Yoav Litvin's research while affiliated with University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa and other places

Publications (29)

Article
This study investigated the influence of the estrus cycle in mediating cat odor-induced unconditioned and conditioned defensive behaviors in female Long-Evans hooded rats. Unconditioned defensive behaviors were assessed during predatory cue exposure; conditioned defensive behaviors were examined 24 h after threat exposure. Estrus phases were determ...
Article
We aimed to determine the short-term effects of early-life stress in the form of maternal separation (MS) on anxiety-like behavior in male rat pups. In order to assess anxiety, we measured 40 kHz separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) on postnatal day (PND) 11. We further aimed to evaluate the potential involvement of two neurochemical s...
Chapter
During the last century, clues that hormones might affect behavior arose both from laboratory experiments and in the clinic. Frank Beach, working with animals at the University of California, Berkeley, demonstrated the activation of male sexual behavior by testosterone injections, as well as the facilitation of female sexual behavior by treatments...
Chapter
In this chapter we review physiological mechanisms and correlates of flight or escape behavior. Although aspects of the physiology of flight have been studied in many prey taxa, our knowledge of physiological mechanisms has largely been obtained in studies of rodents. In much of this book, the focus is on decisions to flee, especially the decision...
Article
Research suggests a causal link between estrogens and mood. Here, we began by examining the effects of estradiol (E2) on rat innate and conditioned defensive behaviors in response to cat odor. Second, we utilized whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiological techniques to assess noradrenergic effects on neurons within the dorsal premammillary nucleus...
Chapter
During the last century, clues that hormones might affect behavior arose both from laboratory experiments and in the clinic. Frank Beach, working with animals at the University of California, Berkeley, demonstrated the activation of male sexual behavior by testosterone injections, as well as the facilitation of female sexual behavior by treatments...
Article
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays an essential role in coordinating the autonomic, endocrine and behavioral responses to stressors. In this study, we investigated the role of CRF within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in modulating unconditioned defensive behaviors, by examining the effects of microinfusing cortagine a selective type-1...
Article
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates emotion, stress, memory and cognition through the CB1 receptor. In order to test the role of CB1 signaling in social anxiety and memory, we utilized a genetic knockout (KO) and a pharmacological approach. Specifically, we assessed the effects of a constitutive KO of CB1 receptors (CB1 KOs) and systemic adm...
Article
We present an innovative microfluidic approach to transcranial delivery of small quantities of drugs in brief time pulses for neurobiological studies. The approach is based on a two-stage process of consecutive drug dispensing and delivery, demonstrated by a device featuring a fully planar design in which the microfluidic components are integrated...
Article
To better understand the precise role of sensory corpuscles within the female external genitalia. After IRB approval, waste tissue samples were obtained from 10 normal girls (aged 2-9 years) who underwent surgery for labial fusion. Immunocytochemistry against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), vasoactive intestinal p...
Article
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus has important roles in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and stress-related behaviors during chronic stress. It is unknown, however, whether AVP in the PVN is involved in the modulation of HPA activity after chronic cocaine exposure. Here, we...
Article
Chronic social stress in rodents produces behavioral and neuroendocrine patterns analogous to symptoms associated with psychopathologies in humans. Chronic social defeat in mice has been used to study the genetic and epigenetic precursors of stress-related social disorders. The neuropeptides arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) are released...
Article
Introduction: The concepts of fear and anxiety have been the focus of much attention due to their fundamental role in the survival of a plethora of organisms and their perturbation in associated human disorders. Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP), two of the most important and functionally complex neuropeptides, are intricately involved in fear, a...
Article
Early-life stress produces an anxiogenic profile in adulthood, presumably by activating the otherwise quiescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during the vulnerable 'stress hyporesponsive period'. While the long-term effects of such early-life manipulations have been extensively characterized, little is known of the short-term effects. H...
Article
We present a novel microfluidic device for transdermal delivery of small quantities of drugs in brief time pulses for neurobiological studies. The device consists of dispensing and delivery channels connected to drug and buffer lines, respectively, and coupled by a check valve. The planar check valve and the microchannels are within a single flow l...
Article
This study investigated a possible role for ventral hippocampal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in modulating both unconditioned and conditioned defensive behaviors by examining the effects of pre-training ventral hippocampal ovine-CRF (oCRF) or acidic-astressin ([Glu11,16]Ast) microinfusions in male Long-Evans hooded rats exposed to various t...
Article
Impending dangers elicit alarm vocalizations aimed at conspecifics, and these calls in turn elicit defensive responses in recipients. The notion that these vocalizations represent adaptive responses to threat, enhancing the survival and reproduction of potentially-related conspecifics, is supported by findings from laboratory and field studies. The...
Article
Preclinical animal models are utilized in the study of unconditioned states related to fear and anxiety. They are used to screen novel pharmaceuticals, study behavioral phenomena, and understand underlying etiology. In this chapter, we will present a brief overview of the most prevalently used models, discuss their various applications, and state t...
Article
Intruder and resident male colony mice exhibit an array of distinct defensive and offensive behaviors. Intruders typically show more boxing, flight, defensive sideways position, on the back position and general locomotion, while residents exhibit higher levels of attack, olfactory investigation, aggressive grooming, and biting, with a preference fo...
Article
Rats incorporate circa 22kHz ultrasonic alarm cries into their defense pattern in response to a predator threat. These calls are dependent on conspecific presence, show gender differences, and tend to be emitted from a place of relative safety. Rats emit sonic defensive threat vocalizations when approached by a potential threat. These are emitted r...
Article
The dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) is involved in defensive coping reactions to threatening stimuli. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is substantially implicated as a direct modulator of physiological, endocrine and behavioral responses to a stressor. Previous findings demonstrate a direct role of the central CRF system in dPAG-mediated defe...
Article
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide and mediating component of neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral processes associated with the stress response. The two receptor subtypes identified in the mammalian brain, CRF receptor subtype 1 (CRF1) and CRF2, are suggested to differentially modulate these processes. Manipulation of thes...
Article
The midbrain dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) is part of the brain defensive system involved in active defense reactions to threatening stimuli. Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is a peptidergic neurotransmitter that has been strongly implicated in the control of both behavioral and endocrine responses to threat and stress. We investigated th...
Article
This study investigated the role of the hippocampus in both unconditioned and conditioned defensive behaviors by examining the effects of pretraining ibotenic acid lesions to the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in male Long-Evans hooded rats exposed to three types of threat stimuli: cat-odor, a live cat and footshock. Defensive behaviors were assess...

Citations

... The stage of estrous and its corresponding fluctuations in hormone levels have been shown to significantly influence female mouse behavior (Luine and Frankfurt, 2013;Pentkowski et al., 2018). Additionally, studies in our lab have shown that avoidance behavior in female C57 mice following MSEW is increased only during diestrus (Laham et al., 2020). ...
... In addition, many studies have shown that there may be complex physiological mechanisms underlying FID habituation (e.g., Walker et al., 2005;Shutt et al., 2014;Charuvi et al., 2020). In the absence of obvious behavioural responses, there are still latent physiological responses of animals (Ditmer et al., 2015;Litvin et al., 2015). Managers still need to be cautious regarding this result to truly understand the conditions and consequences under FID habituation of SSME (Blumstein, 2016). ...
... However, in rats, the effects of repeated maternal separation for 3 h depends on the age of the animal at the time of sampling and the brain region analysed. Thus, daily separations lead to increased OTr expression in the central amygdala and BNST in 11 day-old (Litvin et al., 2016), whereas no differences are observed in 5 week-old rats (Lukas et al., 2010). Interestingly, paternal deprivation in mandarin voles increases aggression and reduces mRNA levels of OTr in the medial amygdala and nucleus accumbens of male and female adult offspring (Cao et al., 2014), indicating that the effect of parental-offspring disruptions on the oxytocinergic system is quite complex and depends on multiple factors. ...
... 11,12 Consequently, the P300 response is considered a good measure of cognition. 13 Because the P300 wave is only present when the subject is actively engaged in an attention task designed to notice target stimuli, this response is commonly measured using an "oddball" paradigm, where the subject is exposed to a series of identical stimuli (ie, auditory tones), which are intermittently interrupted by a novel stimuli. ...
... In contrast, none of these behaviors are adopted when the intruder is tied down with his back exposed. 20 Caroline and Robert Blanchard call them offense and defense, respectively (Blanchard et al., 2009;Blanchard & Blanchard, 1984. 21 See, e.g., Wiegman (2019) 22 Recall from Sect. 2 that there is no reason to suppose that basic emotions are unique to humans or that the set of basic emotions in humans is the same as in other species. ...
... Concerning the VTA, it has been shown that noxious stimuli are able to excite ventral DAergic neurons while dorsal DAergic neurons are inhibited (Brischoux et al., 2009). DAergic inputs in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala mediate the freezing response in contextual conditioned fear (de Oliveira et al., 2017) and, more recently, Barbano The PMd has also long been associated with a defense circuit involving connections with the AHN in the anterior hypothalamus, the ventral part of the anteromedial nucleus of the thalamus, and the dorsolateral sector of the periaqueductal gray (Blanchard et al., 2003;Aguiar and Guimarães, 2011;Litvin et al., 2014). This nucleus also depends on olfactory/pheromonal inputs for its functions. ...
... Microfluids device which integrating various functions of conventional laboratories on a few centimeters platform to save experimental materials and shorten experimental time has considerable advantages on microscale analyses. [1][2][3][4] Consequently, the microfluidic systems have been applied widely in chemical engineering, [5] biotechnology, [6] medical research, [7] environmental treatment, [8] and other fields. Acoustic microfluidics, which spanning a number of disciplines in an attempt to address the perceived shortcomings of microfluidics, is one most important application in labon-chip. ...
... Animal paradigms widely used in anxiety research are the open field test (OFT), the elevated plus-maze (EPM), and the light/dark-test, among others [20][21][22] . The OFT was introduced by Hall in 1934 23 to measure emotional behavior in rodents. ...
... This study indicates that the effect of CRF on anxiety-like behavior is dependent on the CRF-R1. A separate study in male CD1 mice exposed to a live predator demonstrated that infusion of a CRF-R1 specific agonist into the mPFC reduced anxiety-like defensive behaviors including avoidance and freezing (Pentkowski et al., 2013). This supports the hypothesis that activation of CRF-R1 within the PFC regulates various behaviors associated with anxiety. ...
... Limited literature suggested a role for endocannabinoid signaling in normal social behaviors. Genetic removal of CB1 receptors alters social interactions in mice in a contextdependent manner, which may be related to social anxiety and/or cognition [148,149]. In contrast, genetic removal of FAAH in rats increases social interactions, and inhibition of FAAH promotes social play in rats [150,151]. ...