William W. Eaton's research while affiliated with Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and other places

Publications (407)

Preprint
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Most genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of major depression (MD) have been conducted in samples of European ancestry. Here we report a multi-ancestry GWAS of MD, adding data from 21 studies with 88,316 MD cases and 902,757 controls to previously reported data from individuals of European ancestry. This includes samples of African (36% of effect...
Article
Mental and behavioral disorders are among the leading contributors to disability among US-residing Latinxs. When treated as a homogeneous group, important disparities in the prevalence of such disorders among Latinx subgroups (e.g., by ethnic heritage) are obscured. However, Latinxs may also be characterized by their acculturative experiences while...
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Study objectives Trauma exposure likely contributes to poor sleep, but relatively few studies have empirically tested this, instead focusing on posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, little is known about sex differences in sleep after trauma. The current study used a cross-sectional and retrospective design to test hypotheses that trauma exposur...
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Background Psychiatric comorbidity is defined as the joint occurrence of two or more mental or substance use disorders. Widespread psychiatric comorbidity has been reported in treatment and population-based studies. The aim of this study was to measure the extent and impact of psychiatric comorbidity in a cohort of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catch...
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Major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) frequently accompany metabolic conditions, but their relationship is still unclear, in particular at the mechanistic level. We implemented an approach of “from population to neuron”, combining population-based epidemiological analysis with neurobiological experiments using...
Article
Suicide attempts (SA) among African Americans have increased at a greater rate than any other racial/ethnic group. Research in European ancestry populations has indicated that SA are genetically influenced; however, less is known about the genetic contributors that underpin SA among African Americans. We examined whether genetic propensity for depr...
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Background : We aimed to examine the occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in a population-based youth sample, assessing both categorical and dimensional presentations of the disorder and its clinical and sociodemographic correlates. Methods : We analyzed cross-sectional data from the latest assessment of the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort (n =...
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Introduction: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale - Revised (CESD-R) was developed to provide an efficient screening scale for depression syndrome, mimicking the original CESD, one of the most widely used screening tools to measure depressive symptoms globally. This investigation examined the factor structure of the CESD-R with a...
Chapter
Interest in genetic testing and prophylactic surgery has increased in recent years. Going through a genetic test, making decisions following recommended guidelines, and prophylactic surgery are challenging for individuals. Psychiatric care and counseling for prophylactic surgery play a crucial role in the management of patients because of the high...
Article
The study examined associations between medication assisted treatment (MAT) and psychiatric symptom severity, measured by Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), among individuals with serious mental illness and a history of heroin use. Of 271 participants, 32% (n=87) reported a history of heroin use and, of those, 14.9% (n=13) reported MAT. H...
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Purpose: This study investigated associations between psychiatric symptom severity and delay in seeking general medical services among individuals with serious mental illness. Methods: The association of psychiatric symptom severity, measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and general medical care delay was examined among 2...
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Background The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship of psychiatric symptom severity with internalised stigma, neighbourhood environment, and social support among individuals with serious mental illness. Method Using a longitudinal study design we examined the relationship between psychiatric symptom severity with internalised st...
Preprint
Major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) frequently accompany metabolic conditions, but their relationship is still unclear, in particular at the mechanistic level. We implemented an approach of "from population to neuron", combining population-based epidemiological analysis with neurobiological experiments using...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study factor analyzes six scales relating to acculturation and related experiences among a nationally representative sample of United States-residing Latina/os (n = 2,541) from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), using measurement invariance (MI) testing to explore differences in latent constructs by Latina/o sub...
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Background The human serotonin transporter (SERT) gene polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been associated with multiple psychiatric disorders, including major depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders. This study investigated the association between 5HTTLPR and psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity in a psychiatrist-examined population sam...
Article
This 6 month randomized control trial investigated whether a novel text-messaging program impacted targeted clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (SAD). Forty patients were enrolled and completed baseline, 3-month and 6-month assessments. The intervention group received daily symptom check-in text messages, p...
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Objectives This paper introduces a new diagnostically oriented screening scale for anxiety disorders, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Anxiety scale (CESA), designed in parallel to the revised Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CESD-R). In this study, the CESA was used as a diagnostic screening tool for detecting the presence of...
Article
This study explored financial hardship, defined as difficulty in obtaining food, shelter, or medicine in the past 12 months and its personal and clinical correlates in individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) in a sample of 271 adults with SMI newly admitted to two inner city community mental health centers. The study found that 59 percent (n...
Chapter
This chapter addresses the needs for preventive measures to improve the unfair—and avoidable—living and working conditions that produce increased rates of mental disorders among poor workers, women, immigrants, and racial and ethnic minorities. It also addressees treatment to narrow persistent mental health disparities by providing high-quality men...
Article
Purpose: This study characterized unobserved subgroups of acculturative experiences among a nationally representative sample of U.S.-residing Latina/os (n = 2541) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Methods: Latent profile analysis was used to characterize the sample by acculturative experiences using nine-factor score indicators...
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Purpose To estimate the prevalence of enduring mental health (EMH) and examine important correlates of EMH 23 years later in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-Up study. Methods We estimated the prevalence of EMH among 964 adults with diagnostic data at all four study waves (1981–2004). Those with EMH were compared to those with any...
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Background: Approximately one-third of people with schizophrenia have elevated levels of anti-gliadin antibodies of the immunoglobulin G type (AGA IgG) — a higher rate than seen in healthy controls. We performed the first double-blind clinical trial of gluten-free versus gluten-containing diets in a subset of patients with schizophrenia who were p...
Article
About one third of people with schizophrenia have elevated IgG antibodies to gliadin (AGA IgG) and increased inflammation. Understanding the mechanism by which this immune response occurs is critical to the development of personalized treatments. We examined gut permeability and mimicry to the glutamate receptor as possible mechanisms related to hi...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the most important devices for assessing the prevalence of mental disorders, as well as assessing levels of distress, impairment, and need. A brief discussion of the history of methods in psychiatric epidemiologic studies of prevalence is included. The assessment devices include those for screening, such as the K-6 scale, the C...
Chapter
This chapter describes the role of stress in the conduct of both public mental health research and practice. It includes a discussion of the leading definitions and theories of stress proposed in relation to the experience of mental problems, followed by an examination of the multiple perspectives related to the measurement and study of stress. A b...
Chapter
The field of public mental health has seen many advances in policy and discovery, yet there is much more to be done. We must move beyond a narrow focus on clinical interventions to now embrace the impact of community and population dynamics in promoting mental health, preventing mental illnesses, and fostering recovery. We must take advantage of em...
Chapter
This chapter presents information about differences in risk for mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders across three demographic factors that are tied to social disadvantage: socioeconomic position, race/ethnicity, and sexual and gender minority status. It summarizes key results from studies of the general population, and presents information on...
Chapter
This chapter concerns the natural history of mental disorders from onset of disorder throughout the remaining life course. Data are presented from population-based cohort studies in the United States and in Denmark. Mental disorders start before midlife and are persistent, with long episodes and recurrences for as many as a 20%–30% of those who mee...
Chapter
This chapter describes seventeen important mental disorders and reviews studies of the prevalence of the disorders from around the world, presenting median and interquartile ranges for more than four hundred research studies. The range of prevalences is below 0.5% for eating disorders and schizophrenia, and above 5% for attention deficit hyperactiv...
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This chapter reviews the burden associated with suicide in the United States and around the world as a leading cause of death. There are many factors associated with higher risk for suicide, and there are a range of conceptual approaches to understanding it, including the sociological perspective, originally proposed by Durkheim in the 19th century...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the reader to brain structures that are hypothesized to be associated with mental and behavioral disorders. The focus is on the prefrontal-limbic and prefrontal-parietal-striatal networks as regulators of cognitive and emotional responses to internal and external stressors. These networks are increasingly understood as being...
Chapter
This chapter provides a brief introduction to some of the epidemiologic and statistical methods for, and challenges to, gathering and analyzing the data that underlie the research presented in this volume and in the field of public mental health as a whole. The chapter is not intended as a general introduction to epidemiologic and statistical metho...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the gap between the need for mental health care and the actual receipt of such care, and the barriers that contribute to this gap. These barriers include attitudes such as stigma, negative attitudes about the benefits of mental health treatments, and lack of perceived need for care. Another set of barriers is related to the s...
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Purpose Little is known about the effect of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on the risks of cause-specific mortality in the community. This study aimed to close this gap by evaluating if ASPD increases risks of cause-specific mortality in population-based residential and institutionalized samples with 27 years of follow-up. Methods Data wer...
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of people with schizophrenia have elevated levels of anti-gliadin antibodies of the immunoglobulin G type (AGA IgG) — a higher rate than seen in healthy controls. We performed the first double-blind clinical trial of gluten-free versus gluten-containing diets in a subset of patients with schizophrenia wh...
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Introduction The reasons why women are at higher risk than men for developing dementia are unclear. Although studies implicate sex differences in the effect of stress on cognitive functioning, whether stressful life events are associated with subsequent cognitive decline has received scant research attention. Methods In Wave 3 (1993‐1996) of the B...
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Objectives To investigate the association between job strain and subsequent cognitive change over approximately 11 years, using data from the population-based Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up study. Methods The sample ranged from 555 to 563 participants, depending on the outcome, who reported psychosocial characteristics correspond...
Article
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders, but the subcategory of specific phobias has not been well studied. Phobias involve both fear and avoidance. For people who have specific phobias, avoidance can reduce the constancy and severity of distress and impairment. However, these phobias are important because of their early ons...
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Social support in marriage may be associated with reduced risk for mental illness. Past studies are limited by short follow up and a focus on depression. A two‐wave nationally representative survey in the United States (n = 2,503) is used to examine whether social support in marriage is associated with the onset of each of four clusters of disorder...
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Cambridge Core - Sociology of Science and Medicine - A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health - edited by Teresa L. Scheid
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Prevalence and correlates of prescription opioid use were explored in individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) by examining a sample of adults from two inner city community psychiatry clinics. Of 271 participants, 12.9% (n = 35) were on a prescribed opioid. Being on an opioid was significantly associated with history of heroin use and active p...
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A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health - edited by Teresa L. Scheid June 2017
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Purpose: Prevention of mental disorders is a rapidly growing area of research with substantial potential benefits for population health. This paper reviews the evidence base for prevention of depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Methods: We synthesized evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2013 and 2018 o...
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Background Deconstructing schizophrenia is important, since different disorders within the syndrome may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment targets. Emerging evidence suggests inflammation may play a role in at least a subgroup of people with this illness. One specific subgroup with known inflammation is a group with elevation...
Article
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Objective: The study explored the association of delays in seeking general medical care with elevated blood pressure and metabolic abnormalities among individuals with serious mental illness. Methods: Association of delays in medical care with blood pressure, serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), and lipids was assessed among patients at two inner-city...
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Background and objectives Prior research and theories are predicated on the assumption that childhood education has a potentially significant effect on long-term adult mental health and status achievement, but there is little empirical data to support this view. Using a longitudinal birth cohort from birth to age 30, we investigated the association...
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The Clubhouse Model has been in existence for over sixty-five years; however, a review that synthesizes the literature on the model is needed. The current study makes use of the existing research to conduct a systematic review of articles providing a comprehensive understanding of what is known about the Clubhouse Model, to identify the best eviden...
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Objective: To declare a call to action to improve mental health in the workplace. Methods: We convened a public health summit and assembled an Advisory Council consisting of experts in the field of occupational health and safety, workplace wellness, and public policy to offer recommendations for action steps to improve health and well-being of w...
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This study tested the hypothesis that adverse events are associated with increased risk of onset of anxiety disorders. Data from Waves 1 (N = 43,093; 2001-2002) and 2 (N = 34,653; 2004-2005) of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to assess whether adverse events at baseline are associated with in...
Article
Altered immune function and inflammation are seen in schizophrenia, however, peripheral inflammatory markers are not consistently elevated in all people, suggesting inflammation may be present only in a subgroup. We measured TNF-α and IL-Iβ in 100 people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and correlated these with antibodies to gliadin,...
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Purpose: Epidemiological research has consistently shown an association between mental disorders and marital dissolution. However, this research mostly examined the association of divorce as a risk factor for mental illness. This study prospectively examined the associations of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders with future marital dissolu...
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The establishment of mechanism-driven peripheral markers is important for translational psychiatry. Many groups, including ours, have addressed molecular alterations in peripheral tissues in association with symptomatic changes in major illnesses. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP)...
Article
Objective: To examine 5-year trajectories of psychiatrist-treated late-life major depressive disorder (MDD), and evaluate whether previous vascular pathology is associated with more severe trajectories of late-life MDD. Methods: Data were obtained from nationally representative civil, psychiatric, hospital, and prescription registers in Denmark....
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Inflammation may play a role in schizophrenia; however, subgroups with immune regulation dysfunction may serve as distinct illness phenotypes with potential different treatment and prevention strategies. Emerging data show that about 30% of people with schizophrenia have elevated antigliadin antibodies of the IgG type, representing a possible subgr...
Article
Background: Social network size and strength is an important determinant of overall health. Aims: This study describes the extent and strength of the social network among a sample of individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) and explores the relationship between an individual's social network and their experience of internal stigma and recov...
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Background: Early-onset drunkenness is associated with an increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD), which predicts excess mortality risk. Here, we estimated mortality risk for drinkers with and without early drunkenness. Methods: For 14,848 adult participants interviewed about drinking, drunken episodes, and AUD in 1981-83 for...
Presentation
Objectives To examine 5 years trajectories of secondary-treated late-life major depressive disorder (MDD), and evaluate whether pre-existing cerebrovascular disease and related risk factors are associated with more severe trajectories of late-life MDD. Methods Data were obtained from Danish registers. The sample included 11,184 adults ≥ 60 at inde...
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Background: The pathophysiology of schizophrenia, or a subgroup of persons with schizophrenia, may be related to abnormal immune system function. Increased permeability of the mucosal epithelial tight junctions in the intestine and brain may contribute to possible inflammation in the periphery and CNS. Prior studies have shown that high levels of a...
Article
Medicare spending is projected to increase over the next decade, including for substance use disorders (SUD). Our objective was to determine whether SUDs are associated with higher six-year Medicare costs (1999–2004) among participants in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. Medicare claims data for the years 1999–2004 from the C...
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Hypertension is estimated to cause 12.8% of all deaths worldwide. Both literature and well-supported cognitive models indicate that hopelessness predicts depressive symptoms. This study aimed to test whether high levels of hopelessness are associated with increased blood pressure, as well as whether depression acts as a mediator between hopelessnes...
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that examined the relationship between anxiety disorders, or clinically significant anxiety symptoms, at baseline and all-cause mortality at follow-up relative to control participants without clinically significant anxiety. Method...
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The present study investigated the relationship between exposure to infectious agents and inflammation markers in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BP), and controls without a psychiatric disorder. We measured plasma levels of antibodies and innate immune markers and correlated them with clinical symptoms and cognitive function...
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Importance Findings suggest that infections might be linked to the development of psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. Large-scale studies are needed to investigate the effect of infection on the risk of suicide. Objective To estimate the association between hospitalization with infection and the risk of death by suicide. Design, Setting,...
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Abstract Introduction: Several lines of evidence have suggested an interesting link between gluten ingestion and schizophrenia. For example, increased levels of gliadin and transglutaminase antibodies have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: To verify these observations we compared the prevalence of gliadin and transglutaminse...
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Objective: Several studies have reported an association between nonceliac gluten sensitivity and schizophrenia. Immune and kynurenine (KYN) pathways have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and certain proinflammatory immune mediators may increase KYN and reduce tryptophan (TRP) levels. Methods: We thus measured serum a...
Article
Background: Many persons with depressive disorder are not treated and associated costs are not recorded. Aims of the Study: To determine whether major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with higher medical cost among Medicare recipients. Methods: Four waves of the Baltimore-Epidemiologic Catchment Area (Baltimore ECA) Study conducted between 1...