small-decentralized organizations perform best. Perhaps nowhere is this tradeoff more tangible than in the context of government procurement of goods and services, where even small differences in organizational efficiency can lead to significant differen...
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Across European Parliament, local and general elections in Denmark between half and three quarters of voters in households with multiple voters cast their vote within a minute of another household member. This finding, revealed using data from a time-stamped voter panel covering more than two million Danish voters, establishes that many families vi...
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Most nonexperimental studies of voter turnout rely on survey data. However, surveys overestimate turnout because of (1) nonresponse bias and (2) overreporting. We investigate this possibility using a rich dataset of Danish voters, which includes validated turnout indicators from administrative data for both respondents and nonrespondents, as well a...
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The study utilizes evidence from the Danish 2007 municipal reform to inquire into the relationship between municipal amalgamations and voter turnout, that is, the classical discussion on size and democracy. The Danish municipal reform is particularly suited for investigating the relationship as a large number of units were merged due to reasons tho...
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The involvement of private for-profit (FP) and not-for-profit (NFP) providers in the otherwise public delivery of welfare services is gradually changing the Nordic welfare state towards a more market-oriented mode of service delivery. This article examines the relationship between ownership and quality of care in public and private FP and NFP nursi...
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Remuneration of politicians is a key issue in the relationship between citizens and politicians (Dekker, 2013), not least because decisions regarding such remuneration may affect the public’s level of trust in the politicians and the political system (Hibbing & Theiss‐Morse, 2002; Hood & Peters, 1994, Chapter 1). Recent empirical studies have inves...
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Citizens who abstain from voting in consecutive elections and inequality in turnout in democratic elections constitute a challenge to the legitimacy of democracy. Applying the law of dispersion, which stipulates higher levels of turnout and higher levels of equality in turnout are positively related, we study turnout patterns across different types...
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Becoming a parent is a profound change in one’s life that likely has consequences for political mobilization. This paper focuses on the earliest stages of parenthood, which have rarely been theorized nor empirically investigated. Close to childbirth, there may be substantial demobilizing effects due to hospital stays, immediate childcare responsibi...
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This article contributes insight into the working conditions of political leaders based on rarely accessible high-quality data that include unique surveys of Danish ministers, mayors, and permanent secretaries supplemented by in-depth interviews. The results show that the classical metaphor of the leader as a puppet master being pulled by an endles...
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Through two large GOTV field experiments in two different elections, we investigate the spillover effect to other household members and family members outside the household. We mobilized young voters with cell phone text messages, a campaign tactic unlikely to be observed by other persons than the treated. The direct effect varied but approximately...
Article
Det er velkendt, at valgdeltagelsen blandt ikke-vestlige indvandrere og efterkommere er markant lavere end blandt etniske danskere. Et centralt spørgsmål er, om noget af denne forskel kan forklares med de forskellige demografiske sammensætninger i de to grupper. Vi finder, at ikke-vestlige indvandrere ved kommunalvalget i 2013 havde 31 procentpoint...
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Electoral turnout among non-western immigrants is substantially lower than among ethnic Danes. How much of the difference in turnout is simply due to different demographic compositions of the two groups? In the 2013 Danish municipal election, first-generation non-western immigrants voted 31 percentage points less than ethnic Danes, even when demogr...
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The relationship between education length and voter turnout has been one of the most studied in the political participation literature in recent decades. However, few studies focus on education type, and most of the existing research on this topic relies on cross-sectional data. In the current study, we utilize a large register-based panel dataset...
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Declining levels of turnout are a problem in European elections. Are Get Out The Vote campaigns the solution to the problem? While many studies have investigated such campaigns in the US, little is known about their effect in Europe. The article presents a field experiment in which encouragement to vote in an upcoming Danish election is delivered t...
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Despite the widespread scholarly attention given to get-out-the-vote tactics the recent one and a half decade, few have studied the effect of short text messages (SMS) on voter turnout, and no previous such study has been conducted outside the US. We analyze four SMS experiments with more than 300,000 voters conducted in relation to two elections i...
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A vast amount of experimental evidence suggests that get-out-the-vote encouragements delivered through door-to-door canvassing have large effects on turnout. Most of the existing studies have been conducted in the United States, and are inspiring European mobilization campaigns. This article explores the empirical question of whether the American f...
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It is becoming increasingly popular among Danes to use early voting. The article describes the changes that have been made in the electoral law to accommodate the use of early voting and describes the historical development in the use of early voting. In addition, we show that there is considerable variation in the use of early voting at the munici...
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Recent findings from the US indicate a clear positive causal effect of past eligibility on voting in subsequent elections. Based on individual-level register data from four elections held in Denmark and Finland, we find that past eligibility either decreases voting propensity or has a zero effect among young voters. The hype associated with the fir...
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Utilizing a large and unique dataset composed of government records, we study the widely contested effect of co-ethnic residential concentrations on voter turnout. Non-Western immigrants are moderately affected by the concentration of co-ethnic voters in their neighborhoods. As the local concentration of same-ethnicity voters increases, so does the...
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Democratic institutions often do not evaluate their instruments. By working closely with authorities, we developed a field experiment to examine an initiative to increase voter turnout among 18-year-olds that had not previously been evaluated. Particular attention was paid to developing an appropriate program theory and to designing the evaluation...
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The present article finds that the causal effect of profound organizational change on employee health can be very low, if job insecurity is mitigated. We demonstrate this by investigating a rare case of a large-scale radical public sector reform with low job insecurity, in which a large number of municipalities are merged into larger local governme...
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Do public employees vote more frequently than private employees? The turnout of public employees has been of central interest to public choice scholars for almost a century. Utilizing a government records dataset that is not subject to over-reporting and differential social desirability bias, we find that public employees voted 11–12 percentage poi...
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Although political scandals receive unprecedented attention in the contemporary media, the knowledge of political scientists regarding the consequences of such scandals remains limited. On the basis of two nationally representative survey experiments, we investigate whether the impact of scandals depends on the traits of the politicians involved. W...
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The Western population is growing older. Nevertheless, few studies examine the manner in which seniors are gradually demobilized from voting, partly because they are difficult to reach with surveys. Using a unique government records dataset of the actual turnout from the 2009 Danish municipal elections, we show how turnout for seniors falls more th...
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Recent studies have indicated that, contrary to common belief, the relationship between age and turnout among the youngest eligible individuals is not monotonically positive, but rather strongly negative – at least for the first few years of adulthood. With a unique dataset from government records for more than 145,000 young adults, we offer a poss...
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Highlights ► Turnout declines during the first years of eligibility. ► The relationship between age and turnout has a shape of a roller-coaster. ► This pattern can be detected only when using large scale data sets.
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Living far from the assigned polling station possibly renders voting less convenient than if the polls are right around the corner. Using a cross‐sectional dataset of about 2.3 million potential voters, including the distances between each household and the assigned polling station, a substantial impact of distance on the propensity to vote is foun...
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Electoral turnout has been declining at national elections in almost all Western democracies. European Parliament (EP) elections have followed the same trend. We utilize a previously suggested method for separating the effect of generation, age and period and show that a major part of the decline can be attributed to the difference in turnout betwe...
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How do you make major reforms go down? This was the central question many local politicians faced when implementing amalgamations in the 2007 local government reform in Denmark. An African proverb says that the best way to eat the elephant standing in your path is to cut it up into little pieces. This strategy was also popular in amalgamated munici...
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This article examines how administrative professionals affect the diffusion of one-stop shops in the form of integrated citizen service centres (CSC) in a Danish local government setting. CSCs are an example of a new organizational form: functionally integrated small units (FISUs). The diffusion of the CSCs among municipalities is used to analyse h...
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What is the impact of the Danish municipal reform on turnout at the municipal elections? In the reform 275 municipalities merged into only 98, and there was thus widespread concern that turnout would be depressed as the average municipal population size increased. This concern seemed even more important after turnout dropped about 4 percentage poin...
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For decades, political scientists have been asking how political jurisdictions are formed and reshaped. Nevertheless, studies of local government jurisdictional formation are few and often plagued with endogeneity since the formation of jurisdictions cannot be separated from sorting effects. In this article, the unique case of the Danish structural...
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International climate agreements are important examples of internationally negotiated distributive politics and the resulting obligations vary considerably across countries Nevertheless, few studies have empirically examined the determinants of burden sharing in this context The allocation of emission reductions in the Kyoto protocol is investigate...
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An often-debated subject in the public administration literature concerns why some units contract out more than others. The present article decomposes the influence of public employees on municipal contracting as different types of employees have different skills and incentives and must be treated accordingly. First, the analysis shows that the app...
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Based on individual-level register data from Denmark and Finland, we estimate the causal effect of past eligibility on turnout in two previously unexplored institutional contexts. Our dataset includes the official turnout for about 2.3 million adult Danes and about 81,000 Finns between the ages of 18 and 30. Applying the approach suggested by Mered...

Citations

... While access to participation in local Danish elections is comparatively easy (anyone, including non-0004758053.INDD 621 4/28/2020 7:55:00 PM citizens, who has resided in Denmark for four years is allowed to vote), the turnout gap between majority Danes and first and second-generation immigrants is more than 30 per cent. This gap cannot be explained by the literature's standard resource-related explanations (Bhatti and Hansen 2017), suggesting that other factors such as political alienation may be at play. Investigating this hypothesis is an important task for future research. ...
... A substantial literature on couple concordance exists for health behaviors such as alcohol intake [5,6], sleep duration [7], and physical activity [7][8][9]. The mobilizing effects of being part of a couple extend to voting: couples are more likely to vote than singles [10]. Couples' similarities have been attributed to assortative mating, the contributions of shared environments, and partners directly influencing each other's behavior [11]. ...
... The findings from existing empirical research on the political effects of diversity is rather mixed. Indeed, studies analyzing political engagement and turnout display varied results (Bhatti et al., 2017;Fieldhouse & Cutts, 2008;Hill & Leighley, 1999;Leighley & Vedlitz, 1999;Matthews & Prothro, 1963;Schlichting et al., 1998;Zingher & Moore, 2019;Zingher & Thomas, 2014). A similarly heterogeneous picture emerges from research exploring the effects of diversity and immigration on vote outcomes (Arzheimer, 2009;Della Posta, 2013;Gerdes & Wadensjö, 2010;Giles & Buckner, 1993;Roch & Rushton, 2008;Rydgren & Ruth, 2011, 2013Voss, 1996;Voss & Miller, 2001), and, more generally, on interethnic attitudes (e.g., Avery & Fine, 2012;Bobo & Hutchings, 1996;Dustmann & Preston, 2001;Fox, 2004;Hopkins, 2010;Markaki & Longhi, 2012;L. ...
... Using decentralized procurement, SSCs can reduce the negative impacts of disruption caused by the pandemic and the corresponding regional or global lockdowns ). Yet, under normal circumstances, decentralized procurement can cause monitoring difficulties and increased costs (Petersen et al., 2020). Thus, in order to avoid the negative impacts of the pandemic and similar global emergence events, appropriate decentralized procurement is more appropriate to ensure consistent supply when disruption events occur (e.g. ...
... Quelques constats sur la participation électorale et l'engagement civique des jeunes Plus de deux jeunes sur trois (69 %) nés au Québec en 1997-1998 ont déclaré avoir voté aux élections provinciales de 2018 (données non illustrées). Comme il a été constaté dans plusieurs enquêtes sur la participation électorale, il est possible que ce résultat surévalue la participation réelle de la population ciblée (Ansolabehere et Hersh, 2012 ;Dahlgaard et autres, 2019). Cette proportion s'observe tant chez les jeunes hommes que chez les jeunes femmes (données non illustrées). ...
... Nonetheless, rival evidence has also emerged: some empirical studies have found null (Cameron and Milne (2013), Mabuchi (2001), Lapointe et al. (2018)) or limited positive effect of merger on turnout (Kraaykamp et al. (2001), Hicks (2006), Bhatti and Hansen (2019)). According to the pioneer study by Dahl and Tufte (1973), a larger size of a polity should increase its "system capacity", that is the capacity of a political system to respond to, and account for, its citizens' demands, which is expected to have a positive effect on political and electoral participation. ...
... Politicians often regard such reforms as a remedy to improve public service delivery and the financial situation of local and superordinate tiers of government, particularly in times of financial stress. For instance, amalgamations have taken place across a wide range of countries, such as Australia (Dollery & Crase, 2004), Austria (Heinisch et al., 2018), Canada (Hicks, 2006), Denmark (Bhatti & Hansen, 2010), Finland (Hyytinen et al., 2014), Germany (Bergholz & Bischoff, 2015), Japan (Shimizu, 2012), Sweden (Brink, 2004), and Switzerland (Koch & Rochat, 2017). Thus far, research on municipal reforms has focused primarily on the effects of amalgamations (see Tavares, 2018 for an overview). ...
... In addition to the variables discussed above, we expect that citizens with higher levels of education are less likely to be abstainers; a pattern which has previously been documented in Denmark and single-election studies in many other countries (cf. Bhatti et al., 2016a;Bhatti and Hansen, 2012;Persson, 2015;Smets and Van Ham, 2013). ...
... In fact, the implementation of the universal long-term care systems has ushered in a new era of eldercare entrepreneurship in Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and Sweden. In that sense, they are not that different from many other developed countries with universal health-care systems that have taken this route over the past few decades (Damian, Pastor-Barriuso, Garcia-Lopez, Ruigomez, Martinez-Martin, and de Pedro-Cuesta, 2019; Garavaglia, Lettieri, Agasistis, and Lopez, 2011;Hjelmar, Bhatti, Helby Petersen, Rostgaard, and Vrangbaek, 2018;Holum, 2018;Mercereau, 2020). Choice and competition among care providers have been encouraged by policy makers, and have helped improve the quality of care provided to the elderly. ...
... Perhaps surprisingly, what determines people's decision to apply for council membership has received little academic attention in continental Europe (see for notable exceptions Pedersen, Pedersen, and Bhatti 2018;Pedersen 2014). When authors do focus on (potential) council members, studies involve the considerations of current council members (Ritz 2015) or focus on the considerations for recruitment (Aars and Offerdal 1998;Broockman 2014). ...