Yasushi Ifuku's research while affiliated with Marine Biological Research Institute of Japan Co., Ltd. and other places

Publications (26)

Article
The cultivation of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marcov.) was originated in Japan and is one of the most important parts of Japanese agriculture. We determined changes in the amounts of limonoid aglycones and glucosides in the Satsuma mandarin fruit tissues during fruit growth and maturation as well as the contents of limonoid glucosides in comme...
Article
A new technique of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) treatment, micro bubble SC-CO2 method, was applied to extraction of limonoids. This method could increase the concentration of SC-CO2 in sample solutions rapidly, so that limonoids were extracted effectively compared with conventional technique. Juice (sample A) and seed extract (sample B) of...
Article
We examined immunological methods for the detection of microbial contaminants in fruit juice. Polyclonal antibodies against native yeast of 7 species, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces, and the monoclonal antibody against native C. intermedia, which was named mAb44 (IgG2a subclass), were prepared for use as probes in en...
Article
温州ミカン搾汁粕からの効率的なヘスペリジン抽出,回収方法について検討し,ヘスペリジン抽出試料として酵素処理搾汁粕が優れていることを示した.酵素処理によるヘスペリジンの分解,損失はほとんどなく,ヘスペリジンの抽出時間および析出時間は大幅に短縮できた,特に析出時間はヘスペリジン抽出液に共存するセルロース性物質と密接な関係があることが示唆された.ヘスペリジンの抽出条件として,酵素処理搾汁粕100gに対し,加水量300~400g,水酸化カルシウム添加量0.50~0.75g,抽出初発pH 12.00~12.25を設定した.
Article
In the course of the development of an industrial recovering system of limonoids from citrus processing waste, an efficient method to recover seeds from the citrus processing waste (peel residue) was developed. The residue was first passed on a vibrating sieve (φ14.5×14.5 mm) to remove peel fragments and other contaminants, and then the remaining m...
Article
温州ミカン搾汁粕中のヘスペリジンを効率的に抽出,回収するため,搾汁粕中に含有している夾雑物を分解除去しヘスペリジン濃度を高めるのに有効な酵素の選択を行った.ペクチナーゼやセルラーゼ活性を主体とした酵素剤を用いた場合,夾雑物の除去率が高く,得られた固形物の歩留りす少なく,ヘスペリジン濃度の高いことが示された.中でもペクチナーゼ活性を主としセルラーゼ,ヘミセルラーゼ活性を有する酵素剤PCH(起源; A. niger)で処理したとき,酵素処理中のヘスペリジンに与える影響も少なく, 24時間後のヘスペリジン残存率は94.1%と良好であった.また,酵素剤PCHによる温州ミカン搾汁粕の酵素処理は,初発pH 3.0~4.0,反応温度40℃,反応時間24時間が最適条件として示され,酵素処理粕中のヘスペリジン...
Article
最近,その生理活性が注日されているリモノイドおよびそのグルコサイドのカンキツ種子からのより有効な抽出方法としてSC-CO2抽出法について検討した.その結果,供試試料として脱脂乾燥夏柑種子粉末を用いてSC-CO2抽出したときCO2単独では各リモノイドの抽出率は有機溶媒抽出法に比べ著しく低かった.そこで抽出率の向上を目的として抽出温度,圧力,エントレーナーの併用およびCO2量の条件について実験した.リモノイドの抽出率は抽出圧力とCO2量に大きく依存したが,抽出温度の影響はほとんど受けなかった.各リモノイドの抽出率は抽出圧力を高めるに従い増加し, 300kg/cm2で最大となった.また,エントレーナーとしてはアセトンを添加したとき最も効果的であった. CO2の使用量についてはその使用量が多いほど高...
Article
Limonoids and their glucosides in the seeds and barks of Phellondendron amurense (Kihada) were analyzed. The seeds contained limonin (1950 ppm), obakunone (20 ppm), limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (820 ppm) and obakunone 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1360 ppm). The barks contained limonin (6760 ppm), obakunone (1240 ppm) and nomilin (270 ppm).
Article
Ichangensin 17-β-d-glucopyranoside, a new limonoid glucoside, was isolated from seeds of Yuzu (Citrus junos). This glucoside was also present in seeds of Sudachi (Citrus sudachi) and Kabosu (Citrus sphaerocarpa). The 17-β-d-glucopyranosides of deacetylnomilin, nomilin, nomilinic acid, obacunone, limonin and deacetylnomilinic acid were also present...
Article
Limonin 17-β-d-glucopyranoside, limonin diosphenol 17-β-d-glucopyranoside and 6β-hydroxy-5-epilimonin 17-β-d-glucopyranoside were isolated from Tetradium rutaecarpa fruit tissues. The limonoid aglycones were identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Limonin, rutaevin and limonin diosphenol were also isolated.
Article
Antisera against native yeast of 6 species, Candida intermedia, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. Iambica, Crytococcus lamentii, and Rhodotorula rubra, were prepared for use as probes in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These antisera reacted with yeast cell surface antigens that are thought to consist of protein moieties. The qro...
Article
ミカン搾汁粕の乾燥および少容量化に有効な有用分解菌(糸状菌2株,酵母2株)を用いてミカン搾汁粕の分解試験を実施した.(1) 5日間分解試験を行った結果,試料の重量,体積の減少率はByssochlamys sp. M-9株が最高値を示し,それぞれ54.3%, 29.6%であった.(2) 分解試験中における接種菌の菌数変化を調べた結果,糸状菌接種区は4日目までは大きく増加した.酵母接種区は2日目までは増加を示したが,それ以後はわずかな変化を示したにすぎなかった.(3) 分解試験中のヘスペリジンの損失は約10%であり,ミカン搾汁粕からのヘスペリジンの回収を考慮した場合,従来の加熱乾燥処理(ヘスペリジンの損失30~40%)に比べ,はるかに有利な処理方法であることが示された.
Article
(1) ミカン堆積物から細菌156株,放線菌50株,糸状菌26株および酵母11株を分離した.(2) この分離菌についてミカン搾汁粕分解能を有する菌をスクリーニングした結果,温度上昇,体積減少,重量減少に効果のある菌として,Y-2株(Hansenula sp.), Y-11株(Candida sp.), M-9株(Byssochlamys sp.)およびM-21株(Aspergillus sp.)を選出した.(3) これらの選出菌について25~50℃で培養試験を行った結果,Y-2株は40℃, Y-11株は35℃, M-9株は45℃, M-21株は40℃のときそれぞれ最も高い生育度を示した.特に,M-9株は50℃でも旺盛な生育を示した.(4) これらの菌株の至適pHはいずれもpH 6.0付近であ...
Article
柑橘果皮油のテルペンレス化を目的として,減圧(4~5mmHg)の蒸留法の適用を試みた.モデル系を用いて,以下のことを明らかにした.1) リモネンとシトラール2成分系で,リモネンの分別蒸留を試みたところ,沸点はリモネン濃度の低下とともに上昇し,特に体積分率が0.4以下で顕著であった.2) リモネン,リナロール,シトラール3成分系においては,リモネンの濃度は60℃まで顕著に減少し,それ以上ではほぼ一定となった.一方,リナロールの沸点は61℃であったことから70℃付近までは含有率が顕著であったが,それ以降では含有率は急激に低下した.従って,目的とする組成のテルペンレスオイルを作製するには抽出温度の設定が重要となることが明らかとなった.つぎに実試料のテルペンレス化を試み,以下のことを明らかにした.3...
Article
Neutral and acidic limonoids in seeds of Karatachi (Poncirus trifoliata') were quantitatively analyzed. The seeds contained ichangin (20 ppm), deacetylnomilin (230 ppm) and limonin (390 ppm). They also contained acidic limonoids, such as de-acetylnomilinic acid (2 ppm), isolimonic acid (2 ppm) and isoobacunoic acid (a trace amount). The concentrati...
Article
Limonoid caused bitterness in citrus juices is a major problem in the citrus industry. Recently limonoids were found to possess anticarcinogenic and insecticidal activities. In this study, we developed an effective method for extracting neutral limonoids from Natsudaidai seeds. Extraction of neutral limonoids from Natsudaidai seeds depended upon th...
Article
The amounts of limonoid glucosides were measured in the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (C. limori), Valencia orange (C. sinensis) tangerine (C. reticulata), Fukuhara (C. sinensis Osbeck Hort.), Hyuganatsu (C. tamurana Hort. ex Tanaka), Shimamikan (C. kinokuni Hort. ex Tanaka) and Sanbokan (C. sulcata Hort. ex Takahashi). All the seeds...
Article
温州ミカン搾汁粕(乾燥品)からのヘスペリジン抽出,回収条件について検討し,次の結果を得た.(1) ヘスペリジンの抽出効率は,抽出時間0.5時間(撹拌区),抽出温度20℃および40℃のとき最も高かった.(2) 抽出液からヘスペリジンを結晶化させるための最適pHは5.0付近であると推察された.また1抽出液を70~90℃の範囲で加熱することにより回収率は高くなった.(3) ヘスペリジンの回収に及ぼす試料への加水量を検討した結果,最適条件は試料100gに対し水を800ml加えたとき得られ,回収した粉末粗ヘスペリジンの純度は93.7%,回収率は27.3%であった.しかし,試料からのヘスペリジンの抽出効率は,加水量が多くなるほど高く,加水量4000m1区で最高82.2%を示した.この二次抽出液を5倍濃縮...
Article
酸用カンキツのユズおよびジャバラを用い,ハンドプレッサー,円盤回転搾汁機ならびにインライン搾汁機で搾汁を行い,搾汁と品質特性について検討した. (1) ジャバラがユズに比べて重量で約1.2倍も重く,種子はユズの27~28個に対し,ジャバラは全く認められず無核であった. (2) ジャバラの搾汁率は円盤回転搾汁機で27.5~30.1%,インライン搾汁機で32.2~41.7%を示したが,ユズは円盤回転搾汁機で12.3~14.3%,インライン搾汁機では8.8~10.2%(フィニッシャー処理)であった. (3) 可溶性糖含量は,ジャバラの黄色果が3.15~3.21%で最高値を示し,還元糖比率(ぶどう糖+果糖:しょ糖)がほぼ2対1となった.酸度はユズの5.69%が最高で,そのうちクエン酸が85%以上を占...
Article
Limonin 17-β-D-glucopyranoside, total limonoid glucosides and limonin in the juice, pericarp and endocarp of hassaku (C. hassaku Hort. ex Tanaka) were determined by HPLC and TLC. Hassaku juice contained 314 ppm of total limonoid glucosides, whereas pericarp and endocarp tissues contained 2300 ppm and 3100 ppm, respectively, on dry basis. Limonin 17...
Article
温州ミカン果汁中のヘスペリジンを合成吸着剤により吸着除去することを検討し,次の結果を得た。(1) 還元果汁中のヘスペリジンは不溶性が91mg/100ml,可溶性が9mg/100mlで90%以上が不溶性ヘスペリジンで存在し,この状態で合成吸着剤を作用させてもほとんど吸着効果がなかった。(2) 加熱によるヘスペリジン可溶化試験の結果,10分間の加熱により90℃で50%,95℃で75%,100℃でほぼ100%が可溶化した。(3) 還元果汁を100℃,3分間加熱した結果,ヘスペリジンの85%が可溶化し,バッチ法で処理した結果,HP-20, S-861およびSP-207が可溶性ヘスペリジンの80~95%を吸着除去した。(4) 搾汁直後の果汁中のヘスペリジンはほとんど可溶性の状態で存在し,バッチ法で処理...
Article
温州ミカンの各部位別ヘスペリジン含量を測定し,さらに温州ミカン搾汁工程中のヘスペリジンの挙動について検討し,次の結果を得た。(1) 総ヘスペリジンの定量において,ヘスペリジンを可溶化させる最適条件はpH 11で10分間攪拌することにより完全に可溶化できた。(2) 果実各部位のヘスペリジン含量は,アルベド3800mg/100g,じょうのう膜950mg/100g,フラベド830mg/100g,さじょう95mg/100gおよび果汁50mg/100mlの順であった。(3) 搾汁圧が果汁のヘスペリジン含量に大きく影響し手搾りで圧力を0.3~10.0kg/cmcm2に変えることにより,可溶性ヘスペリジンは37.9~75.2mg/100mlになり,インライン搾汁機で98.0mg/100mlを示した。(4)...

Citations

... Limonoid glucoside concentrations can reach levels of 350-400 mg L -1 in orange juice. Among these, limonin glucoside is the most abundant (Miyake et al. 1991). The tasteless, watersoluble limonoid glucosides occur in fruit tissues, juice and seeds during the last stages of fruit maturation. ...
... Limonoid glycosides that are also present in citrus seeds are most often less abundant, almost half in content than their corresponding aglycones [79]. The average concentration of total limonoid glucosides and the corresponding aglycones in seeds from lemons, grapefruits, tangerines, and oranges has been reported to be 6.1 and 13.5 mg/g, respectively [80]. Limonin is consistently the most abundant constituent and one of the six limonoid aglycones (limonin, nomilin, obacunoic acid, ichangin, deoxylimonoic acid and nomilinic acid) that have been identified to be inherently bitter [75]. ...
... Inoltre, al fine di evitare nella fase di precipitazione la formazione di gel, dovuto alla presenza di pectina nell'estratto, sono state adoperate miscele di basi: Ca(OH) 2 e NaOH (Sanchez, 1986 (Lo Curto et al., 1992). Sono anche state impiegate con successo tecniche che prevedono l'uso di una preparazione enzimatica da Aspergillus niger per una iniziale degradazione delle pectine, a cui fa seguito una fase di estrazione alcalina (Inaba et al., 1993). Inoltre sono state adoperate metodiche per recuperare i flavonoidi da acque di scarto nella lavorazione di agrumi mediante l'impiego di resine del tipo stirene-divinil-benzene (Ericson et al., 1990;Doner et al., 1993;Calvarano et al., 1996). ...
... Las técnicas inmunoenzimáticas se han desarrollado en diversos formatos (ELISA indirecto, ELISA competitivo y ELISA sandwich) atendiendo al componente de la reacción que se fija en primer lugar, la fase sólida utilizada, y si se emplean o no concentraciones limitantes de antígeno y anticuerpo (32)(33)(34). En la identificación de microorganismos y/o sus toxinas o metabolitos, uno de los formatos más utilizados es la técnica de ELISA sándwich. En esta técnica, el anticuerpo se une a la fase sólida y, después de un periodo de incubación y lavado, se adiciona la muestra que contiene el antígeno. ...
... Yuzu seed oil extracts ( Table 2) contain large amounts of oleic and linoleic acids ([2], in preparation). The contents of limonoids extracted from yuzu seeds compared with the results of previous studies are shown in Table 1 [21][22][23]. ...
... To date, 36 types of aglycones and 17 types of glycosides have been identified mainly in citrus fruits of the family Rutaceae, which is composed of 160 genera and about 2,070 species [13]. The first study of the physiological effects of Citrus limonoids reported inhibitory effects on the eating behaviors of armyworms and predatory insects [14]. Strong inhibitory effects on eating were subsequently observed in termites. ...
... Limonene has a strong citrus odor and flavor, the highest seen in citrus peels (i). Meanwhile, limonene is a common naturally occurring compound with a citrus scent (ii), which has a masking effect and reduces flavor intensity due to its low threshold (Matsui et al., 1991). In contrast, linalool and terpinen-4-ol from monoterpene alcohol are important contributors to the sweet floral and herbal resinous aroma of citrus (Choi et al., 2002). ...
... There are no reports in the literature about the composition of Uruguayan Satsuma and Nova oils. Studies have been carried out on Japanese and Russian Satsuma oils: some papers deal with the volatile fraction composition (Yamanishi et al.,1968;Kita et al., 1969;Yajima et al., 1979;Sawamura et al., 1983;Namba et al.,1985;Kekelidze et al., 1985;Shin-yan Gao et al.,1986;Kekelidze et al., 1989) and the nonvolatile residue (Kumamoto et al., 1986;Chkhikvishvili et al., 1990;Chkhikvishvili et al., 1994;Nogata et al., 1994;Tsuchida et al., 1996) of the peel oil; others deal with the oil composition of the leaves and of the flowers (Kharebava et al., 1986, Zheng-Kui andYing-fang, 1992;Yoshikawa et al., 1996) and others with the juice composition (Masukawa et al., 1985;Maeda et al., 1985;Tada, 1987;Nizharade and Bandyukova, 1990;Araki et al., 1990;Ozaki et al., 1995;Moshonas and Shaw, 1997). ...
... Limonin is known as a primary source of undesirable bitterness in the juice of citrus fruits and 6 ppm is the objectionable level for humans. (6) Taking into consideration that limonin glucoside is involved in commercially available citrus juice at almost 180 ppm, (23) and is involved in Satsuma mandarin juice at around 130 ppm, (24) the amount of 500 ppm will be achieved by taking limonin as a supplement. ...
... hanaju) varieties are classified to yuzu group VI. However, both the compositions and amounts of the limonoid aglycones differed markedly between these two species in the present study, which may be attributed to differences in the metabolism of the seeds and fruits [24,25]. For this reason, the ratio of aglycone to glycosides in mature fruit tissues is mostly due to glycosides, whereas the glycoside content in seeds may be the same or lower than that of aglycones (Table 1). ...