Wilfried Rosendahl's research while affiliated with Curt Engelhorn Zentrum Archäometrie and other places

Publications (136)

Article
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Zusammenfassung Für eine neue Bewertung der systematischen Stellung der Merkensteiner Bären wurden die Zähne und die Metapodien neu gemessen und morphologisch analysiert. Neue Daten über den Geschlechtsdimorphismus wurden aus den neuen Messwerten der Eckzähne und Metapodien ermittelt. Die zeitliche Stellung der Höhlenbärenfauna wurde durch zwei AMS...
Article
Objective To identify computed tomography (CT) findings of purulent infections in ancient Egyptian child mummies. Materials Whole-body CT examination of 21 ancient Egyptian child mummies from German (n = 18), Italian (n = 1), and Swiss museums (n = 2). Methods CT examinations were evaluated for estimation of age at death and sex of the children....
Article
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Steller’s sea cow, an extinct sirenian and one of the largest Quaternary mammals, was described by Georg Steller in 1741 and eradicated by humans within 27 years. Here, we complement Steller’s descriptions with paleogenomic data from 12 individuals. We identified convergent evolution between Steller’s sea cow and cetaceans but not extant sirenians,...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and anatomical distribution of recovery lines (growth arrest lines) in ancient Egyptian child mummies. Whole‐body computed tomography (CT) examinations of 21 ancient Egyptian child mummies from European museums were evaluated for estimation of age at death and sex of the children. CT examinati...
Article
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We subjected human paleofeces dating from the Bronze Age to the Baroque period (18th century AD) to in-depth microscopic, metagenomic, and proteomic analyses. The paleofeces were preserved in the underground salt mines of the UNESCO World Heritage site of Hallstatt in Austria. This allowed us to reconstruct the diet of the former population and gai...
Article
Objective To correlate atherosclerosis (Ath) and osteoarthritis (OA) in mummies from ancient Egypt. Materials Whole-body CT examinations of 23 mummies from the Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Berlin, Germany, and 22 mummies from the Museo Egizio, Turin, Italy. Methods Ath was assessed in five anatomical regions by means of preserved arter...
Article
The Torrener Bärenhöhle (Cave of Torren) is an alpine bear cave in the limestone Alps near Salzburg (Austria). The entrance of this cave is located in the riverbed of a periodically flowing stream that floods the caverns during snowmelt or after heavy rainfall. Due to these flooding events, the fossiliferous layers were repeatedly destroyed and the...
Article
Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Egy traumás eredetű sérüléseket mutató, ókori egyiptomi koponya vizsgálatát ismertetjük a Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum gyűjteményéből. A jelen cikkben egy mumifikált fej elemzését emeltük ki, ennek átfogó vizsgálatát és részletes eredményeit közöljük. Célkitűzés: Célunk egy multidiszciplináris vizsgálatsorozat megvaló...
Article
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Background Numerous megafauna species from northern latitudes went extinct during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition as a result of climate-induced habitat changes. However, several ungulate species managed to successfully track their habitats during this period to eventually flourish and recolonise the holarctic regions. So far, the genomic impac...
Article
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The Upper Pleistocene cave fauna of the Bärenfalle in the Tennengebirge (Salzburg, Austria). Results from the research campaign 2015-2017. The fossil material from the excavations in 2015 and 2016 in the Bärenfalle as well from the former excavations that are stored in the Museum Burg Golling and the Haus der Natur Salzburg were metrically and morp...
Article
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This study focuses on the multidisciplinary investigation of three stucco-shrouded mummies with mummy portrait from Egypt dating from the late 3 rd to the middle of the 4 th century AD, corresponding to the late Roman Period. These three mummies were excavated in the early 17 th and late 19 th centuries in the Saqqara necropolis near the ancient Eg...
Article
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The cave lion is an extinct felid that was widespread across the Holarctic throughout the Late Pleistocene. Its closest extant relative is the lion (Panthera leo), but the timing of the divergence between these two taxa, as well as their taxonomic ranking are contentious. In this study we analyse 31 mitochondrial genome sequences from cave lion ind...
Article
Recent advances in the recovery and analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) and application of isotopic analysis of tissue obtained from mummified human remains has been accompanied by continued advances in non-invasive imaging using X-ray computed tomography (CT) and use of minimally invasive surgical techniques employing small fibre-optic endoscopes. We u...
Article
In the course of a scientific cooperation between the German Mummy Project at the Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen, Mannheim (Germany) and the Musée National d'Histoire et d'Art Luxembourg (Luxembourg), an ancient Egyptian mummy head was analyzed using a multidisciplinary approach including radiocarbon dating, ultra-high resolution computed tomography, physi...
Article
To find out the time since death (PMI) of a human individual, from which only skeletal remains are left is a difficult question to answer, since methods currently available don't bring concrete answers. Subsequent to our validation study on porcine bones, we focused on human bones analysing if collagen degradation would occur at a predictive rate s...
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Background Resolving the historical biogeography of the leopard (Panthera pardus) is a complex issue, because patterns inferred from fossils and from molecular data lack congruence. Fossil evidence supports an African origin, and suggests that leopards were already present in Eurasia during the Early Pleistocene. Analysis of DNA sequences however,...
Preprint
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Background: Resolving the historical biogeography of the leopard (Panthera pardus) is a complex issue, because patterns inferred from fossils and from molecular data lack congruence. Fossil evidence supports an African origin, and suggests that leopards were already present in Eurasia during the Early Pleistocene. Analysis of DNA sequences however,...
Article
Cave bears have disappeared from the Alps from different altitudes at different times. The temporal progression of the HDEL (Height Dependent Extinction Line) – a compilation of the geologically most recent radiocarbon dates per altitude level – is not consistent with the general cooling of the temperatures from about 45 ka BP. The cave bear sites...
Presentation
The present case study on a mummy head shows that separated body parts can reveal remarkable insights into life and death of people who lived long time ago. Within a scientific cooperation between the German Mummy Project at the Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen in Mannheim (Germany) and the National Museum of History and Art Luxembourg, an ancient Egyptian m...
Chapter
The Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen Mannheim—or in short, ‘rem’—are a prominent venue for exhibitions and a significant center of research in Germany. The rem communicate and present past and present cultural history at four facilities, the Zeughaus Museum, the World Culture Museum, the Bassermannhaus Museum of Music and Fine Arts, and the Schillerhaus Muse...
Article
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Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to establish the age of three mammal specimens from the Quaternary of the Münsterland, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The dated samples represent regionally important finds: The woolly mammoth from Ahlen with an age of 41 ka BP and the musk-ox from Herne with an age of 24 ka BP are typical representati...
Article
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Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle’s church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed t...
Article
Purpose Soft tissues make a skeleton into a mummy and they allow for a diagnosis beyond osteology. Following the approach of structured reporting in clinical radiology, a recently developed checklist was used to evaluate the soft tissue preservation status of the Tyrolean Iceman using computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to apply...
Article
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Objective In this study, an Inca bundle was examined using computed tomography (CT). The primary aim was to determine the preservation status of bony and soft tissues, the sex, the age at the time of death, possible indicators for disease or even the cause of death, as well as the kind of mummification. A secondary aim was to obtain a brief overvie...
Article
Introduction: The scientific study of mummies provides an insight into the life of past populations. Using CT-Osteoabsorptiometry (CT-OAM), a noninvasive technique based on conventional CT-data sets, it is possible to visualize the mineral density distribution in the subchondral bone plate, representing the long-term loading conditions of the artic...
Article
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Near the end of the Pleistocene epoch, populations of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) were distributed across parts of three continents, from western Europe and northern Asia through Beringia to the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nonetheless, questions about the connectivity and temporal continuity of mammoth populations and species...
Presentation
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A few months after the discovery of X-rays in 1895, the physicist Walter Koenig conducted the first radiographic investigation of mummified remains at Physikalischer Verein in Frankfurt am Main (Germany). One of the X-rayed objects was an ancient Egyptian child mummy of unknown archaeological provenience from Senckenberg Museum Frankfurt (Inv. no....
Presentation
3D scanning is a modern method for non-contact recording of three-dimensional objects. Besides the fields of design, industry and medicine, 3D scanners are useful for documenting buildings, topographic surveys, excavation sides, caves, archaeological findings and objects from museum collections. By using 3D printers, colored display models from var...
Article
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to systematically reinvestigate the first human mummy that was ever analyzed with X-ray imaging in 1896, using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in order to compare the earliest and latest imaging technologies, to estimate preservation, age at death, sex, anatomical variants, paleopathological findings, mumm...
Article
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New AMS dating for three Austrian sites were conducted on cave bear bones at the Klaus-Tschira-Archaeometry Center in Mannheim, Germany. In total 14 new dates will be presented. The oldest date is 48 ka BP. The faunal remains from the Schwabenreith Cave, located near Lunz (Lower Austria), only consist of cave bears from the taxa Ursus spelaeus erem...
Article
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On April 15th 2014, human skeletal remains were found during digging activities for constructing a new building at Bornheim-Uedorf (Rhein-Sieg-Kreis) near the river Rhine (about 20 meters) in a pit measuring 10 by 10 meters and having a depth of about 150 cm. The skeletal remains were preserved quite well considering the fact that they were located...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Vorgestellt wird die Analyse keramischer Funde des bronzezeitlichen Gräberfeldes von Bonyhád (Ungarn), einem Fundplatz der Kultur Inkrustierter Keramik. Hier konnten deutliche Korrelationen zwischen Gefäßdekoration und -größen mit jenen in den Gräbern bestatteten Personen und ihrem Sterbealter erkannt werden. Vor diesem Hintergrund...
Poster
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Döppes D., W. Rosendahl, R. Friedrich, S. Lindauer, G. Rabeder, C. Frischauf & S. Krutter, Bärenfalle – new results of the highest cave lion site from Austria. 58th Annual Meeting of the Hugo Obermaier Society for Quaternary Research and Archaeology of the Stone Age, Budapest, 29.03.-02.04.2016.
Conference Paper
The crypt of Sommersdorf Castle near Ansbach (Middle Franconia, Germany) houses eleven wooden coffins from the early modern period, including seven containing mummified human remains. Even though there is limited historical documentation relating to the individuals buried in the crypt, some of them are known by name through the family chronicle. Th...
Research
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Anatomische Präparate, Mumien, historische medizinische Objekte, Collegium Carolinum
Article
Mummification leads to alteration of soft-tissue morphology. No research has focused specifically on differences in soft-tissue shrinkage depending on mummification type. This study evaluated whether soft-tissue alteration is dependent on type of mummification. A total of 17 human mummies have been investigated by computed tomography (CT). Samples...