William Langland's scientific contributions

Citations

... 14 I n W i l l i a m L a n g l a n d 's p o e m " P i e r s P l ow m a n " (1 3 7 7-1 3 7 9) , Hunger suggests that recalcitrant workers could be made to work if threatened with a diet "of hounds-bread and horsebread" accompanied with beans to "boil their womb." 15 While it is impossible to know which style of horse-bread Langland had in mind, in 1378, when the poem was being written, the City of London issued an edict to bakers mandating that no "horse-bread be made except of pure beans and peas, without mixture of other grains or bran"-a clear indication that Langland could have had any type of horse-bread in mind. One of the two horse-bread recipes Markham published in Maison Rustique was one of these formerly prescribed breads: ...