William G. Chase's research while affiliated with Carnegie Mellon University and other places

Publications (19)

Chapter
Most researchers suggest that peoples’ internal representations of their environment have many map-like properties. As a person moves about in the environment, invariant properties of the environment are preserved in the mental map, such as the relative location of objects with respect to each other, while the location of the person in the mental m...
Article
The issue that guides the present research programme concerns the representation of large-scale environments, environments that are too large to be perceived from a single vantage point. In particular, this paper is concerned with the effects of experience on the representation of a large urban environment, and how experience is manipulated by the...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the important role of retrieval structures as working memory states. The working memory has at least the following components: (1) short-term memory, which provides direct and virtually immediate access to very recent or attended knowledge states; (2) intermediate-term memory, the task-specific retrieval structure in long-te...
Chapter
One series of experiments examined the correlation between memory span and the speed of symbol manipulation in short-term memory, and another experiment analyzed the effects of extended practice on memory span. In the first study, most of the estimates of processing speed did not correlate with memory span, and it was concluded that short-term memo...
Article
After more than 230 hours of practice in the laboratory, a subject was able to increase his memory span from 7 to 79 digits. His performance on other memory tests with digits equaled that of memory experts with lifelong training. With an appropriate mnemonic system, there is seemingly no limit to memory performance with practice.
Article
Three experiments were carried out to study the "picture coding" process implicit both in making up descriptions of pictures and in verifying descriptions against pictures. In the first experiment, Ss were asked simply to describe pictures of one object above another; some pictures were symmetrical vertically and some were not. In the other two exp...
Article
This paper develops a technique for isolating and studying the per- ceptual structures that chess players perceive. Three chess players of varying strength - from master to novice - were confronted with two tasks: ( 1) A perception task, where the player reproduces a chess position in plain view, and (2) de Groot's ( 1965) short-term recall task, w...
Article
Reports some unexpected byproducts of experiments with chess-playing tasks and computer simulation of skilled performance and problem solving. First, the theory of the processes used by expert chess players in discovering checkmating combinations and the MATER computer simulation of these processes are reviewed. Next phenomena involving the percept...
Article
Studied repetition effects as a function of intertrial interval (ITI) in a 4-stimulus 2-response reaction time task using 22 22-33 yr old graduate students and faculty members. Repetition effects were varied by repeating (on adjacent or nonadjacent trials) (a) both the stimulus and the response, (b) only the response, or (c) neither. An analysis th...
Chapter
This chapter describes the progress made toward understanding chess skill. It describes the work on perception in chess, adding some new analyses of the data. It presents a theoretical formulation to characterize how expert chess players perceive the chess board. It describes some tasks that correlate with chess skill and the cognitive processes of...
Article
The present study outlines a theory of how people compare sentences against pictures. This theory was tested in four experiments in which Ss were timed as they judged whether a sentence (e.g., Star isn't above plus) was true or false of a picture (e.g., +∗). The latencies in these tasks were consistent with the thesis that: (1) sentences are repres...
Article
Reports results of an experiment in which Ss were timed while determining whether or not sentence descriptions matched pictures. Implications for previous studies of mental operations in sentence-picture comparisons are discussed, and speculations on the role of verbal imagery in cognitive functioning are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 20...
Article
Full-text available
A comparison of a forced-choice visual search task with an item recognition task did not support Neisser’s (1967) hypothesis of a preattentive stage that processes targets and nontargets differentially. In the forced-choice condition, Ss indicated which of two items in a visual display was a target; in item recognition, Ss determined whether or not...
Article
Seymour has shown recently that people take less time to judge that the word above correctly describes the spatial position of a small circle drawn above a large reference square than they do for the word below and the circle below the square. Seymour has attributed this asymmetry to the tendency for people to invariably scan a picture from top to...
Article
It is shown that in Sternberg’s item recognition task Ss need not make a judgment of the absolute size or color of the test item before comparing it with memory. However, Ss do use size or color information, when possible, to reduce long reaction times for large memory loads. The results suggest that Ss are able to scan memory for form in parallel...

Citations

... Maps are prepared for a variety of functions, one of which is to guide travel from origin A to destination B (Chase, 1983;Golledge, 1999;MacEachren and Johnson, 1987). The use of maps (in general) for navigational purposes greatly fosters orientation and wayfinding in an environment (Devlin and Bernstein, 1995;Liben and Downs, 1993;Lobben, 2007). ...
... That is, participants who recalled many positive adjectives also tended to recall many negative words, whereas others recalled few positive and negative words. This interpretation is consistent with previous research in which implicit and explicit memory for generic stimuli loaded onto separate factors (Bruss & Mitchell, 2009) and with recognized individual differences in thinking styles (Epstein, Pacini, Denes-Raj, & Heier, 1996) and short-term memory (Chase, Lyon, & Ericsson, 1981). ...
... It is possible that experts not only made better use of peripheral (or parafoveal) vision but also used inferential processes, i.e., estimating the position of pieces from general chess knowledge while these pieces were not seen or remembered. Burmeister and Wiles (1996) reviewed a number of experiments in chess ("blind guessing" by De Groot, 1966; "pennies guessing" by Chase & Simon, 1973b) and performed similar experiments on the game of Go to illustrate that board reconstruction performance is governed by not only perception but is also achieved through inferences. By analogy, it is plausible that the second-smallest window size (4.4° ...
... Recent work on visual prediction has suggested that predictions are formed rapidly and draw on associative connections stored in long-term memory (e.g., Bar, 2004 Bar, , 2009 Gilbert and Wilson, 2007; Schacter et al., 2007 Schacter et al., , 2008). Strong associative activations and fast processing speed are also characteristics of expert processing (e.g., Chase and Ericsson, 1981; Freyhof et al., 1992; Richler et al., 2009). For instance, while most people may recognize a fast approaching car merely as a 'silver car', a car expert may recognize it instantaneously as the newest model of Jaguar XF, know what engine it may have, and can distinguish between this and other comparable models. ...
... Mnemonic training effectively increased memory for object location associations in patients with mild cognitive impairment been trained, with a very limited range of generalization 38 . Moreover, expertise is mostly domain-speci c 39 . Consistent with these ndings, our study demonstrated that the MT group compared with the NC group showed limited enhancement of cognitive abilities after training (see Table 1). ...
... Empirical studies in the language comprehension literature have identified some key indicators of negation integration difficulties and the circumstances under which difficulties mainly occur. First, behavioral studies indicated that negation leads to processing difficulties expressed in longer reading times (e.g., or generally longer processing times to solve a specific task if it involved a negation operator (e.g., Clark & Chase, 1972, 1974Just & Carpenter, 1971;Wason, 1961; see Kaup & Dudschig, 2020 for a literature overview). Also error rates following negated statements-for example, imperatives-are typically highly increased compared to affirmative counterparts (e.g., , 2020a. ...
... En el presente estudio, se señala un aspecto de la conducta al momento de efectuar elecciones: el comportamiento intuitivo de las personas.De acuerdo con esto, la discusión teórica del comportamiento intuitivo señala que frecuentemente las personas emiten juicios intuitivos debido a que no se cuenta con el tiempo y la capacidad cognitiva suficiente para procesar la información disponible, y así efectuar una elección racional (Baucells y Katsikopoulos, 2011). Más bien esas elecciones intuitivas surgen en base a las experiencias y reconocimiento de patrones, que las personas han adquirido; y en muchas ocasiones ese comportamiento conduce a resultados satisfactorios(Chase y Simon, 1973).Gigerenzer(2008), menciona que las decisiones intuitivas son un proceso de adaptación mental de los individuos para llegar a soluciones satisfactorias. En este mismo sentido, en el presente estudio, se describe la aproximación a la intuición en base a la falta de aplicación de los supuestos de racionalidad de UE y UD. ...
... Experts have adapted to working memory limits by building large and sophisticated memory chunks-what counts as one item in working memory can change with expertise. Chess experts, for example, reason in chunks that involve multiple pieces and sequences of multiple moves (Chase and Simon, 1973). It is likely that as familiarity with a research area develops, chunks will also develop. ...
... Therefore, the results correlate the spatial elaboration and navigation (derived from the taxi driver profession) to an increment in the ability of allocentric spatial elaboration. Therefore, an implicit result suggested by such studies is the ability to elaborate space allocentrically (and as a consequence PT ability) can be trained through specific tasks such as driving in big cities and changing the destination constantly (Chase, 1983;Maguire, 2000Maguire, , 2003Dünser, 2006). ...
... For example, playing chess was once thought to be an ideal model for the study of expertise. Indeed, Simon and Chase (1973) claimed that chess was the Drosophilia for the study of artificial intelligence and the accumulation of knowledge more generally. Chess experience does indeed predict chess expertise (Bilalić, McLeod, & Gobet, 2007;Grabner, Stern, & Neubauer, 2007) and remains useful as a model in this regard. ...