Wayne S Cutfield's research while affiliated with University of Auckland and other places

Publications (357)

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Background Diet indices are widely used in nutritional research across communities but do not “capture” the full extent of diet variability across multiple countries. Empirically-derived dietary patterns can provide additional information as they reflect combinations of foods potentially associated with health outcomes. Limited studies have evaluat...
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Introduction: Fish oil (FO) supplements are consumed during pregnancy to increase dietary omega-3. However, FO is often oxidized past recommended limits. In rats, a large dose of highly oxidized FO substantially increased newborn mortality, but the effects of human-relevant doses of less oxidized oil are unknown. A dose-response study in rats was...
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Background Early childhood obesity is highly prevalent in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). Little is known about caregiver perception of children's weight status among those living in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation, particularly Māori and Pacific children. Aims To explore caregiver perception of weight status among children starting school in a...
Preprint
Objectives: To cross-calibrate body composition measures from the GE Lunar Prodigy and GE Lunar iDXA in a cohort of young children. Methods: 28 children (mean age 3.4 years) were measured on the iDXA followed by the Prodigy. Prodigy scans were subsequently reanalysed using enCORE v17 enhanced analysis (“Prodigy enhanced”). Body composition paramete...
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The infant gut microbiome contains a portion of bacteria that originate from the maternal gut. In the infant gut these bacteria encounter a new metabolic environment that differs from the adult gut, consequently requiring adjustments in their activities. We used pilot community RNA sequencing data (metatranscriptomes) from ten mother-infant dyads p...
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The infant gut microbiome contains a portion of bacteria that originate from the maternal gut. In the infant gut these bacteria encounter a new metabolic environment that differs from the adult gut, consequently requiring adjustments in their activities. We utilized community RNA sequencing data(meta transcriptomes) from ten mother-infant dyads par...
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In secondary analyses of a randomised controlled trial of exercise during pregnancy, we examined associations between mid-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) with offspring health. Follow-up data were available on 57 mother–child pairs at 1-year and 52 pairs at 7-year follow-ups. Clinical assessments...
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Purpose Frequent glucose monitoring is necessary for optimal glycaemic control. Second-generation intermittently scanned glucose monitoring (isCGM) systems inform users of out-of-target glucose levels and may reduce monitoring burden. We aim to compare FreeStyle Libre 2 (Abbott Diabetes Care, Witney, U.K.) to self-monitoring of blood glucose in chi...
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The incidence of preterm birth (PTB), delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation, is rising in most countries. Several recent small clinical trials of myo -inositol supplementation in pregnancy, which were primarily aimed at preventing gestational diabetes, have suggested an effect on reducing the incidence of PTB as a secondary outcome, highl...
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'Small for gestational age' (SGA) is an auxological and not an etiological definition that characterizes children born small based upon low-birth-weight and/or birth-length criteria [≥ 2 standard deviations (SD) below the mean for gestational age]. Most SGA children exhibit catch-up growth into the normal range within 6 mo of age. Overall SGA child...
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Oro-gastric gavage is used to accurately administer nutritional substances or drugs to animals. However it induces stress and has a substantial risk of mishap. Incorporation into edible gels is difficult for lipid-based preparations. We report a new methodology for producing emulsified oil-enriched gels, their effectiveness in pilot studies and sub...
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This manuscript is a response to concerns expressed in a letter by industry-based scientists Bannenberg and Rice in response to our recent narrative review. In the review, we largely discussed why supplementation with n-3 PUFA rich oils might have benefits to the body composition and metabolism of the offspring of overweight or obese pregnant women...
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Background: Birth by caesarean section (CS) is associated with aberrant gut microbiome development and greater disease susceptibility later in life. We investigated whether oral administration of maternal vaginal microbiota to infants born by CS could restore their gut microbiome development in a pilot single-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled...
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Objective: To determine the incidence of new onset type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years from 1977 to 2019 in Auckland, New Zealand. Research design and methods: A cohort study of children with type 1 diabetes aged 0-14 years (n=1688; 50.4% male) managed by the regional diabetes service between 1977 and 2019. Incidence rates were estimated...
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Bioelectrical impedance techniques are easy to use and portable tools for assessing body composition. While measurements vary according to standing vs supine position in adults, and fasting and bladder voiding have been proposed as additional important influences, these have not been assessed in young children. Therefore, the influence of position,...
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Background Donor selection is an important factor influencing the engraftment and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for complex conditions associated with microbial dysbiosis. However, the degree, variation, and stability of strain engraftment have not yet been assessed in the context of multiple donors. Methods We conducted a dou...
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Background We performed a case-control study to characterise infants with “prolonged transitional hypoglycaemia”. Methods Cases were born ≥36 weeks’ gestation; had ≥1 hypoglycaemic episode <72 h and ≥72 h; received ongoing treatment for hypoglycaemia ≥72 h; and were without congenital disorders or acute illness. Cases were compared to controls bor...
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Objective Child and adolescent obesity continues to be a major health issue internationally. This study aims to understand the views and experiences of caregivers and participants in a child and adolescent multidisciplinary programme for healthy lifestyle change. Design Qualitative focus group study. Setting Community-based healthy lifestyle inte...
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Maternal genetics is a key determinant of human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) composition in human milk. Beyond genetic status, other factors influencing the HMO profile are poorly defined. Thus, we aimed to review the existing evidence on the associations between nongenetic maternal and infant factors and HMO composition. A systematic search was perf...
Preprint
Full-text available
The infant gut microbiome contains a portion of bacteria that originate from the maternal gut. In the infant gut these bacteria encounter a new metabolic environment that differs from the adult gut, consequently requiring adjustments in their activities. We utilized community RNA sequencing data (metatranscriptomes) from ten mother-infant dyads par...
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Full-text available
Several early childhood obesity prediction models have been developed, but none for New Zealand's diverse population. We aimed to develop and validate a model for predicting obesity in 4–5-year-old New Zealand children, using parental and infant data from the Growing Up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) cohort. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) for...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bioelectrical impedance techniques are easy to use and portable tools for assessing body composition. While measurements vary according to standing vs supine position in adults, and fasting and bladder voiding have been proposed as additional important influences, these have not been assessed in young children. Therefore, the influence of position,...
Article
Objective: Better preconception metabolic and nutritional health are hypothesized to promote gestational normoglycemia and reduce preterm birth, but evidence supporting improved outcomes with nutritional supplementation starting preconception is limited. Research design and methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial recruited from th...
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Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an easy to use, portable tool, but the accuracy of the technique in infants and young children (<24 months) remains unclear. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies that have developed and validated BIA equations in this age group. MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched...
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Background Vaginal seeding is the administration of maternal vaginal bacteria to babies following birth by caesarean section (CS), intended to mimic the microbial exposure that occurs during vaginal birth. Appropriate development of the infant gut microbiome assists early immune development and might help reduce the risk of certain health condition...
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Background No studies have examined endogenous insulin secretion in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes in China using the gold-standard mixed-meal tolerance test. Because the latter is labor-intensive, we examined simpler surrogate markers of endogenous insulin secretion in Chinese youth, as previously reported for a European population.Method...
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Importance Treatment of pediatric obesity is challenging. Preclinical studies in mice indicated that weight and metabolism can be altered by gut microbiome manipulation. Objective To assess efficacy of fecal microbiome transfer (FMT) to treat adolescent obesity and improve metabolism. Design, Setting, and Participants This randomized, double-mask...
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Introduction Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with adverse changes in body composition and metabolism in the offspring. We hypothesise that supplementation during pregnancy of overweight and obese women may help prevent the development of greater adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in children. Previous clinical trials investigating...
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Metabolic diseases are increasing among adolescents with obesity. Although the reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome is approximately 30% worldwide, its prevalence is largely unknown among New Zealand adolescents. Therefore, we assessed the health of adolescents with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) enrolled in a randomised clinical trial (Gut Bugs Tri...
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Background The first report of children born very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation) having insulin resistance was made 16 years ago. However, neonatal care has improved since. Thus, we aimed to assess whether children born very preterm still have lower insulin sensitivity than term controls. Methods Participants were prepubertal children aged 5 to...
Preprint
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Background Donor selection is an important factor influencing the engraftment and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for complex conditions associated with microbial dysbiosis. However, the degree, variation, and stability of strain engraftment has not yet been assessed in the context of multiple donors. Methods We conducted a doubl...
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Atopic disorders (AD), often coexistent with food allergy (FA), start developing in early life and have lifelong health consequences. Breastfeeding is thought to be protective against AD and FA, but the data are controversial, and mechanisms are not well understood. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are complex carbohydrates that are abundant in h...
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The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, and the children of women who are obese during pregnancy are at greatest risk. This risk may be mediated by exaggeration of the normal insulin resistance of pregnancy. Omega-3 (n-3) fats are insulin sensitizing. Supplementation during pregnancy may reduce metabolic risk and adiposity in t...
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Objective: We aimed to assess the role of adipose tissue distribution in cardiometabolic risk (in particular insulin sensitivity) in a population of children and adolescents with obesity. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants were 479 children and adolescents with obesity (322 boys and 157 girls) aged 3 to 18 years attending the Chil...
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Improving dietary intake early in life is a common behavioural target in obesity prevention trials. We undertook a systematic review of randomised controlled trials aiming to improve dietary intake of complementary foods during infancy (0–24 months). PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and PsycInfo were searched for trials focussed on obesit...
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Introduction: There is evidence that caesarean section (CS) is associated with increased risk of childhood obesity, asthma, and coeliac disease. The gut microbiota of CS-born babies differs to those born vaginally, possibly due to reduced exposure to maternal vaginal bacteria during birth. Vaginal seeding is a currently unproven practice intended...
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Objectives There are few studies of preconception diets despite their potentially far-reaching implications for maternal and offspring health. In a three-country trial (Nutritional Intervention Preconception and during Pregnancy to maintain healthy glucosE metabolism and OffspRing health–NiPPeR), we derived preconception dietary patterns and examin...
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Preterm infants are exposed to major perinatal, post-natal, and early infancy events that could impact on the gut microbiome. These events include infection, steroid and antibiotic exposure, parenteral nutrition, necrotizing enterocolitis, and stress. Studies have shown that there are differences in the gut microbiome during the early months of lif...
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Aims A pilot study was performed to establish the safety, feasibility and efficacy of vibration therapy (VT) on bone and muscle health in children and adolescents with a range of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods Seventeen participants (15.7 years ± 2.9 years), with conditions that impacted on their musculoskeletal health, completed 20 weeks of s...
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Childhood obesity is common in New Zealand with one in three 4-5 year-old children identified as overweight or obese in the before school check (B4SC) programme. Recently, the use of BMI for assessing childhood obesity in the B4SC programme has been questioned. This article provides evidence in support of the assessment of BMI during the B4SC, incl...
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There has been increasing interest in understanding body composition in early life and factors that may influence its evolution. While several technologies exist to measure body composition in infancy, the equipment is typically large, and thus not readily portable, is expensive, and requires a qualified operator. Bioelectrical impedance analysis s...
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Gut microbiome transfer (GMT; also referred to as faecal microbiota transplantation or FMT) has been propelled from fringe therapy to mainstream science as a highly effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. As a result, there has been great interest in the potential efficacy and safety of GMT in treating other medical co...
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Dietary patterns describe the quantity, variety, or combination of different foods and beverages in a diet and the frequency of habitual consumption. Better understanding of childhood dietary patterns and antenatal influences could inform intervention strategies to prevent childhood obesity. We derived empirical dietary patterns in 1142 children (a...
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While there is evidence that being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA) is associated with an increased risk of obesity later in life, the data are conflicting. Thus, we aimed to examine the associations between proportionality at birth and later obesity risk in adulthood. This was a retrospective study using data recorded in the Swedish Birth Regi...
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Importance Although antibiotics are associated with obesity in animal models, the evidence in humans is conflicting. Objective To assess whether antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with the development of childhood obesity, focusing particularly on siblings and twins. Design, Setting, and Participants This cr...
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Background: Previous studies reported impaired glucose homeostasis among preterm survivors, but consisted almost exclusively of Caucasians. It is unknown whether Asians born preterm in display similar impairments. Aim: To assess glucose homeostasis and other cardiometabolic outcomes among young adults born preterm in Thailand. Methods: Partici...
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Recent evidence indicates a slight decline in the overall prevalence of obesity in New Zealand children (including Māori), but it is unknown whether this pattern is reflected across all iwi. We examined obesity prevalence (body mass index (BMI) ≥95th percentile) among 4-year-old children of Ngāti Whātua descent (n = 2031) enrolled in the B4 School...
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Objective While prediction models can estimate an infant’s risk of developing obesity at a later point in early childhood, caregiver receptiveness to such information is largely unknown. We aimed to assess the acceptability of these models to New Zealand caregivers. Methods An anonymous questionnaire was distributed online. The questionnaire consi...
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Objective: To determine the extent to which ethnic differences in BMI Z-scores and obesity rates could be explained by the differential distribution of demographic (e.g. age), familial (e.g. family income), area (e.g. area deprivation), parental (e.g. immigration status), and birth (e.g. gestational age) characteristics across ethnic groups. Meth...
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Background: Despite perceiving their child as being above a healthy weight, many parents do not intervene. Little is known about the factors influencing parental action. We assessed parental perception of child's weight status, the prevalence of mitigating parental action, and the underlying factors. Methods: We studied 20,242 children and adolesc...
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Objective To assess whether antenatal exercise in overweight/obese women would improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. Design Two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial. Setting Home-based intervention in Auckland, New Zealand. Population and sample Pregnant women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 . Methods Participants were randomised to a 16-we...
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Background: Partial remission (PREM) by the insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c) method has not been evaluated for the combined associations of ethnicity and socio-economic status in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Objective: To investigate prevalence and predictors of PREM defined by IDAA1c. Subjects and methods: 614 of 6...
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Background While there is some evidence of elevated blood pressure later in life in preterm survivors, data on adult women are still lacking. Thus, we assessed the associations between preterm birth and blood pressure in young adult women. Methods and Results We studied 5232 young adult women who volunteered for military service in Sweden between...
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Background Paediatric obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, resulting in significant adverse effects on health and wellbeing. Early life events, including those that happen before, during, and after pregnancy can predispose children to later obesity. The purpose of this review is to examine the magnitude of obesity among New Zealand ch...
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Obesity in children is a global health concern. In New Zealand, one in three school entrant children are overweight or obese. Māori, the indigenous people, are disproportionately represented among the lowest economic group and have a disproportionately high incidence of obesity. This study explored Māori parents’ and caregivers’ views of the relati...
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Introduction Animal studies showed that germ-free mice inoculated with normal mouse gut bacteria developed obesity, insulin resistance and higher triglyceride levels, despite similar food intake. In humans, an association has been found between obesity and gut microbiome dysbiosis. However, gut microbiome transfer has not been evaluated for the tre...
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Background: Maternal obesity has been implicated in the origins of childhood obesity through a suboptimal environment in-utero. Objective: We examined relationships of maternal early pregnancy body mass index (BMI), overweight/obesity, and plasma biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, and placental function with measures of chi...
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We assessed anthropometry in 22,421 adult daughters in association with their mothers’ tobacco smoking early in pregnancy (at their first antenatal visit) in Sweden, particularly their risk of short stature and obesity. Adult daughters were grouped by maternal smoking levels during pregnancy: Non-smokers (58.5%), Light smokers (24.1%; smoked 1–9 ci...