Ya-Yen Sun's research while affiliated with The University of Queensland and other places

Publications (45)

Article
Tourism needs to reduce emissions in line with other economic sectors, if the international community's objective of staying global warming at 1.5°-2.0 °C is to be achieved. This will require the industry to half emissions to 2030, and to reach net-zero by mid-century. Mitigation requires consideration of four dimensions, the Scales, Scopes, Stakeh...
Article
Whether tourism increases national carbon emissions has important implications for national development agendas. This study reviews the causality, direction, and elasticity as analysed in 81 tourism-extended Environmental Kuznets Curve studies published between 2013 and 2021. Findings indicate a low consensus on the tourism-emission nexus with cont...
Article
Full-text available
The flows of people and material attributed to international tourism exert a major impact on the global environment. Tourism carbon emissions is the main indicator in this context. However, previous studies focused on estimating the emissions of destinations, ignoring the embodied emissions in tourists’ origins and other areas. This study provides...
Article
Full-text available
The Paris Agreement suggests that all countries engage in significant emission reductions. To stay within safe guardrails, usually defined as a maximum warming of 1.5 °C compared to pre-industrial times, this will mean decarbonization within less than 30 years. This significant challenge is complicated because of growth in some sectors, such as tou...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the vulnerability of tourism workers, but no detailed job loss figures are available that links tourism vulnerability with income inequality. This study evaluates how reduced international tourism consumption affects tourism employment and their income loss potential for 132 countries. This analysis shows that hig...
Article
Background: One of the benefits of online education is the potential reduction in carbon emissions through the decrease in travel to attend a university in person. We estimated the savings in CO 2 emissions of an international cohort of master’s students who studied fully online from their home countries, rather than travelling to the UK and living...
Article
Background: One of the benefits of online education is the potential reduction in carbon emissions through the decrease in travel to attend a university in person. We estimated the savings in CO 2 emissions of an international cohort of master’s students who studied fully online from their home countries, rather than travelling to the UK and living...
Article
Providing targeted support to people who are mostly impacted financially is critical in managing the socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic; however, governments face the challenge of pinpointing vulnerable workers. Building upon the multi-regional input-output model and a high-resolution employment profile, this research develops a new an...
Article
Background: One of the benefits of online education is the potential reduction in carbon emissions through the decrease in travel to attend a university in person. We estimated the savings in CO 2 emissions of an international cohort of master’s students who studied fully online from their home countries, rather than travelling to the UK and living...
Article
Background: One of the benefits of online education is the potential reduction in carbon emissions through the decrease in travel to attend a university in person. We estimated the savings in CO 2 emissions of an international cohort of master’s students who studied fully online from their home countries, rather than travelling to the UK and living...
Article
Background One of the benefits of online education is the potential reduction in carbon emissions through the decrease in travel to attend a university in person. We estimated the savings in CO 2 emissions of an international cohort of master’s students who studied fully online from their home countries, rather than travelling to the UK and living...
Article
Industrial Ecology Virtual Laboratories (IELabs) enable the construction of national‐to‐local‐scale multi‐regional input–output (MRIO) models. These IELabs have been proven to be especially important for analyzing research questions that warrant sub‐national spatial detail. The field of industrial ecology has clearly progressed from the time of nat...
Article
The tourism industry contributes eight percent to global carbon emissions, directly and indirectly. Indirect carbon emissions are often neglected because they are difficult to calculate. The traditional approach to calculating indirect emissions – Life Cycle Assessment – is expensive and requires an expert data analyst. We introduce an alternative...
Article
With more than 40 million tourists visiting wineries each year, wine tourism is increasingly seen as a business strategy that provides economic benefits not only for the wine industry but also for the surrounding region. These economic benefits come with the environmental cost of increasing carbon emissions. This important environmental issue, howe...
Preprint
The tourism industry contributes eight percent to global carbon emissions, directly and indirectly. Indirect carbon emissions are often neglected because they are difficult to calculate. The traditional approach to calculating indirect emissions – Life Cycle Assessment – is expensive and requires an expert data analyst. We introduce an alternative...
Article
Responding to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Climate commitments are urgent priorities facing many governments. Meeting these commitments will require new industry management architectures that align measures of progress (economic, environmental, human and social) with government structures, datasets, and reporting. Comp...
Article
Carbon mitigation strategies are an urgent and overdue tourism industry imperative. The tourism response to climate action has been to engage businesses in technology adoption, and to encourage more sustainable visitor behaviour. These strategies however are insufficient to mitigate the soaring carbon footprint of tourism. Building upon the concept...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic is the single largest event in contemporary history in terms of the global restriction of mobility, with the majority of the world population experiencing various forms of “lockdown”. This phenomenon incurred increased amounts of teleworking and time spent at home, fewer trips to shops, closure of retail outlets selling non-es...
Article
Full-text available
On 3 April 2020, the Director-General of the WHO stated: “[COVID-19] is much more than a health crisis. We are all aware of the profound social and economic consequences of the pandemic (WHO, 2020)”. Such consequences are the result of counter-measures such as lockdowns, and world-wide reductions in production and consumption, amplified by cascadin...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought global mobility into the spotlight, with well over 100 countries having instituted either a full or partial lockdown by April 2020. Reduced mobility, whilst causing social and economic impacts, can also be beneficial for the environment and future studies will surely quantify such environmental gains. However, accu...
Article
The wine industry has been dedicating increasing efforts to considering the sustainability of the environment. Various approaches have been implemented to reduce the industry's carbon footprint. With over 40 million wine tourists globally, cellar door operations have become an important distribution channel, especially for the financial sustainabil...
Article
Environmentally extended input-output models have emerged as a new macro level approach to compile tourism carbon footprint inventories. Set against the traditional bottom-up method, this paper explains how environmentally extended input-output models can assist to address multiple aspects of tourism carbon management, and to review current applica...
Article
Due to its geographic location, Taiwan frequently experiences severe natural disasters (for example earthquakes and typhoons) that significantly interrupt business operations and subsequently cause extensive financial losses. Prior work on economic losses resulting from such natural disasters in Taiwan has not considered regional and sectoral spill...
Article
A credible national tourism emission inventory is a key to the effective carbon management of tourism activities. Currently, there are no guidelines that define the scope and boundaries for evaluating national tourism emissions and great variations exist in research methodologies, leading to confusion and misuse of these measures. This study compar...
Article
The travel distance of international journeys critically determines our reliance on different transportation modes and the associated carbon intensity. This study quantified the influence of macrolevel determinants to the inbound and outbound average distance per visitor from a panel data of 152 countries using spatial econometric analysis. Results...
Article
With the emergence of global value chains (GVCs), imported products and services play a critical role in the quality and quantity of tourism services. What to import and how much to import thus concern the trade-offs of maintaining economic prosperity, reducing domestic and global carbon emissions and improving tourism carbon efficiency at destinat...
Article
Full-text available
Tourism contributes significantly to global gross domestic product, and is forecast to grow at an annual 4%, thus outpacing many other economic sectors. However, global carbon emissions related to tourism are currently not well quantified. Here, we quantify tourism-related global carbon flows between 160 countries, and their carbon footprints under...
Article
Full-text available
In the version of this Article originally published, in the penultimate paragraph of the section “Gas species and supply chains”, in the sentence “In this assessment, the contribution of air travel emissions amounts to 20% (0.9 GtCO2e) of tourism’s global carbon footprint...” the values should have read “12% (0.55 GtCO2e)”; this error has now been...
Article
Tourism water consumption reflects the dynamics between the visitation volume, economic structure, and water use technology of a destination. This paper presents a structural decomposition analysis that attributes changes of Taiwan’s tourism water footprint into the demand factors of total consumption and purchasing patterns, and production factors...
Article
High-speed rail (HSR) and tourism are closely related economic activities because improved mobility is perceived to facilitate tourist behavioral changes. This study examines the influence of HSR on the travel patterns of individual tourists in Taiwan in relation to time, space and carbon emissions. A framework is first provided to discuss how chan...
Article
This study proposes an analytical framework for decomposing the national tourism carbon footprint and carbon efficiency to identify the dynamics between economic growth, technological efficiency, and environmental externality. Using the environmentally extended input–output model and decomposition methods, tourism carbon changes are decomposed into...
Article
Due to the significant increase in international tourism arrivals, academic attention that addresses the heterogeneity among nationals with respect to the congestion impact at attraction sites is called for. This study evaluates the moderating effect of nationality on crowding perception, its antecedents, and coping behaviours in order to identify...
Article
Given concerns over greenhouse gases and the role of tourism in generating such environmental externality, a consistent carbon measurement framework is needed. This paper combines principles derived from production and consumption accounting measures to better allocate the responsibility for carbon emissions. Utilizing a boundary that includes dome...
Article
Full-text available
The Taiwan government has imposed a daily visitation quota with strict regulations on Chinese visitor travel modes, length of stay, and visa authorisations since July 2008. This highly controlled scheme was an attempt to maintain service quality over security and political considerations. The purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth analysis...
Article
The ability to portray accurately the regional economic impacts of short-term tourism demand rests on the resemblances between the long-run input–output (IO) technical coefficients and a short-term production function of business sectors. The purpose of this research was to investigate the stability of cost structure by capacity utilization in the...
Article
Full-text available
Experiencing the context of a rural environment is the fundamental aspect of rural travel. In order to estimate quantitative influences of the rural environment, this paper proposes to proxy rurality through two indicators: isolation and remoteness. The estimation of a hedonic pricing model with the use of both Geographic Information Systems and sp...
Article
Hosting mega- and hallmark-events is perceived as an important vehicle for tourism development. However, in the case of the 2009 World Games, the first international hallmark sporting event in Taiwan, the volume of hotel occupancies and revenue fell short of expectations, despite 4 years of planning and an investment of US$218 million. This study s...
Article
Many tools for economic impact evaluation, such as input-output models and computable general equilibrium models, rely on the jobs-to-sales ratio (JSR) to convert direct, indirect and induced effects of sales into employment. For service sectors, this ratio is strongly influenced by capacity utilization and exhibits a non-linear pattern, especially...
Article
Estimating visitor spending through the segmentation approach has several advantages in terms of policy evaluation, user management and sampling design. This approach generally relies on visitor surveys to estimate two parameters, average spending per segment and segment share, so that total visitation can be apportioned to each subgroup. Equivalen...
Article
The Input–Output (I–O) models assume the stability of economic ratios and regional multipliers over the evaluation period. For manufacturing sectors, constant multipliers within a short-term period may present a reasonable picture of the real-world production function. Tourism industry, however, is composed of a variety of services in which total o...
Article
The purpose of this study was to better understand the complex relationship between leisure and life satisfaction. Components of two distinct, but potentially integrative, theoretical frameworks (i.e., activity theory and need theory) predicting the relationship between leisure and life satisfaction were tested with a sample of residents from a Mid...
Article
This paper presents the economic impact estimation for international visitors to Taiwan using an Input–Output Model to demonstrate the differences of economic contribution by market segments. Economic impacts are compared based on visitor segments by country of residence and travel purpose. The results indicated that high spenders contributed two t...
Article
The 2009 World Games (WG) was hosted in Kaohsiung from July 16 to 26, 2009, as the first international mega sport event in Taiwan. During the 11-day period, athletes around the world competed in 26 official non-Olympic sports, 6 invitation sports and 5 performance activities. With extensive tourism promotion campaigns for World Games, it is importa...

Citations

... Its resource and emission-growth dynamics have been illustrated by UNWTO, UNEP &WMO, 2008, Gössling andPeeters (2015) and Lenzen et al. (2018). National studies pointing to continued emission growth in tourism include China (Meng, Xu, Hu, Zhou, & Wang, 2016), New Zealand (Sun & Higham, 2021), Portugal (Robaina-Alves, Moutinho, & Costa, 2016), Sweden (Gössling & Hall, 2008), Spain (Cadarso, Gómez, López, Tobarra, & Zafrilla, 2015), Taiwan (Sun, 2016), or Norway (Sun, Gössling, & Zhou, 2022). Continued growth is also expected by industry (WTTC-UNEP-UNFCCC, 2021; see also Table 2), with the UNWTO (2022) acknowledging that even though there is an 'ambition' to half emissions from tourism by 2030, the likely scenario is a 25% increase. ...
... Although some studies have not clearly proposed tourism carbon emission efficiency as a factor, their research contents are similar. At present, most of the related studies focus on the measurement of tourism carbon emission efficiency [16,17], spatial characteristics [18], and influencing factors [18,19]. Gössling [14,20] pioneered research related to this factor. ...
... Thus, there is an urgent need to reduce carbon emissions; carbon dioxide emissions must peak and then achieve carbon neutrality [18]. Based on the tourism satellite account and input-output model, the carbon emissions of tourism coupling system has established for China's international tourism [19]. Using the tourism's CO 2 emission data of China, tourism's carbon emissions are growing significantly [20]. ...
... Over the past two years, more countries or particular regions within a country have turned to tourism vouchers under one form or another (staycation vouchers/travel subsidies) to sustain inbound tourism. Due to restrictions generated by the COVID-19 pandemic, the tourism industry was one of the hardest hit economic sectors [25][26][27][28][29][30]. The introduction of social vouchers in an attempt to boost domestic travel was justified by a sharp decline in tourism demand, loss of jobs and closure of non-essential industries [31]; this measure was reported in countries such as Island, Japan, Slovenia, Ireland, Italy, Poland, South Korea, Taiwan, China, etc. [31][32][33][34]. ...
... According to the research that had been done by using the electronic health records of 5.2 million young people, during the COVID-19 pandemic, eating disorders incidents were 15.3% higher in 2020 when it is compared with previous years (Taquet et al., 2021). Also, the pandemic crisis has resulted in a momentous decline in employment, especially for women, youth, and medium-and low-skilled workers (Monitor, 2021, 7th ed.;Park and Inocencio, 2020;Maestripieri, 2021;Sun et al., 2021). The data shared by International Labor Organization (Monitor, 2021, 8th ed.,) declares that in 2019, the youth represented only 13 percent of total employment; however, with the outbreak of the pandemic, they made up 34.2 percent of employment losses in 2020. ...
... The shift to online-based learning is regarded as one of the most sustainable approaches for reducing GHG emissions in the education sector [7], although the consequential increase in residential footprint is not accounted here. This is exceptionally true for universities with a high mobility and international students, where reductions in carbon emissions are significant owing to reduced travel [8]. An online education system saves 90% more energy and emits 80% less energy than the traditional on-campus setting, owing to reduced movement and lower energy consumption in household and academic operations [9]. ...
... In other words, production is more often lower compared to consumption, while the opposite is quite rare. It's the consumption destinations (inputs) that induce production demands and associated emissions in producing regions (outputs) (Fry et al., 2021). It is also worth considering inefficiencies and waste as a result of production processes . ...
... Wine tourism, therefore, is a good alternative to bring wealth, as well as to socioeconomically revitalize wine-growing areas [25,26]. In fact, from an economic perspective, wine tourism can be understood as a distribution channel for the direct sale of wine in the winery [27], since it allows for (1) setting a lower price for wine than in other channels or a similar price but acquiring the margin kept by intermediaries; (2) obtaining instant liquidity compared to other means of wine distribution in which the entry of effect is delayed; (3) benefitting from possible up-selling and/or cross-selling; as well as (4) encouraging direct contact with customers, essential to guarantee future wine sales (generation of sentimental links with the brand and brand ambassadors, increased knowledge of the wine varieties offered by the winery, etc.). ...
... Pemerintah dan para pelaku bisnis pariwisata telah berkomitmen untuk dekarbonisasi pariwisata Scott & Gössling, 2022), dengan penyeimbangan karbon menjadi ukuran yang paling umum (Sun & Higham, 2021). Para pemangku kepentingan semakin menyadari bahwa praktik tidak berkelanjutan yang berkontribusi terhadap perubahan iklim dan memperburuk bahaya alam akan mempengaruhi daya saing industri. ...
... The pace of economic activity slowed down despite the support of the information technology (IT) sector in sustaining business operations. International travel restrictions were imposed to break the chain of a surge in cases (Devi, 2020;Chu et al., 2020;Akter, 2020;Zhang et al. (2020aZhang et al. ( , 2020b; Pomponi et al., 2020;Parr et al., 2020;Memish et al., 2020;Sharun et al., 2020;Sharma et al., 2020;Lamba and Jain, 2020;Barua;Brouder, 2020Narayan et al., 2021aNarayan et al., , 2021bŠkare et al., 2021;Li et al., 2021;Wang and Pag an, 2021;Ji et al., 2021). The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) relaxed its norms for loan disbursements and equated monthly instalment (EMI) payments, which helped in stabilizing the liquidity crunch in the nation. ...