William F. Sharkey's research while affiliated with University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa and other places

Publications (24)

Article
In this study, we investigate the impact of cultural identity on: (a) motivations for engaging in deceptive communication, (b) the perceived “deceptiveness” of a range of deceptive responses, and (c) the willingness to use various deception strategies. Participants from three different locations (Hong Kong, Hawai'i, and mainland United States) were...
Article
The purpose of this study was to discover the relationship between self-construals, embarrassability, and predicament response strategies such as apologies, excuses, justifications, and denials. It was predicted that independent self-construals would be negatively correlated with embarrassability, which, in turn, would lead to the higher likelihood...
Article
This research explored how and why people intentionally embarrass themselves and how observers react to these embarrassments. Self‐reports prom 566 students at the University of Hawai'i and non‐students indicated that, first, they do intentionally and strategically employ behaviors that cause themselves embarrassment to achieve a variety of goals....
Article
Two thousand, one hundred and seven participants recounted situations in which they intentionally embarrassed another person (embarrassor accounts) or in which they perceived that they were intentionally embarrassed (target accounts). Specifically, this paper focused on differences in individuals' accounts of: (1) embarrassors' goals; (2) embarrass...
Article
This study investigated the types of gestures used, the frequency of the gestures, and the total time engaged in gestural communication by 11 visually impaired-sighted dyads; 12 sighted-sighted dyads; and 8 visually impaired-visually impaired dyads. Regardless of the type of dyad, the persons who were visually impaired used more adaptors and used g...
Article
Full-text available
In theory, two‐way communication between patient and physician is desirable. However, there is a dearth of research that has explored the effects of patients’ culture and cultural orientations on patients’ ability to actively participate in the medical encounter. The purpose of this paper was to test the effects of patients’ culture and cultural or...
Article
In theory, two-way communication between patient and physician is desirable. However, there is a dearth of research that has explored the effects of patients' culture and cultural orientations on patients' ability to actively participate in the medical encounter. The purpose of this paper was to test the effects of patients' culture and cultural or...
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of research supports the notion that individuals simultaneously hold two views of self. Members of collective cultures have stronger interdependent images of self, but less strong independent images, than do individualist groups. University students in Hong Kong (n = 271), Hawaii (n = 146), and mainland United States (n = 232) comple...
Article
A growing body of research supports the notion that individuals simultaneously hold two views of self. Members of collective cultures have stronger interdependent images of self, but less strong independent images, than do individualist groups. University students in Hong Kong (n = 271), Hawaii (n = 146), and mainland United States (n = 232) comple...
Article
Full-text available
The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) was used to predict the behavioral intention to recycle among students in Hawai'i. Independent and interdependent self‐construals were expected to moderate both the relationship between attitudes and subjective norm and the relative weights of the attitudinal and normative components in predicting behavioral inte...
Article
This study investigated the role perception plays in embarrassing situations between same‐sex friends. We argued that when two same‐sex friends share a common experience where one was embarrassed due to something the friend did or said, the embarrassors and targets would differ in (a) their perceptions relating to the degree of embarrassment falt,...
Chapter
Welcome to the world of intentional embarrassment. During our lives, you and I have experienced a variety of embarrassing situations. Maybe we dropped a drink on someone. Maybe we tripped over that demon crack in the sidewalk. Maybe we unknowingly walked in on someone who was using the bathroom. Or, maybe we felt empathic embarrassment when our bes...
Article
This study investigates embarrassability and its association to three individual difference variables: 1.(1) social anxiety,2.(2) a person's interdependent self-construal (i.e. interconnectedness), and3.(3) independent self-construal (i.e. bounded, separateness). Previous theories of embarrassment are integrated in relating these individual differe...
Article
This study investigates individual and cultural differences in embarrassability (i.e., susceptibility to embarrassment). Three hypotheses are formulated. First, the strength of the independent self-construal (the image of self as separate from others) is negatively correlated with embarrassability. Second, the strength of the interdependent self-co...
Article
This manuscript aims to explain the cultural interaction patterns in multi‐cultural organizational settings. It focuses on the dimensions of independent and interdependent construals of self, the individual‐level equivalent of individualism and collectivism. Specifically, we investigate the relationship between one's orientation toward independent...
Article
Focusing on three interactive constraints, this paper aims to extend the findings of Kim reported in 1992 by comparing the ways in which interactive constraints are perceived across individuals with individualistic and collectivistic orientations. We hypothesized that interdependent self-construals would correlate positively with concern for other'...
Article
Despite considerable effort by scholars in rhetoric to explore the epistemological dimensions of the art, few attempts have been made to apply rhetorical epistemology to education. This essay examines Edward Miner Gallaudet's speech, “Remarks on the Combined System,” in an effort to illustrate the power of the rhetorical knowledge thesis to account...
Article
Researchers have noted that embarrassment may be deliberately used to call into question another's presented identity or cause another to appear unpoised (Gross & Stone, 1964; Martin, 1987; Sharkey, 1993; Sharkey & Waldron, 1990). The present study focused on the phenomenon of intentional embarrassment as a strategy for attaining goals. Self‐report...
Article
This study focused upon responses to the emotion of embarrassment. Specifically, the situations causing embarrassment, the degree of perceived embarrassment and the agent of the embarrassment were examined as predictive of the embarrassed party's responses. These same three factors, as well as the response of the embarrassed person, were examined i...
Article
It has been suggested that blind persons lack appropriate communicative social skills. One aspect of social skills is the ability to regulate interaction smoothly. The study examined turn‐taking resources utilized by congenitally blind persons. Conversational Analysis was employed to discover the turn‐taking resources used by six congenitally blind...
Article
Rationalist depictions of conversational behaviour assume that communicators engage in a good deal of goal-directed thinking and that such thinking guides message production. The current study used a cued-recall method (Cegala et al., 1988) to investigate the composition of conversational cognition and to investigate the relationship between cognit...
Article
Participants took part in a two-stage investigation examining the changes in memory for conversation over time. The impact of memory expectancy and mode of recall were also examined. Participants could recall only about 10% of their conversations immediately after the conversations. One month later this figure had dropped to 4%. Examination of reca...

Citations

... In contrast, Eastern individuals emphasize their selves more as boundless and in relation to their social environments. The cultural differences in the self and their influences have been observed by many researchers, not only in behavioral/psychological studies, [87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97] but also in neural studies. [98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105] These studies have been conducted either in different cultural groups or using cultural (self-construal) priming (or both). ...
... One may embarrass oneself through one's own behaviour (e.g., loss of body control, social 'gaffes' and so on) (Goffman, 1968: 268-269), or alternatively, one may trigger embarrassment in another co-interactant. The latter has been termed strategic embarrassment in cases where triggering embarrassment in others is built into turn design (Bradford and Petronio, 1998;Gross and Stone, 1964;Sharkey, 1992Sharkey, , 1997: ...
... One may also argue that visual impairments can affect gesture acquisition and use. Researchers who discuss the importance of visual perception such as social learning, watching and imitating a model argues that visual impairments may naturally lead to some limitations in the use of gestures (Frame, 2000;Sharkey et al., 2000). On the other hand, the researchers address that the only factor in the acquisition of the gestures is not the visual perception and discuss that the gestures are the natural processes of speech (Iverson & Goldin-Meadow, 1997;1998;Iverson et al., 2000). ...
... Participants of the trial were at medium-risk of ongoing disability and findings may not be relevant for those with low or high risk of ongoing disability. The interview potentially may have represented a medical encounter [43] and may have elicited a partial account of participants' experiences as it may have affected their willingness to express their full views. However, low participant reactivity was noted throughout the interviews which was supported by a flexible interview guide with open-ended questions and good rapport with the interviewer. ...
... Research on conversational memory has been limited, especially research concerning memory for forensic conversations. What research has been conducted, however, shows that participants remember few details of their prior conversations (Miller et al., 1996;Pezdek & Prull, 1993;Ross & Sicoly, 1979;Samp & Humphreys, 2007;Stafford et al., 1987;Stafford & Daly, 1984). For instance, Stafford and Daley (1984) had students engage in a conversation with one another and later asked both members of the dyad to recall their conversation. ...
... (Kwan et al., 1997), 5.67/5.00 (Singelis et al., 1999), and 5.62/5.29 (Ng and Zhu, 2001). The interdependent/independent differences are in fact relatively small in all three studies. ...
... Individuals employing self-defeating or self-deprecating humor say funny things at their own expense. By calling attention to personal flaws or showing oneself to be unable to behave appropriately, the self-deprecator attempts to achieve solidarity and closeness with others through humor (Sharkey, Park, & Kim, 2004). ...
... However, studies have also shown how individuals intentionally create embarrassing situations for others, in order to gain gratification. This type of embarrassment is called intentional embarrassment (Sharkey, 1992). The gratification sought can be extrinsic, intrinsic and/or social; extrinsic: to establish and/or maintain power; intrinsic: to experience pleasure, sense of pride and success, and selfsatisfaction; social: to achieve an idealized role-identity in a social setting. ...
... Similarly, a study investigating emotionally contrastive speech tasks (elicited using neutral vs. psychologically stressful interviews) found significantly increased head velocity under the stressed condition, corroborated by increases in concurrently recorded heart rate (Giannakakis et al., 2018). Congenitally blind speakers have been shown to move their heads while speaking with non-sighted speech partners, showing that speech entrains head movement despite, in this instance, lacking a communicative role that would usually be expressed through the visual channel (Sharkey and Stafford, 1990). Another relevant study by Hadar (1991) measured the head movement of aphasics and normal controls engaged in speech during interviews. ...