Xavier de Lamballerie's research while affiliated with Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire and other places

Publications (873)

Article
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The binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) promotes virus entry into the cell. Targeting this interaction represents a promising strategy to generate antivirals. By screening a phage-display library of biosynthetic protein sequences build on a rigid alpha-helicoidal HEAT-like scaffold (named αReps), we selected ca...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has exemplified that rigorous evaluation in large animal models is key for translation from promising in vitro results to successful clinical implementation. Among the drugs that have been largely tested in clinical trials but failed so far to bring clear evidence of clinical efficacy is favipiravir, a nucleoside analogue with...
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Cetacean poxviruses (CePVs) cause ‘tattoo’ skin lesions in small and large cetaceans worldwide. Although the disease has been known for decades, genomic data for these poxviruses are very limited, with the exception of CePV-Tursiops aduncus, which was completely sequenced in 2020. Using a newly developed pan-pox real-time PCR system targeting a con...
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In the absence of drugs to treat or prevent COVID-19, drug repurposing can be a valuable strategy. Despite a substantial number of clinical trials, drug repurposing did not deliver on its promise. While success was observed with some repurposed drugs (e.g., remdesivir, dexamethasone, tocilizumab, baricitinib), others failed to show clinical efficac...
Preprint
Background Efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) in COVID-19 pneumonia is uncertain. Early transfusion of high antibody titre CCP may be beneficial, especially in case of underlying immunodeficiency. Methods The CORIPLASM study was a multicentric, open-label, Bayesian randomised clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of CCP in patients wi...
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First identified in 1947, Zika virus took roughly 70 years to cause a pandemic unusually associated with virus-induced brain damage in newborns. Zika virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, and secondarily, Aedes albopictus, both colonizing a large strip encompassing tropical and temperate regions. As part of the international pro...
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Contexte Les foyers sont des lieux privilégiés de transmission du SARS-CoV-2 entre individus de différentes générations ayant des contacts étroits et répétés. Nous avons évalué le risque d'acquisition du SARS-CoV-2 selon l’âge et les liens familiaux, à partir des données de la cohorte française en population générale EPICOV. Méthodes En novembre 2...
Preprint
We conducted a cross-sectional study for SARS-CoV-2 anti-S1 IgG prevalence in French blood donors (n=32605), from May-2020 to January-2021. A mathematical model combined seroprevalence with daily number of hospital admissions to estimate the probability of hospitalization upon infection and determine the number of infections while correcting for an...
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The replacement of the Omicron BA.1 variant of SARS-CoV-2 by the BA.2 and the rapid growth of the BA.5 sub lineage, which have both different sets of mutations in the spike glycoprotein, alters the spectrum of activity of therapeutic antibodies currently licensed in the European Union. Using clinical strains of the Omicron BA.2 and BA.5 variants, w...
Preprint
Europe is experiencing an epidemic of monkeypox virus against a background of limited knowledge of population immunity to orthopoxviruses. We tested antibodies neutralizing vaccinia virus in blood samples from Bolivia (n=601), Laos (n=657), Mali (n=255) and France (n=4876). We also tested neutralization of cowpox virus in 4448 French samples, which...
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Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at risk for severe COVID-19 and cannot comply with social distancing. SARS-COV2 seroprevalence in French patients and caregivers after the first wave of COVID-19 is unknown. SeroCOVIDial is a prospective study conducted between June and December 2020. SARS-COV2 seroprevalence was evaluated by a rapid serological test...
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Background :To address the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, multiple clinical trials in humans were rapidly started, including those involving an oral treatment by nitazoxanide, despite no or limited pre-clinical evidence of antiviral efficacy. Methods: In this work, we present a complete pre-clinical evaluation of the antiviral activity of nitazoxanide ag...
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Background Encephalitis is a worldwide public health issue, with a substantially high burden among children in southeast Asia. We aimed to determine the causes of encephalitis in children admitted to hospitals across the Greater Mekong region by implementing a comprehensive state-of-the-art diagnostic procedure harmonised across all centres, and id...
Preprint
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, and leading cause of neurological infection in Asia and the Pacific, with recent emergence in multiple territories in Australia in 2022. Patients may experience devastating socioeconomic consequences; JEV infection (JE) predominantly affects children in poor rural areas, has a 20-30%...
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Viral exoribonucleases are uncommon in the world of RNA viruses. To date, they have only been identified in the Arenaviridae and the Coronaviridae families. The exoribonucleases of these viruses play a crucial role in the pathogenicity and interplay with host innate immune response. Moreover, coronaviruses exoribonuclease is also involved in a proo...
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Background Many patients report persistent symptoms after COVID-19. Our aim was to determine whether some of these symptoms were more associated with past SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to other conditions. Methods This prospective survey was nested in CONSTANCES, a randomly selected French population-based cohort, started in 2012. All participants...
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Background: Although effective mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 infection have been deployed worldwide, their interchangeability could facilitate the scale-up of vaccination programs. The objective of the trial was to assess whether the immune response induced by a heterologous SARS-CoV-2 mRNA primo vaccination is non-inferior to that of a homologous...
Preprint
Background Variant-adaptated vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as boosters are needed to increase a broader protection against SARS CoV-2 variants. New adjuvanted recombinant protein vaccines as heterologous boosters could maximize the response. Methods In this randomized, single-blinded, multicenter trial, adults who had receiv...
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Background We aimed to study whether social patterns of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection changed in France throughout the year 2020, in light to the easing of social contact restrictions. Methods A population-based cohort of individuals aged 15 years or over was randomly selected from the national tax register to collect socio-economic data, migra...
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Background: The mainstay of diagnostic confirmation of acute Japanese encephalitis (JE) involves detection of anti-JE virus (JEV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Limitations in the specificity of this test are increasingly apparent with the introduction of JEV vaccinations and the endemicity of other cross-reac...
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SignificanceThere is growing evidence that preexisting autoantibodies neutralizing type I interferons (IFNs) are strong determinants of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. It is important to estimate their quantitative impact on COVID-19 mortality upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, by age and sex, as both the prevalence of these autoantibodies and the ris...
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Background and objective: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant displays increased infectiveness as well as mutations resulting in reduced neutralizing activity of antibodies acquired after vaccination or infection involving earlier strains. To assess the ability of vaccinated COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP-V) collected before November 2021 to seroneu...
Preprint
The binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) promotes virus entry into the cell. Targeting this interaction represents a promising strategy to generate antivirals. By screening a phage-display library of biosynthetic protein sequences build on a rigid alpha-helicoidal HEAT-like scaffold (named αReps), we selected ca...
Article
Purpose: The COVID-19 vaccination campaign began in December 2020, in France, and primarily targeted the oldest people. Our study aimed to determine the level of acceptance of vaccination in a population of older patients with cancer. Methods: From January 2021, we offered vaccination with the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine to all patients 70 years and...
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Assessment of the intensity, dynamics and determinants of the antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination in the general population is critical to guide vaccination policies. This study characterized the anti-spike IgG titers in 13,971 participants included in a French multicohort population-based serological survey on COVID-19 betw...
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Intraspecies (homologous) phylogenetic incongruence, or ‘tree conflict’ between different loci within the same genome of mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFV), was first identified in dengue virus (DENV) and subsequently in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), St Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). Recently, the first evidence of phy...
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The potential preventive efficacy of tenofovir/emtricitabine on SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed in HIV pre-exposition prophylaxis (PrEP) users. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG between May and October 2020 was similar in PrEP users and in a matched population-based cohort suggesting that tenofovir/emtricitabine has no role in reducing the risk of SAR...
Preprint
Full-text available
First identified in 1947, Zika virus took roughly 70 years to cause a pandemic unusually associated with virus-induced brain damage in newborns. Zika virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti , and secondarily, Aedes albopictus , both colonizing a large strip encompassing tropical and temperate regions. As part of the international p...
Preprint
Recombination is a crucial process in the evolution of many organisms. Although the evolutionary reasons behind its occurrence in RNA viruses are debated, this phenomenon has been associated with major epidemiological events such as virus host range expansion, antigenic shift or variation in virulence 1,2, and this process occurs frequently in posi...
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The emergence and rapid spread of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, which has more than 30 substitutions in the spike glycoprotein, compromises the efficacy of currently available vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. Using a clinical strain of the Omicron variant, we analyzed the neutralizing power of eight currently used monoclonal antibodies com...
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Late 2020, SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant emerged in United Kingdom and gradually replaced G614 strains initially involved in the global spread of the pandemic. In this study, we use a Syrian hamster model to compare a clinical strain of Alpha variant with an ancestral G614 strain. The Alpha variant succeed to infect animals and to induce a pathology tha...
Preprint
Full-text available
The replacement of the Omicron BA.1 variant of SARS-CoV-2 by the BA.2 sub lineage, which has a different set of mutations in the spike glycoprotein, alters the spectrum of activity of therapeutic antibodies. In this study, we compared the neutralising power of monoclonal antibodies against the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants, with an ancestral strai...
Preprint
The replacement of the Omicron BA.1 variant of SARS-CoV-2 by the BA.2 and the rapid growth of the BA.5 sub lineage, which have both different sets of mutations in the spike glycoprotein, alters the spectrum of activity of therapeutic antibodies currently licensed in the European Union. Using clinical strains of the Omicron BA.2 and BA.5 variants, w...
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Engineering recombinant viruses is a pre-eminent tool for deciphering the biology of emerging viral pathogens such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the large size of coronavirus genomes renders the current reverse genetics methods challenging. Here, we describe a simple method based on “infectious subgen...
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Objectives To assess the efficacy of inhaled ciclesonide in reducing the risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 outpatients at risk of developing severe illness. Methods COVERAGE is an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Outpatients with documented COVID-19, risk factors for aggravation, symptoms <7 days and absence of criteria for hospitalisat...
Preprint
The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis by the Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab cocktail (AZD7442) was evaluated in hamsters against a clinical BA.1 strain of SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron. AZD7442 retains inhibitory activity against Omicron despite a substantial loss of efficacy. We estimate that Omicron virus requires about 20-times more antibodies in plasma...
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This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection within the staff and student populations of the University of Corsica (France) during the second wave of the epidemic. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from 23 November 2020 to 31 January 2021. The participants...
Preprint
Objectives Taste or smell disorders have been reported as strongly associated with COVID-19 diagnosis. We aimed to identify subject characteristics, symptom associations, and humoral response intensity associated with taste or smell disorders. Patients and methods We used data from SAPRIS, a study based on a consortium of five prospective cohorts...
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Introduction et but de l’étude L’obésité a été identifiée comme un facteur de risque important pour les formes graves de COVID-19 et pourrait également être associée à un plus grand risque d’infection par le SARS-CoV-2 mais ces résultats restent à clarifier. Notre étude visait donc à étudier les associations entre différentes caractéristiques anthr...
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Introduction et but de l’étude L’alimentation apporte les nutriments essentiels au bon fonctionnement du système immunitaire et de nombreuses hypothèses suggèrent ainsi un rôle de la nutrition dans la prévention de la COVID-19. Toutefois, il n’existe pas à notre connaissance de données prospectives à ce sujet. Notre objectif était donc d’étudier le...
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Background The interplay between age and symptoms intensity on antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been studied in a general population setting. Methods We explored the serologic profile of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after the first wave of the pandemic, by assessing IgG against the spike protein (ELISA-S), IgG against the nucleocaps...
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Background: Several viruses belonging to the family Poxviridae can cause infections in humans and animals. In Corsica, livestock farming (sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle) is mainly mixed, leading to important interactions between livestock, wildlife, and human populations. This could facilitate the circulation of zoonotic diseases, and makes Corsic...
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Decades after its discovery in East Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in Brazil in 2013 and infected millions of people during intense urban transmission. Whether vertebrates other than humans are involved in ZIKV transmission cycles remained unclear. Here, we investigate the role of different animals as ZIKV reservoirs by testing 1723 sera of pets...
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Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of the study was to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among HCWs in Cochabamba, Bolivia and to determine the potential risk factors. In January 2021, a cross-sectional SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study was conducted in 783 volunteer clinical and non-clinical HCWs in...
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Many enteric viruses are found in pig farms around the world and can cause death of animals or important production losses for breeders. Among the wide spectrum of enteric viral species, porcine Sapelovirus (PSV), porcine Kobuvirus (PKoV) and porcine Astrovirus (PAstV) are frequently found in pig feces. In this study we investigated sixteen pig far...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence and rapid spread of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, which has more than 30 substitutions in the spike glycoprotein, compromises the efficacy of currently available vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. Using a clinical strain of the Omicron variant, we analyzed the neutralizing power of eight currently used monoclonal antibodies com...
Article
Full-text available
Background We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in France and to identify the populations most exposed during the first epidemic wave. Methods Random selection of individuals aged 15 years or over, from the national tax register (96% coverage). Socio-economic data, migration history, and living conditions were collected...
Preprint
Full-text available
To address the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, multiple clinical trials in humans were rapidly started, including those involving an oral treatment by nitazoxanide, despite no or limited pre-clinical evidence of antiviral efficacy. In this work, we present a complete pre-clinical evaluation of the antiviral activity of nitazoxanide against SARS-CoV-2. Fir...
Article
Quantitation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) is a key parameter in determining the effective dose for treatment with COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). Interpretation of results from clinical trials conducted worldwide requires comparison of Nabs titres obtained from different met...
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SARS-CoV-2 variants are emerging with potential increased transmissibility highlighting the great unmet medical need for new therapies. Niclosamide is a potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent that has advanced in clinical development. We validate the potent antiviral efficacy of niclosamide in a SARS-CoV-2 human airway model. Furthermore, niclosamide remains...
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In March 2021, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by four families (Aliusviridae, Crepuscuviridae, Myriaviridae, and Natareviridae), three subfamilies (Alpharhabdovirinae, Betarhabdovirinae, a...
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We call into question the established dogma that viruses with envelopes and RNA genomes have limited stability by demonstrating the staggering long-term viability, ∼2 years, of chikungunya virus when stored in liquid environments at +4°C in the dark. We contend that our understanding of the infectivity of a variety of enveloped viruses requires a n...
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The four mosquito-borne dengue virus serotypes (DENV1–DENV4) cause a high burden of disease throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Nevertheless, their precise epidemiological history in Africa, including when and where they originated and were distributed during the 20th century, remains unclear stressing the need for One He...
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Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Bolivia, aetiologies, case fatality, and determinants of outcome are poorly characterised. We attempted to investigate such parameters to guide diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and health policy. From Nov-2017 to Oct-2018, we prospectively enrolle...