William Alex Pridemore's research while affiliated with University at Albany, The State University of New York and other places

Publications (128)

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The number of cross-national homicide studies is increasing rapidly. Many scholars, however, do not consider the details of how individual nations and the four main centralized homicide data sources – raw estimates from World Health Organization (WHO) Mortality Database, adjusted estimates from WHO Global Health Observatory, United Nations Office o...
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Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT) proposes high violent crime rates are due partially to imbalances in societal institutions, specifically the dominance of the economy over non-economic institutions. Tests of IAT have focused largely on the absolute strength of the economy, which ignores the core argument of institutional imbalance and the possibil...
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Economic inequality is a persistent structural covariate of cross-national homicide rates. The most common criminological explanation is that perceived inequality creates frustration among individuals at the lower end of the income distribution, this frustration generates latent anger, and this anger occasionally results in violence. There are reas...
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Economic inequality is a persistent structural covariate of cross-national homicide rates. The most common criminological explanation is that perceived inequality creates frustration among individuals at the lower end of the income distribution, this frustration generates latent anger, and this anger occasionally results in violence. There are reas...
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Between the 1980s and 2000s, the USA experienced wide swings in violence rates. These swings were not experienced equally across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We employed UCR and NCS/NCVS data to compare aggravated assaults rates in rural, suburban, and urban areas between 1988 and 2005. As expected, urban aggravated assault rates tended to rem...
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Objectives We propose and test a multilevel theoretical model of crime concentration by combining criminal opportunity and social disorganization into a single hierarchical model. Our theoretical model simultaneously answers calls to integrate routine activities theory and social disorganization theory and provides a logical framework for understan...
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The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression - edited by Alexander T. Vazsonyi July 2018
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Objectives We explored supranational trends in national homicide rates. We searched for a global trend, regional trends, and trends specific to other theoretically relevant groups of nations. We also tested two common metanarratives – modernization and conflict – as potential explanations for any global trend present in homicide rates. Methods We...
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Background: We explored the association between population-level alcohol consumption and cross-national suicide rates. Only a few prior studies examined this association and they used a small number of nations and failed to test for the multiple pathways through which any association may operate. Methods: We obtained data on population-level alcoho...
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Substantial variation in national crime rates suggests social structure and cultural context influence offending and victimization. Several prominent criminological theories anticipate a positive association between the prevalence of cash in a society and its rates of pecuniary crime. We examined the association between one form of “cashlessness” a...
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Replication is a hallmark of science. In recent years, some medical sciences and behavioral sciences struggled with what came to be known as replication crises. As a field, criminology has yet to address formally the threats to our evidence base that might be posed by large-scale and systematic replication attempts, although it is likely we would f...
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We explored the cross-national association between population-level alcohol consumption and homicide victimization rates. The very few prior studies of this association had small homogeneous sample sizes and usually tested only for a linear effect, ignoring other commonly hypothesized explanations. We employed a cross-sectional design, with data fr...
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Social protection exhibits a consistent negative association with cross-national homicide rates. However, the specific mechanism through which the two are associated remains untested in spite of competing theoretical claims that include altruism, social control, buffers from market forces, and insulation from the ills associated with poverty. We ex...
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The United States experienced a dramatic decline in interpersonal violence rates between the early 1990s and mid-2000s. This decline, however, was much steeper in urban and suburban relative to rural areas. Prior research showed changing demographic composition can account for a substantial amount of change in inequality in victimization rates. We...
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The aim of this study was to explore the neighborhood-level association between alcohol outlet density and non–intimate partner violent victimization rates among females. Violent offending and victimization are more prevalent for males than females, and most research on alcohol outlets and violence emphasizes males. Studies that do focus on alcohol...
Chapter
The goal of this chapter is to describe geographic and temporal variation in regional and national homicide rates around the world. We begin with a brief description of two main sources of cross-national homicide data, the United Nations and the World Health Organization. We then employ data from the latter to describe regional and national total a...
Chapter
In this chapter we describe regional and national homicide variation, exploring both geographic and temporal trends in homicide victimization across nations. For each region – Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America – we discuss overall, male-, and female- specific homicide trends from approximately 1979 to 2010. Our discussion is de...
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We examined risk of male premature mortality associated with recent criminal victimization. Prior victimization is among the most consistent predictors of future risk but the explanation of repeat victimization remains elusive. Two general perspectives frame this debate. According to the state-dependence perspective, repeat victimization is forged...
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The goal of this study was to determine the risk of homicide victimization associated with an underlying pattern of hazardous drinking. Data were from the Izhevsk Family Study (IFS), a large-scale, population-based case-control study. There were two sets of cases: all men aged 25 to 54 years living in Izhevsk during October 2003 through October 200...
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Background A growing body of research recommends controlling alcohol availability to reduce harm. Various common approaches, however, provide dramatically different pictures of the physical availability of alcohol. This limits our understanding of the distribution of alcohol access, the causes and consequences of this distribution, and how best to...
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Recent systematic research indicated percent of the population that is young is not significantly associated with cross-national homicide victimization rates. However, there are theoretical reasons to expect percent young may be associated with 15 to 24 age-specific and with gender-specific cross-national homicide victimization rates. We test three...
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Many studies show an association between alcohol outlets and violence, though fewer consider non-violent crime. We add to this literature using block group data from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to explore whether (1) on- and off-premise alcohol outlet density is related to thefts from vehicles and vandalism and (2) social disorganization moderates these...
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Is there an association between the proportion of the population that is young and national homicide rates, and when testing other theories cross-nationally is it necessary to control for this concept? To answer these questions, we carried out an extensive review of the empirical literature and then used data for the years 1999–2004 from a sample o...
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Background: We present a method for reclassifying external causes of death categorized as "event of undetermined intent" (EUIs) into non-transport accidents, suicides, or homicides. In nations like Russia and the UK the absolute number of EUIs is large, the EUI death rate is high, or EUIs comprise a non-trivial proportion of all deaths due to exte...
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The expansion of the penal system has been one of the most dramatic trends in contemporary American society. A wealth of research has examined the impact of incarceration on a range of later life outcomes and has considered how the penal system has emerged as a mechanism of stratification and inequality in the United States. In this article, we rev...
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The US housing crisis affected millions of people nationwide. One recent study found a connection between foreclosure and suicide, and prior research showed an association between macro-level economic hardship and suicide rates. Using data from 142 US metropolitan statistical areas and a measure of housing stress that accounts for limitations of pr...
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Two common sources of violence rates are police data and hospital data on injuries. It is unclear, however, if violence rates calculated using these sources have the same meaning across location types like rural, suburban, and urban areas. We know that characteristics of assault victims and incidents are associated with whether or not the victim re...
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The goal of this study was to determine the rate at which police are notified of violent victimizations in rural areas, the rate at which victims of violence in rural areas receive emergency room (ER) treatment for their injuries, if these two rates are related to each other, and if these two rates are similar to corresponding rates across rural, s...
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The growing empirical literature on the effects on crime of the recent housing crisis in the United States provides inconsistent results for a direct effect. Furthermore, no longitudinal studies examine the association between home vacancy and crime during the U.S. housing crisis. To address this question, we used a sample of 126 major metropolitan...
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Our aim with this Special Issue is to begin to fill an important empirical and academic gap in European criminological research: Homicide research in Europe. Relative to the United States and several commonwealth countries, Europe does not have a long tradi-tion of studying the trends, patterns and explanations of homicide. Differences in legal def...
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Background: There is considerable evidence of an association between alcohol outlet density and violence. Although prior research reveals the importance of specific characteristics of bars on this association and that the relationship between bar density and violence may be moderated by these characteristics, there are few similar studies of the c...
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There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large...
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Objectives: We took advantage of a natural experiment to assess the impact on suicide mortality of a suite of Russian alcohol policies. Methods: We obtained suicide counts from anonymous death records collected by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) interrupted time series techni...
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The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a set of 2006 Russian alcohol policies on alcohol-related mortality in the country. We used autoregressive integrated moving average interrupted time series techniques to model the impact of the policy on the number of sex-specific monthly deaths of those aged 15+ years due to alcohol poisoning,...
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While there is considerable empirical evidence that social disorganization is positively associated with crime rates in urban areas, the empirical literature on rural social disorganization and crime faces three crucial limitations: inconsistent results, reliance on official crime statistics and the failure to test the full model. We overcome the t...
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To determine the impact of a suite of 2006 Russian alcohol control policies on deaths due to traffic accidents in the country. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) interrupted time series techniques to model the impact of the intervention on the outcome series. The time series began in January 2000 and ended in December 2010. Th...
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To estimate the association between hazardous drinking and suicide among working-age Russian males. Data are from the Izhevsk Family Study (IFS), a population-based case-control study of premature mortality among working-age Russian men. The present study used two sets of cases: all men aged 25-54 years living in Izhevsk who during October 2003-Oct...
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The aim of the study was to assess the association between alcohol outlet density and violence controlling for alcohol expenditures and the density of other retailers. Cross-sectional ecological study of 1816 block groups in Philadelphia. We obtained 2010 data for aggravated assaults, alcohol outlets, alcohol expenditures, business points, land use...
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This study examined the association between alcohol outlet density and violence in a nonmetropolitan college town. Nearly all prior empirical research examining this association has been undertaken in large urban cities. Using data on Bloomington, Indiana, block groups, we estimated ordinary least squared and spatially lagged regression models to d...
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A widely cited study by Osgood and Chambers appeared to extend the generalizability of social disorganization theory to youth violence in rural areas. The results of a very similar study we conducted, however, did not show support for social disorganization, and we concluded that the theory may not be as robust an explanation for rural youth violen...
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Social protection is the ability of a government to insulate its citizens from the problems associated with poverty and market forces that negatively affect their quality of life. Prior research shows that government policies that provide social protection moderate the influence of inequality on national homicide rates. Recent research, however, re...
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This study examined the association between alcohol outlets and violence. Employing Cincinnati block groups as units of analysis, the authors estimated spatially lagged regression models to determine if the variation in spatial density of alcohol outlets is related to the spatial density of simple and aggravated assaults. The authors estimated sepa...
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There is growing evidence from multiple disciplines that alcohol outlet density is associated with community levels of assault. Based on the theoretical and empirical literatures on social organization and crime, we tested the hypothesis that the association between alcohol outlet density and neighbourhood violence rates is moderated by social orga...
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Background With Pennsylvania currently considering a move away from an Alcohol Beverage Control state to a privatized alcohol distribution system, this study uses a spatial analytical approach to examine potential impacts of privatization on the number and spatial distribution of alcohol outlets in the city of Philadelphia over a long time horizon....
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Objective The objective of this study was to determine if the housing‐mortgage stress caused by the foreclosure crisis is associated with violent and property crime in U.S. metropolitan areas. Method Using a sample of 142 metropolitan statistical areas and controlling for other structural factors thought to be associated with urban violence rates,...
Chapter
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Post-Soviet countries such as Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus deserve special attention when considering homicide in Europe. The social, economic, and political turmoil experienced by many former Soviet countries in the post-Soviet period was accompanied by a sharp rise in all-cause mortality, in particular deaths from homicide. Russia, Ukraine, and B...
Chapter
The purpose of this proposed chapter is twofold. First, we expand on the work of LaFree (1999), by compiling a summary of the cross-national research on social structure and homicide. Second, we provide a critical assessment of the status of this body of literature, presenting its strengths and weaknesses, noting points of convergence and divergenc...
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The aim of this study was to examine individual-level factors associated with homelessness in Tehran. Researchers interviewed 318 homeless adults aged 18–80 years in city shelters. Regression results indicated that self-esteem, family attachment, weak social networks, drug abuse, and childhood criminal victimization were all significantly related t...
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This study examined the direct and moderating effects of alcohol outlet density, social disorganization, and land use on violence in a large college town whose economy is driven by the presence of a flagship state university. Empirical literature points to a consistent association between alcohol outlet density and assault density, and recent resea...
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Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of g...
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Dozens of cross-national studies of homicide have been published. Virtually all have reported an association between inequality and homicide, leading scholars to draw strong conclusions about this relationship. Unfortunately, each of these studies failed to control for poverty, even though poverty is the most consistent predictor of area homicide r...
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To study the association between social disorganization and youth violence rates in rural communities. We employed rural Missouri counties (N = 106) as units of analysis, measured serious violent victimization data via hospital records, and the same measures of social disorganization as Osgood and Chambers (2000). Controlling for spatial autocorrel...
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While there is substantial evidence of an association between alcohol outlet density and assault, it is unlikely this association is constant across the urban environment. This study tested the moderating influence of land use on the outlet-violence association. Cross-sectional ecological study that controlled for spatial autocorrelation. SETTING,...
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Alcohol related violence continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. In particular, there is substantial evidence of an association between alcohol outlets and assault. However, because the specific geographic relationships between alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence remains obscured, it is important to identify...
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This study took advantage of the new open-source Extremist Crime Database (ECDB) to overcome obstacles to studying domestic far-right terrorism from a criminological perspective. In the past, exclusive definitions and inclusion criteria have limited available data on violent crimes committed by domestic far-right terrorists, and official data on vi...
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AIMS This article provides an overview of the major patterns of alcohol consumption (e.g., how much, how, and what Russians drink) and alcohol-related harm (e.g., alcohol-related mortality, injury, and violence) in Russia during the last two decades. We also discuss the main contributors to changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm an...
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Research has found an aggregate association between heavy drinking and suicide rates in general, and in Russia specifically. Alcohol is one of the most serious drug problems facing Russian youth, yet the aggregate alcohol-suicide association has not been tested for this population. Aggregate mortality data for Russian regions (n = 78) for the year...
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The Land, McCall, and Cohen study is one of the most highly cited articles in the social structure and homicide literature. In it, the authors found that three structural covariates—resource deprivation, population size and density, and divorce—were consistently associated with U.S. homicide rates over several decades, even when employing different...
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We examined the role of socio-economic status (SES) and marital status in premature mortality among working-age Russian males. Life expectancy among this group dropped sharply following the collapse of the Soviet Union and has yet to recover despite the relative economic and political stability of the last decade. We employed individual-level data...
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AIMS: This article provides an overview of the major patterns of alcohol consumption (e.g., how much, how, and what Russians drink) and alcohol-related harm (e.g., alcohol-related mortality, injury, and violence) in Russia during the last two decades. We also discuss the main contributors to changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm a...
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There is substantial evidence of detrimental psychological sequelae following disasters, including terrorist attacks. The effect of these events on extreme responses such as suicide, however, is unclear. We tested competing hypotheses about such effects by employing autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model the impact of Septembe...
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This study took advantage of unique historical data to explore change and stability in homicide victim, offender, and event characteristics in Chicago between two time periods, 1898-1902 and 1998-2002. Data on Chicago homicides from 1898 to 1902 were extracted from the Chicago Police Department Homicide Record Index (compiled by the Chicago Histori...
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Rates of violence in Russia are among the highest in the world, and violent victimisation represents a major public health threat in the country. As yet, however, little research has been undertaken on what factors are associated with non-lethal violent victimisation in this setting. This study used data from the Moscow Health Survey 2004 to examin...
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We assessed the impact on suicide mortality of a new national policy in Slovenia that limits the availability of alcohol. We obtained monthly total, male, and female suicide counts in Slovenia between January 1997 and December 2005 and then employed autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) techniques to model the effect of the alcohol polic...
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Relatively little is known of the distributions of homicide event characteristics in non-Western nations in which women relative to men are involved. This article utilizes unique homicide narratives drawn from Russian court and police records to compare homicide victim, offender, and event characteristics by sex of victim and separately by sex of o...
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Durkheim's theory of fatalistic suicide, or suicide resulting from overregulation of behavior, has been neglected empirically. The authors test this hypothesis in Iran by examining the geographic distribution of female suicide. Employing the province as the unit of analysis, they examine the association between female suicide rates and multiple mea...
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There is substantial evidence that catastrophic events, including terrorist attacks, lead to increased levels of post-traumatic stress, especially in communities in close proximity to the incident. Some scholars also argue that these events disrupt social organization. On the other hand, many contend that these incidents produce social cohesion as...
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There is substantial evidence that catastrophic events, including terrorist attacks, lead to increased levels of post-traumatic stress, especially in communities in close proximity to the incident. Some scholars also argue that these events disrupt social organization. On the other hand, many contend that these incidents produce social cohesion as...
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The authors used narrative data from court and police records of homicides in Russia to compare alcohol- and non-alcohol-related incidents on victim, offender, and event characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were estimated for neither participant drinking, offender drinking, victim drinking, and both drinking. Consistent differences we...
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We examined mortality among working-age Russian men whose identity could not be determined, focusing on where and how they died. Employing micro-data from deaths that occurred in Izhevsk (Ural region) between June 2004 and September 2005, we analysed the characteristics of decedent men aged 25-54 (n = 2158). Differences between completely identifie...
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High levels of wine, beer, and spirits consumption have historically characterized Slovenian drinking culture. The geographical location of the country provides an ideal environment for wine production, historical ties with the Austro-Hungarian Empire contribute to the tradition of beer drinking, and the custom of home distilling has resulted in a...
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Dozens of cross-national studies of homicide have been published in the last three decades. Although nearly all these studies test for an association between inequality and homicide, no studies test for a poverty—homicide association. This absence is disconcerting given that poverty is one of the most consistent predictors of area homicide rates in...
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Since Roe v. Wade, most states have passed laws either restricting or further protecting reproductive rights. During a wave of anti-abortion violence in the early 1990s, several states also enacted legislation protecting abortion clinics, staff, and patients. One hypothesis drawn from the theoretical literature predicts that these laws provide a de...
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Employing a quasi-experimental design, this study compared responses from face-to-face and telephone surveys of welfare recipients to assess the effects of survey modality on prevalence estimates of alcohol and drug abuse and need for treatment. Samples were drawn from adult welfare recipients in Oklahoma in 2001. We generated 1-year and 30-day pre...
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The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in sudden, widespread, and fundamental changes to Russian society. The former social welfare system-with its broad guarantees of employment, healthcare, education, and other forms of social support-was dismantled in the shift toward democracy, rule of law, and a free-market economy. This unique natural e...
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Durkheim argued that rapid social change would produce anomic conditions which, in turn, would lead to increases in criminal and deviant behavior. Russia provides a unique opportunity to test this theory given the large-scale fundamental socioeconomic changes occurring in the nation. Russian homicide rates more than doubled in the years following t...
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The Russian homicide rate doubled during the 1990s and is now among the highest in the world. During this same period, Russian citizens experienced swift, widespread, and meaningful political, economic, and social change. It is likely that this profound transition altered structural conditions, cultural norms, and interpersonal relations in a way t...
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This study tests the efficacy of social control, differential association, social learning, and self-esteem theories as explanations for the variation in individual levels of illegal drug involvement among a sample of adult incarcerated drug offenders in Iran. The results of path analysis indicate that measures of differential association (with dru...
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This study examined crime and violence against abortion clinics, testing elements of several theories that may help explain the variation of such attacks. The study theoretically and methodologically improved upon the prior research on abortion-related crime and violence. Theoretically, it investigated previously unexamined hypotheses from the soci...
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Using official socio-economic and vital statistics data from the end of the tsarist period, this study builds on and extends previous investigations of homicide in early twentieth-century Europe by examining which social-structural factors were associated with the variation in homicide rates among the 50 provinces of European Russia in 1910. The re...
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Assess the impact of heavy drinking on homicide and suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2002. MEASURES AND DESIGN: Alcohol-related mortality was used as a proxy for heavy drinking. We used autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model total and sex-specific alcohol-homicide and alcohol-suicide relationships at the population...
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