WenWen Jiang's research while affiliated with The Australian Wine Research Institute and other places

Publications (8)

Article
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It has been well established that bushfire/wildfire smoke can taint grapes (and therefore wine), depending on the timing and duration of exposure, but the risk of smoke contamination from stubble burning (a practice employed by some grain growers to prepare farmland for sowing) has not yet been established. This study exposed excised bunches of gra...
Article
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Taint in grapes and wine following vineyard exposure to bushfire smoke continues to challenge the financial viability of grape and wine producers worldwide. In response, researchers are studying the chemical, sensory and physiological consequences of grapevine smoke exposure. However, studies involving winemaking trials are often limited by the ava...
Article
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Strategies that mitigate the negative effects of vineyard exposure to smoke on wine composition and sensory properties are needed to address the recurring incidence of bushfires in or near wine regions. Recent research demonstrated the potential for post-harvest ozonation of moderately smoke-exposed grapes to reduce both the concentration of smoke...
Article
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The negative effects of smoke exposure of grapes in vineyards that are close to harvest are well documented. Volatile phenols in smoke from forest and grass fires can contaminate berries and, upon uptake, are readily converted into a range of glycosylated grape metabolites. These phenolic glycosides and corresponding volatile phenols are extracted...
Article
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When bushfires occur near grape growing regions, vineyards can be exposed to smoke, and depending on the timing and duration of grapevine smoke exposure, fruit can become tainted. Smoke-derived volatile compounds, including volatile phenols, can impart unpleasant smoky, ashy characters to wines made from smoke-affected grapes, leading to substantia...
Article
Full-text available
Wine made from grapes exposed to bushfire smoke can exhibit unpleasant smoky, ashy characters, which have been attributed to the presence of smoke-derived volatile phenols, in free or glycosylated forms. Here we report the uptake and glycosylation of volatile phenols by grapes following exposure of Cabernet Sauvignon vines to smoke, and their fate...
Article
Full-text available
Food studies have shown that emotional responses can be influenced by food alone and by its environmental context. The influence of context on perception and liking of red wine flavors and on the emotions evoked is poorly understood. The primary aim of this research was to examine the effect of wine flavors and context by immersive environment on c...

Citations

... Grapegrowers and winemakers are not only being challenged by prolonged drought and heatwaves [2], but where bushfires occur in or near wine regions, by the consequences of vineyard exposure to smoke [3][4][5]. Wine made from smoke-affected grapes can exhibit unpleasant smoky, medicinal and ashy sensory characters [6][7][8][9], depending on the density of smoke [10,11], and the duration and (phenological) timing of smoke exposure [11][12][13][14]. Strategies that transform smoke-affected juice and wine into a saleable product are needed to help offset revenue losses incurred due to 'smoke taint', where vineyard smoke exposure cannot be avoided or prevented. ...
... This compound was also previously identified in sherry wines [63]. P-cresol is a volatile compound present in smoke and it was also identified in some wines vinified with grapes exposed to smoke that could even give them an ashy taste [64]. Considering the fact the area where the experimental vineyard is located suffered an important wave of fires in the 2017 vintage, it could be viable t think that the smoke has impregnated the grapes remaining up to their harvest. ...
... Grape homogenates were extracted and the grape extracts and wines were analysed as outlined in previous studies [7,26]. For grape analysis, deuterated standards were accurately added to a weighed subsample (5 g) of each grape homogenate to take into account extraction and other matrix efects, and to allow the result to be expressed per kg of grapes. ...
... Some of these methods are now offered by commercial laboratories, enabling grape and wine producers to screen fruit from vineyards that might have been exposed to smoke, i.e., to assess the viability of proceeding with harvest and winemaking. In contrast, these methods are used by researchers to study: the factors that influence the occurrence and intensity of smoke taint, e.g., grapevine phenology [2,3], grape variety [11,24], fruit maturity at harvest [29], and winemaking practices [6,30]; as well as strategies for prevention and/or amelioration of smoke taint, e.g., partial defoliation of grapevines [31], foliar applications of kaolin [16] or biofilm [32,33], washing grapes during or after smoke exposure [17,19], post-harvest ozonation [34,35], and the addition of fining agents to wine [36,37]. ...
... However, in 2019, smoke from wildfres afected viticultural regions much earlier in the season. Smoke was noted in the Hunter Valley in New South Wales continuously from October 2019 to January 2020 [20], arising from several fre events, resulting in some exposure of small green berries between Eichhorn-Lorenz (E-L) stage 27-38 [21] during much of the early grape ripening period. Phenolic glycosides were observed as a consequence of smoke exposure in both berry and leaf samples collected pre-veraison as early as E-L 29 [20]. ...
... Volatile phenols (e.g., guaiacols, cresols and syringols) have been identified as compositional markers of smoke taint, in both free and glycosylated forms [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18], and various strategies that mitigate either their uptake by grapes [19][20][21][22][23][24][25] or their presence in wine [4,[26][27][28][29][30] have been evaluated. Currently, the most promising mitigation strategy involves enclosing grape bunches in activated carbon fabric, thereby preventing smoke contamination of grapes [24,25]. ...
... Furthermore, sensory assessment of the wine made for this early study was based on aroma only, so did not capture the smoky/ashy favour and undesirable aftertaste characteristics of smoke-afected wines. Guided by this early work, further model experiments have focused on smoke exposure of ripening grapes close to harvest [14][15][16][17][18][19], and did not address the impact of smoke exposure at earlier stages of pre-veraison grape development. ...
... In the T group, concomitantly decreased lactic acid indicated that T might be an inhibitory factor of MLF in yeast ( Figure 5C). In general, organic acids bring different acidity perceptions to form a harmonious sourness: lactic acid provides a soft sourness, (slightly milky in red wine), citric acid is refreshing and cool, and malic acid represents a bit of pungent sourness [46]. Furthermore, treatment with H increased the caprylic and acetic acid concentrations, which provides the wine with an unpleasant taste. ...