Wilf Swartz's research while affiliated with Dalhousie University and other places

Publications (54)

Article
A “blue economy” seeks to establish socially equitable, environmentally sustainable, and economically viable ocean sectors. This article briefly reviews where the term came from and why it has quickly risen as the foremost policy narrative for shaping future oceans. Enabling equitable, sustainable, and economically viable blue economies can be supp...
Article
Full-text available
Calls to address social equity in ocean governance are expanding. Yet ‘equity’ is seldom clearly defined. Here we present a framework to support contextually-informed assessment of equity in ocean governance. Guiding questions include: (1) Where and (2) Why is equity being examined? (3) Equity for or amongst Whom? (4) What is being distributed? (5)...
Article
The COVID‐19 pandemic has spread around the world, disrupting economies, societies and daily life. Early research anticipated significant negative impacts for the globalized seafood supply network. Here, we explore the impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on wholesale prices from five major seafood markets around the world. An anomalies analysis was use...
Article
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The focus on flag States for the purpose of attributing fisheries catch is inconsistent with the assignment of sovereign rights to coastal States under international law and undermines equity in contemporary quota allocation negotiations. We propose modernizing reporting frameworks to include zone-based reporting of fish catches to more equitably p...
Article
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Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) require countries with diverse objectives, aspirations, and interests to cooperate to sustainably manage transboundary fish stocks. These organizations are often subjected and are held responsible for overfishing, slow management responses and failure to follow scientific evidence. Disappointing p...
Article
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The future of the global ocean economy is currently envisioned as advancing towards a ‘blue economy’—socially equitable, environmentally sustainable and economically viable ocean industries. However, tensions exist within sustainable development approaches, arising from differing perspectives framed around natural capital or social equity. Here we...
Article
Fishers’ economic status is hard to assess because fisheries socio‐economic data, including earnings, are often not centrally available, standardized or accessible in a form that allows scaled‐up or comparative analyses. The lack of fishing income data impedes sound management and allows biased perceptions about fishers’ status to persist. We compi...
Article
The term ‘Blue Economy’ is increasingly used in various marine sectors and development frameworks. For it to be a truly useful approach, however, we argue that social benefits and equity must be explicitly prioritized alongside environmental and economic concerns. This integration of social dimensions within the Blue Economy is required to ensure t...
Article
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the seafood industry is on the rise. Because of increasing public awareness and non-governmental organization (NGO) campaigns, seafood buyers have made various commitments to improve the sustainability of their wild seafood sourcing. As part of this effort, seafood suppliers have developed their own CSR prog...
Preprint
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Seafood is the world's most internationally traded food commodity. Approximately three out of every seven people globally rely on seafood as a primary source of animal protein (1). Revelations about slavery and labor rights abuses in fisheries have sparked outrage and shifted the conversation (2, 3), placing social issues at the forefront of a sect...
Article
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Ex-vessel fish prices are essential for comprehensive fisheries management and socioeconomic analyses for fisheries science. In this paper, we reconstructed a global ex-vessel price database with the following areas of improvement: (1) compiling reported prices explicitly listed as “for reduction to fishmeal and fish oil” to estimate prices separat...
Article
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Approaches to counter the overfishing and aquaculture production crisis include those imposed by public governing bodies, as well as those implemented by businesses and non‐governmental organizations (NGOs). In the case of the latter, private actors govern fisheries consumption and production through corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this c...
Article
Full-text available
Seafood is the world's most internationally traded food commodity. Approximately three out of every seven people globally rely on seafood as a primary source of animal protein (1). Revelations about slavery and labor rights abuses in fisheries have sparked outrage and shifted the conversation (2, 3), placing social issues at the forefront of a sect...
Article
Full-text available
Achieving the United Nations’ 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) results in many ecological, social, and economic consequences that are inter-related. Understanding relationships between sustainability goals and determining their interactions can help prioritize effective and efficient policy options. This paper presents a framework that integ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past two decades, there has been a proliferation of consumer-facing, market-based initiatives for marine conservation—most notably in seafood eco-labels and sustainability certifications. Yet, despite the growing recognition of these initiatives by consumers and retailers in North America and Europe and the (subsequent) acceptance of their...
Article
The aim of this paper is to provide an updated estimate of global fisheries subsidies. It builds on earlier estimates and methodologies to re-estimate and discuss the various types of subsidies provided by governments around the world. The results suggests that total subsidies were about USD 35 billion in 2009 dollars, which is close to the earlier...
Article
Full-text available
Nearly 40% of seafood is traded internationally and an even bigger proportion is affected by international trade, yet scholarship on marine fisheries has focused on global trends in stocks and catches, or on dynamics of individual fisheries, with limited attention to the link between individual fisheries, global trade and distant consumers. This pa...
Data
Online Resource 1 Reported discard rates. Online Resource 2 Reconstructed catches in Japan’s Exclusive Economic Zones by species (1950–2010). Online Resource 3 Reconstructed catches in Japan’s Exclusive Economic Zones by fisheries type
Article
The rise and fall of Japan’s marine fisheries have been well documented and are clearly evident in official landings statistics. However, the extent of illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries, including recreational fisheries, and the discarding of unwanted catch in Japanese waters, both of which may have significant implications on the succe...
Article
We conservatively estimate the distant-water fleet catch of the People's Republic of China for 2000–2011, using a newly assembled database of reported occurrence of Chinese fishing vessels in various parts of the world and information on the annual catch by vessel type. Given the unreliability of official statistics, uncertainty of results was esti...
Article
The Global Ex-vessel Fish Price Database (Ex-vessel DB) reported in Sumaila et al. (J Bioecon 9(1):39–51, 2007) was the first comprehensive database that presents average annual ex-vessel prices for all commercially exploited marine fish stocks by nationality of the fishing fleet. It contained over 30,000 reported price items, covering the period f...
Article
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Global marine fisheries are currently underperforming, largely due to overfishing. An analysis of global databases finds that resource rent net of subsidies from rebuilt world fisheries could increase from the current negative US$13 billion to positive US$54 billion per year, resulting in a net gain of US$600 to US$1,400 billion in present value ov...
Data
Key fisheries data (annual averages for 2000s) for Europe. (DOCX)
Data
Key fisheries data (annual averages for 2000s) for Asia. (DOCX)
Data
Key fisheries data (annual averages for 2000s) for Africa. (DOCX)
Data
Key fisheries data (annual averages for 2000s) for North America. (DOCX)
Data
Key fisheries data (annual averages for 2000s) for Oceania. (DOCX)
Data
Key fisheries data (annual averages for 2000s) for South, Central America and the Caribbean. (DOCX)
Article
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Marine oil spills usually harm organisms at two interfaces: near the water surface and on shore. However, because of the depth of the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon well blowout, deeper parts of the Gulf of Mexico are likely impacted. We estimate the potential negative economic effects of this blowout and oil spill on commercial and recreational fish...
Article
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West Africa was identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in previous global analyses. Adverse changes in marine resources under climate change may pose significant threats to the livelihoods and well-being of the communities and countries that depend on fisheries for food and income. However, quantitative studies on the po...
Article
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The Amerasian Arctic, covering northern Siberia (Russia), Arctic Alaska (USA), and the Canadian Arctic, extends over seven coastal Large Marine Ecosystems and makes up the seasonally ice-free part of FAO Statistical Area 18 (Arctic Sea). Historically, the harsh climate has limited marine fisheries (here excluding marine mammal hunting) to small-sca...
Article
Full-text available
Given the economic and social importance of fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico large marine ecosystem (LME), it is imperative to quantify the potential impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. To provide a preliminary perspective of the consequences of this disaster, spatial databases of annual reported commercial catch and landed value prior to th...
Technical Report
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Executive Summary The Sargasso Sea is a fundamentally important part of the world’s ocean, located within the North Atlantic sub-tropical gyre with its boundaries defined by the surrounding currents. It is the only sea without land boundaries with water depths ranging from the surface coral reefs of Bermuda to abyssal plains at 4500 m. The Sargasso...
Article
Full-text available
The Sargasso Sea is a fundamentally important part of the world’s ocean, located within the North Atlantic sub-tropical gyre with its boundaries defined by the surrounding currents. It is the only sea without land boundaries with water depths ranging from the surface coral reefs of Bermuda to abyssal plains at 4500 m. The Sargasso Sea’s importance...
Article
Full-text available
Using estimates of the primary production required (PPR) to support fisheries catches (a measure of the footprint of fishing), we analyzed the geographical expansion of the global marine fisheries from 1950 to 2005. We used multiple threshold levels of PPR as percentage of local primary production to define 'fisheries exploitation' and applied them...
Article
This paper describes the marine fish and invertebrate consumption in three of the world’s major seafood markets (the EU, Japan and the USA) using a series of global maps indicating the likely origin of the seafood consumed by each market. These maps display a high level of dependence by these markets on foreign sources as the serial depletion of lo...
Article
Fourteen indicators of marine living resource management performance by country, reflecting both their intention to sustainably use the resource within their Exclusive Economic Zones and the effectiveness of their policies, were developed and the performances of 53 maritime countries were assessed. Four rankings of the countries, which jointly acco...
Article
This paper describes the marine fish and invertebrate consumption in three of the world's major seafood markets (the EU, Japan and the USA) using a series of global maps indicating the likely origin of the seafood consumed by each market. These maps display a high level of dependence by these markets on foreign sources as the serial depletion of lo...
Chapter
Full-text available
We present a rationale for the description and diagnosis of fisheries at the level of Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which is relatively new, and encompasses a series of concepts and indicators different from those typically used to describe fisheries at the stock level. We then document how catch data, which are usually available on a smaller sca...

Citations

... The piece provides five recommendations to bring greater attention and support to the topic in research, policy, practice, and funding. A Review article by Crosman et al. 11 follows, focusing on the role of social equity in ocean governance. Calls to address social equity in ocean governance are expanding, and a framework is presented to support consistent operationalization of equity and evaluate progress without oversimplification. ...
... Despite our results had been obtained through a univariate analysis, its low error metrics showed that the utilization of LSTM neural networks and Fbprophet algorithm may be applicable to the study of prices variation of seafood items opening the door to more complex analysis evaluating other features. Once other variables weren't evaluated in the modelling, we have no direct evidence about which are the main in uences in the price's uctuation in PSLC sardine, however, peaks of volatility after 2020 may be an indicator of the COVID-19 impact in seafood prices in Brazilian market, once it also impacted important seafood markets worldwide (Akter, 2020;Amos et al., 2022). For further studies, the acquisition and evaluation of more variables are indicated once food prices may be in uenced by factors such as oil prices, which in some market situations in uence food items price volatility (Hau et al., 2020), being helpful to build more robust analysis and contribute to understand the prices dynamics of seafood items. ...
... 43 Several recent studies have warned that human rights violations and deteriorating labor conditions are an emergent issue as some longline fishing operators seek new ways to offset fixed costs. 18,51 Although we add our voice to those cautioning against broad-scale characterizations 86 given substantial operational heterogeneity within and across the sector, such reports warrant immediate attention and additional investigation. Encouragingly, a number of RFMOS, sub-regional governance bodies, and individual flag states have recently announced commitments to establish and enforce the labor standards designed to protect the rights of pelagic longline crew members. ...
... While there are examples to the contrary, these approaches often revolve around western knowledge and economic systems and rarely lay out unique cultural and/or social constraints or consider how these communities have been externally categorized as vulnerable by those in the west (Bankoff, 2001;Campbell & Barnett, 2010;Niusulu, 2018). Inequity and injustice is therefore acknowledged with regard to the distribution of climate impacts within academia and governments but the approaches taken to address them are often financial, limited, and externally imposed in ways that do not address underlying causes of global and regional power relations, a common approach in international development contexts (Cisneros-Montemayor et al., 2021). ...
... In this regard, the UN Decade is considered a "unique, once in a life-time, opportunity to change the way we do things [and] make oceanography fit for purpose" (Ryabinin et al., 2019). This quest for a reflexive turn within ocean science itself echoes many claims for more inclusive, diverse, and equitable research practices (Harden-Davies et al., 2020;Wisz et al., 2020;Singh et al., 2021;Visbeck 2018) and science-informed policy responses (Ryabinin et al., 2019), reflecting the colonial roots of ocean science (Partelow et al., 2020) and the diverse ontologies of the ocean (Peters and Steinberg, 2019). ...
... Fishermen's income varies from low to high, depending on the region's fishing activity. Teh et al. (2020) analyzed income statistics of the fishing industry. They found that: (i) fishing income is more than agriculture income, (ii) large-scale fishing income is more than twice of small-scale fishing income, (iii) fishing income in high-income countries is nine times of fishing income in low-income countries (as per World Bank), and (iv) boat captains earn more than crew. ...
... Indeed, the blue economy's enduring struggle to adequately acknowledge and address issues of equity within ocean development and governance has been increasingly highlighted by academic and civil society observers over recent years (Bennett et al., 2019;Cisneros-Montemayor et al., 2019;Cohen et al., 2019; Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era Pacific Network on Globalisation, 2020;Okafor-Yarwood et al., 2020;Pacific Network on Globalisation Ozeanien Dialog, 2020;Farmery et al., 2021;Pedersen, 2021;Voyer et al., 2021;Ayilu et al., 2022). Similar to this paper, these observers have suggested that issues of equity and justice continue to be overlooked in mainstream blue economy approaches, resulting in the detrimental outcomes and the further exclusion of communities distant to power. ...
... Concurrent to their support for the MSC, foundations gained further prominence as powerful agents (as defined in Betsill et al., 2021) in fisheries governance through their vision and strategic investments to develop the sustainable seafood movement at scale (Figure 1). Although price premiums for MSC-certified products did not emerge as envisioned (Roheim et al., 2018), the last decade has seen an increasing number of commitments by seafood supply chain companies to source and sell MSC-certified products as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategies, which mitigate reputational risk and negative publicity (Packer et al., 2019). The spread of such sourcing commitments was greatly aided by foundation agendasetting (Packer et al., 2019;Roheim et al., 2018) with the subsequent groundwork carried out by foundation-funded NGOs, in particular: Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP) and other NGOs in the Conservation Alliance for Seafood Solutions, a group established by Packard andWalton in 2008 (CASS, 2021). ...
... The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events can cause increased mortality, changes in primary productivity, distribution shifts, and disruptions to fishing activities (IPCC 2019). Climate change will also increase uncertainty and affect the accuracy of management advice, because it will likely shift the baseline oceanographic conditions considered in stock assessment models (Cheung et al. 2019). Some of these impacts have already occurred and risks increase with increasing GHG emissions (IPCC 2019). ...
... The Phoenix Islands make up a 10-island archipelago between the Line Islands to the east and the Gilbert Islands to the west. These islands are a low-lying group of volcanically derived, coral topped atolls and islands with a maximum elevation of 1 m above sea-level, spanning the equator (Rotjan et al., 2014 (Rotjan et al., 2014;McCauley et al., 2016;Hanich et al., 2018). Kiribati and the US have a cooperative agreement to manage the two MPA's as a "trans-boundary large MPA" to support the protection of ecosystems and biodiversity through cooperation and comparable research and monitoring (US and Kiribati Cooperative Agreement, 2014). ...