Yael Eshet's research while affiliated with University of Toronto and other places

Publications (43)

Article
Full-text available
Pre‐transplant Deauville score (DS) is an imaging biomarker used for risk stratification in relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). However, the prognostic value of residual metabolic tumor volume (rMTV) in patients with DS 4–5 has been less well characterized. We retrospectively assessed 106 patients with relapsed/refractory cHL who...
Article
Objectives: To evaluate if radiomics with machine learning can differentiate between F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid breast cancer metastatic lymphadenopathy and FDG-avid COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-related axillary lymphadenopathy. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed FDG-positive, pathology-proven, metastatic axillary lymph nodes in...
Preprint
Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the prognostic value of joint evaluation of PET- and CT radiomics combined with standard clinical parameters in patients with HL. Methods: Overall, 88 patients (42 female and 46 male) with a median age of 43.3 (range 21-85 years) were included. Textural analysis of the PET/CT images was performed using a...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in changes in management and imaging routines for patients with hematological malignancies. Treating physicians had to familiarize themselves with a new disease, with distinct imaging manifestations, sometimes overlapping with other infection...
Article
Introduction Positron emission tomography (PET) positivity before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) predicts poor prognosis in relapsed/refractory (rel/ref) classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). However, there is limited data regarding the value of pre-ASCT residual metabolic tumor volume (rMTV) assessed by PET to predict post-ASCT outcomes....
Article
Purpose: To determine in a group of patients with progressive metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (PM-NETs) treated with 177Lu-DOTATATE whether a correlation exists between somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-2 expression in various tumors on baseline 68Ga-DOTATATE PET and their response to therapy. A secondary aim was to determine whether an association ex...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To assess whether ¹⁸F-DCFPyL PET/multiparametric (mp)MR contributes to the diagnosis of clinically significant (cs) prostate cancer (PCa) compared to mpMR in patients with suspicion of PCa, or patients being considered for focal ablative therapies (FT). Patients and methods This ethics review board–approved, prospective study included 55 m...
Article
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Ipsilateral avid axillary lymph node uptake at FDG PET/CT persists in 29% (49 of 169) of patients between 7 to 10 weeks after the second dose of the mRNA-based BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination.
Article
Full-text available
With hundreds of millions of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccine doses planned to be delivered worldwide in the upcoming months, it is important to recognize PET/CT findings in recently vaccinated immunocompetent or immunocompromised patients. We aimed to assess PET/CT uptake in the deltoid muscle and axillary lym...
Article
Background: In the current study we evaluated 68Ga PSMA PET/ CT to measure local control of bone metastasis in oligometastatic prostate cancer patients treated with SBRT. Materials and methods: After the institutional review board approval, a retrospective review of medical records of consecutive prostate cancer patients treated between 2014 and...
Article
The gut microbiome has been shown to influence the response of tumors to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in pre-clinical mouse models and observational patient cohorts. However, modulation of gut microbiota in cancer patients has not been investigated in clinical trials. Here we performed a phase I clinical trial to assess the safety and feasibility of fec...
Article
Full-text available
Key Points • Combining pretrans-plant Deauville score with sIPI and B symptoms stratifies patients according to the risk of post-ASCT treatment failure. • The outcomes of patients with a pre-transplant Deauville score of 4 are heterogeneous and modulated by the presence of clinical risk factors. There are limited data regarding the combined value o...
Article
Full-text available
Goal: PET is a relatively noisy process compared to other imaging modalities, and sparsity of acquisition data leads to noise in the images. Recent work has focused on machine learning techniques to improve PET images, and this study investigates a deep learning approach to improve the quality of reconstructed image volumes through denoising by a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To investigate the patterns of breast cancer-related and lactation-related 18F-FDG uptake in breasts of lactating patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) and without breast cancer.Methods18F-FDG-PET/CT datasets of 16 lactating patients with PABC and 16 non-breast cancer lactating patients (controls) were retrospectively ev...
Article
Objective: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have introduced a new and heterogeneous class of immune-related adverse effects, with the endocrine system being a predominant target for autoimmunity. Autoimmune hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) diseases induced by checkpoint inhibitors are being increasingly recognized. We aimed to characterize th...
Conference Paper
Background: The majority of metastatic melanoma patients treated with Programed cell Death (PD)-1 blockade fail to achieve durable response. The gut microbiota profoundly affects host immunity, and fecal microbiota transplantations (FMT), which transfers the entire gut microbiota from one host to another, has been shown to enhance anti-PD-1 effecti...
Conference Paper
Background: The majority of metastatic melanoma patients treated with Programed cell Death (PD)-1 blockade fail to achieve durable response. The gut microbiota profoundly affects host immunity, and fecal microbiota transplantations (FMT), which transfers the entire gut microbiota from one host to another, has been shown to enhance anti-PD-1 effecti...
Article
9103 Background: Millions of dollars invested in improving outcomes for metastatic lung cancer patients are essentially aimed at extending long term survival, with significant benefits being achieved over the last decade. However, little is known about lung cancer patients who die rapidly after diagnosis, potentially being deprived of these advance...
Article
The gut microbiota impacts response to immunotherapy in cancer patients. We sought to evaluate the role of physiologic colonic fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) uptake, a test that was recently shown to reflect colonic bacterial load, as a possible predictor for response to immunotherapy. We carried out a retrospective study in metastatic mela...
Article
Background: Ibrutinib is an orally-administered inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase. It is an effective agent in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), specifically of the Activated (ABC) type (Younes A et al, Lancet Oncol 2014). The combination of ibrutinib, bendamustine, and rituximab (IBR) was reported to be potent for B cell lymphomas, includ...
Article
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-related diarrhea is attributed to inflammatory colitis, with no other drug-related differential diagnosis. Here, we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic atrophy (PA) in ICI-treated cancer patients and its correlation to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). Metastatic melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma...
Article
Background: Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain pose a diagnostic challenge. Delay in diagnosis may result in significant risk to the fetus. The preferred diagnostic modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), since ultrasonography is often inconclusive, and computed tomography (CT) would expose the fetus to ionizing radiation. Objectives:...
Article
Purpose: To define the normal T2* values of liver in the third trimester of pregnancy in normal fetuses. Materials and methods: Multi-echo gradient echo T2* sequence was applied to the fetal abdomen in the axial plane in women undergoing a fetal MRI (1.5 Tesla [T], MRI system). A region of interest, best visualizing in the liver parenchyma was u...
Article
MRI and MRA are used for diagnosis and activity determination of patients with Takayasu's arteritis (TA). However, there is a limited experience regarding the role of MRI in long-term follow-up of those patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of MRI in the long-term follow-up of patients with Takayasu's diseas...
Article
Full-text available
Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS), is diagnosed following different degrees of central venous system obstruction, which traditionally was caused by infections, tumors or fibrosing mediastinitis. Recently the role of SVC thrombosis secondary to indwelling central venous devices or pacemaker leads as well as different hypercoagulable states have dra...
Article
Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is used daily in acute chest pain triage, although exposing patients to significant radiation dosage. CCTA using prospective ECG gating (PG CCTA) enables significant radiation reduction. To determine whether the routine use of 128 vs. 64 multidetector CT (MDCT) can increase the proportion of patients scanned using PG...
Article
Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is an established modality for ruling out coronary artery disease. However, it has been suggested that CCTA may be a source of non-negligible radiation exposure. To evaluate the potential degradation in coronary image quality when using prospective gated (PG) CCTA as compared with retrospective gated...
Conference Paper
PURPOSE The role of inflammation in atherosclerosis is well established, but data emphasizing the correlation of coronary plaque components to serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are lacking. Since multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a non-invasive technique that permits the detection and characterization of coronar...
Conference Paper
PURPOSE Cardiac MRI has been recently validated as a reliable method for evaluation of patients with PAPVR commonly associated with SVD. Our purpose was to characterize the typical anatomic and hemodynamic findings in a sequential series of patients with PAPPVR with and without SVD undergoing cardiac MRI METHOD AND MATERIALS During a 4-year perio...
Article
The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of ECG-gated MDCT in the functional evaluation of mechanical prosthetic aortic and mitral valves. Twenty sequential patients with 23 mechanical prosthetic valves were evaluated with an ECG-gated 40- or 64-MDCT scanner. Multiplanar reformation, maximal-intensity-projection, volume-rendering, and vo...
Article
This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Jerby et al., Science 298 (2002) 587], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under ~200W at 2.45 GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone i...
Article
The antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by recurrent fetal loss, venous and/or arterial thrombosis, and thrombocytopenia associated with elevated titers of lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. Although thrombosis is the characteristic vascular involvement in APS, the development of vascular aneurysms in patients with APS has b...
Article
Full-text available
Mazor, R., Korenstein-Ilan, A., Barbul, A., Eshet, Y., Shahadi, A., Jerby, E. and Korenstein, R. Increased Levels of Numerical Chromosome Aberrations after In Vitro Exposure of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields for 72 Hours. Radiat. Res. 169, 28-37 (2008). We investigated the effects of 72 h in vitro exposu...
Article
The method of cardiovascular T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows in vivo estimation of iron in the heart and liver and was used to measure the degree of iron overload in 10 transfused MDS patients (average 90 blood units) and in 3 patients with congenital hemolytic anemia. In all MDS patients iron overload was found in the liver but not in t...
Article
This study sought to report prevalence and radiologic patterns of intramuscular coronary arteries (myocardial bridging) on coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). Reported prevalence of intramuscular coronary arteries varies between 5% and 86% in autopsy and 0.8% and 4.9% in coronary angiography. Intramuscular coronary arteries can cause...
Conference Paper
PURPOSE The reported prevalence of myocardial bridging (MB) varies between 5- 86% in autopsy and 0.8-4.9% in coronary angiography. MB may cause inadvertent entrance into the right ventricle (RV) during coronary bypass grafting. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence and radiological patterns of MB as visualized on 64/40 MDCT in a consecu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Derby et ab, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under ∼200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed...
Article
The rapid technical development of cardiac MR imaging in the last decade enables us today to evaluate cardiac morphology, function and viability in a reliable and very good spatial and temporal resolution. The advanced technology allows us to conduct those examinations in an acceptable time for clinical daily use and thus, the number of indications...

Citations

... SSTR-RADS is based on a 5-point scale (from 1 = no evidence of disease and definitively benign to 5 = high certainty that NEN is present), and is predicated upon the site and intensity of radiotracer uptake [19]. A recent study demonstrated that SSTR-RADS may be useful to identify patients eligible for PRRT [20]. Moreover, a high interobserver agreement rate for SSTR-RADS on scan interpretation was also observed, even among readers with less experience in reading SSTR-PET/CTs [21] and therefore, one may speculate that such a standardized framework system is readily applicable for larger clinical trials or clinical routine in a busy PET/CT practice. ...
... The 18 F-FDG uptake in the LNs close to the COVID-19 vaccination site (deltoid muscle) as well as the axillary LNs upstream of lymphatic flow indicated that these findings were caused by VAL. Eshet et al. reported that 18 F-FDG uptake was observed in LNs at the left upper limb and axilla, even beyond 28 days after COVID-19 vaccination [12] . Although 18 F-FDG PET/CT is not recommended in staging for all patients, including those with early breast cancer [7] , several studies have reported the effectiveness of 18 F-FDG PET/CT for regional and systemic staging in locally advanced breast cancer [13] . ...
... However, the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) should not be solely used to differentiate between benign and malignant lymph nodes (14). There were attempts to improve the diagnostic rate by comparing the SUVmax of the ipsilateral lymph nodes to the contralateral lymph nodes (27) as well as the increased uptake in the deltoid muscle (28,29) or using different tracers (30). PET is the most sensitive imaging modality for differentiating lymphadenopathy, whereas the radioactive nature and high cost are limitations. ...
... Eifer et al. also described that a 72-year-old woman vaccinated with BNT162b2 subsequently displayed the same phenomenon of increased choline uptake by lymph nodes. 182 The vaccine recipients had tumors resected or treated by other means in both cases. [18 F] Choline PET/CT is an effective method to determine the location of tumor infiltration and the prognosis of tumor patients. ...
... Considerable evidence argues in favor of the hypothesis that the host microbiota reinforces anti-cancer immune responses elicited by immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) and that a healthy microbiota may be indispensable for the positive clinical outcome of immunotherapies. [1][2][3] Numerous reports have described microbial species that boosted the effectiveness of ICI in melanoma cancer, as exemplified by Akkermancia muciniphila and others. [4][5][6] Some of these beneficial effects of the intestinal microbiota have been attributed to immunostimulatory metabolites generated in the host intestine (e.g., short-chain fatty acids). ...
... The PET-computed tomography (CT) scans were consistently performed as per standard protocol of our institution. 20,25 In brief, after confirming blood sugar level <200 mg/dL and more than 6 hours of ...
... Over the past several years, deep learning techniques in image processing have provided novel approaches to acquiring high-quality images in the field of nuclear medicine imaging. Supervised networks require paired datasets for input and target, and have been proposed for PET image noise reduction, employing the high-quality images to restore the noisy images [5][6][7]. However, the feasibility to acquire clean PET data is limited in clinical practice, and it takes additional works to obtain paired datasets which is a burden for clinical work. ...
... Intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM), a bi-exponential diffusion model, is based on acquiring multiple diffusion weightings in the fast and slow regimes in order to separate the fast perfusionbased "pseudo-diffusion" component from the slow diffusion process [54]. Using IVIM analysis, the lactating breast, as anticipated, has shown to exhibit increased perfusion fraction [48], due to the pronounced vascularity of the breast parenchyma [42] and the high metabolic demand during breastfeeding [55]. Another approach could be found in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which is based on applying diffusion gradients to characterize tissue microstructure. ...
... Approximately one-third of patients with advanced NSCLC may die within the first 2 months after initial diagnosis. 68 The poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of many patients with advanced NSCLC may also limit the role of uncomfortable, on occasion dangerous, interventional biopsy procedures, as well as the need for significantly shorter turnaround times, which plasma testing can offer both at primary diagnosis and at progression. 8,69 Up to 80% of patients with NSCLC having advanced disease will only have tissue from small biopsies or cytology samples, limiting the potential to perform additional tests. ...
... It has been reported that the incidence of AI in monotherapy ICI treatment was 0.7%, with an incidence of grade 3 or above of 0.2%. In contrast, the incidence of AI increased with combination ICI treatment compared to single agent (4.2%) (4,5). Despite its low incidence, it can be life-threatening if not diagnosed in a timely manner and properly treated, which has raised new concerns about ICIs (6). ...