Wallace V. Friesen's research while affiliated with University of Kentucky and other places

Publications (73)

Chapter
This chapter evaluates the potential of visible facial behavior in studies of affective disorders. Despite the limits in the samples studied, the results should encourage clinical investigators to consider measuring facial expressions. At the very least, the data argue for repeating these studies with larger samples and better measures of clinical...
Article
Discusses research on facial expressions of emotion and presents suggestions for recognizing and interpreting various expressions. Using many photographs of faces that reflect surprise, fear, disgust, anger, happiness, and sadness, methods of correctly identifying these basic emotions and of understanding when people try to mask or simulate them ar...
Article
Ekman and Friesen (1982) predicted that smiles that express enjoyment would be marked by smoother zygomatic major actions of more consistent duration than the zygomatic major actions of nonenjoyment smiles. Study 1 measured the duration and smoothness of smiles shown by female subjects in response to positive emotion films while alone and in a soci...
Article
Physiology and emotional experience were studied in the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, a matrilineal, Moslem, agrarian culture with strong proscriptions against public displays of negative emotion. Forty-six Minangkabau men were instructed to contract facial muscles into prototypical configurations of 5 emotions. In comparison with a group of 62 Ss f...
Article
Studies based on mean accuracy of a group of subjects suggest that most observers do no better than chance in detecting the lies of others. We argue that a case-by-case methodology, like that used in polygraphy studies may be more useful. Three behavioral measures (two kinds of smiles and pitch) were used to make predictions about the lying or trut...
Article
Emotion-specific autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity was studied in 20 elderly people (age 71-83 years, M = 77) who followed muscle-by-muscle instructions for constructing facial prototypes of emotional expressions and relived past emotional experiences. Results indicated that (a) patterns of emotion-specific ANS activity produced by these task...
Article
Four experiments were conducted to determine whether voluntarily produced emotional facial configurations are associated with differentiated patterns of autonomic activity, and if so, how this might be mediated. Subjects received muscle-by-muscle instructions and coaching to produce facial configurations for anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness...
Article
Early descriptions of the Type A coronary-prone pattern include both nonverbal and motoric signs. Facial behaviors during the Type A Structured Interview of 24 Type A and 24 Type B men were examined using the Facial Action Coding System. In addition, speech components and heart rate reactivity during the Structured Interviews were examined. Among t...
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Full-text available
In this experiment, we combined the measurement of observable facial behavior with simultaneous measures of brain electrical activity to assess patterns of hemispheric activation in different regions during the experience of happiness and disgust. Disgust was found to be associated with right-sided activation in the frontal and anterior temporal re...
Article
Facial expression, EEG, and self-report of subjective emotional experience were recorded while subjects individually watched both pleasant and unpleasant films. Smiling in which the muscle that orbits the eye is active in addition to the muscle that pulls the lip corners up (the Duchenne smile) was compared with other smiling in which the muscle or...
Article
The present study examined the impact of viewing condition on accuracy in detecting deception. In Experiment 1, observers saw: 1) a single interview for each subject and then judged whether it was honest or deceptive; or 2) two interviews for each subject, and then judged which one was deceptive. All observers were given the full audiovisual record...
Article
Subtle differences among forms of smiling distinguished when subjects were truthful and when they lied about experiencing pleasant feelings. Expressions that included muscular activity around the eyes in addition to the smiling lips occurred more often when people were actually enjoying themselves as compared with when enjoyment was feigned to conc...
Article
Izard and Haynes question our findings and claims for disovery because they did not consider the difference between a one-to-one and one-to-many relationship between a sign (the facial expression) and what it signifies (a message about emotion). Clarifying this matter not only shows that the disagreement between us is more apparent than real, but m...
Article
Full-text available
We present here new evidence of cross-cultural agreement in the judgement of facial expression. Subjects in 10 cultures performed a more complex judgment task than has been used in previous cross-cultural studies. Instead of limiting the subjects to selecting only one emotion term for each expression, this task allowed them to indicate that multipl...
Article
We present here new evidence of cross-cultural agreement in the judgment of facial expression. Subjects in 10 cultures performed a more complex judgment task than has been used in previous cross-cultural studies. Instead of limiting the subjects to selecting only one emotion term for each expression, this task allowed them to indicate that multiple...
Article
We obtained the first evidence of a facial expression unique to contempt. Contrary to our prediction, this contempt expression was not culture-specific but was recognized by people in Estonia S.S.R., Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Scotland, Turkey, the United States, and West Sumatra. Pan-cultural agreement about the contempt expression...
Article
In this study, we examined startle reactions in which the subjects did and did not know when a blank pistol would be fired. In addition, we asked subjects to suppress their startle response and to simulate a startle when there was no gunshot. Detailed measurement of facial muscular actions supported most of the findings reported by Landis and Hunt...
Article
In three studies, judgments based on separated channels (speech content, voice quality, face alone and body alone) were correlated with judgments based on combined channels (speech, face + speech, and face + body + speech). The judges observed spontaneous behavior in two different types of interview situations and rated various aspects of the behav...
Article
Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories th...
Article
Theoretically based distinctions linked to measurable differences in appearance are described for three smiles: felt smiles (spontaneous expressions of positive emotion); false smiles (deliberate attempts to appear as if positive emotion is felt when it isn''t); and, miserable smiles (acknowledgements of feeling miserable but not intending to do mu...
Article
Asymmetries of the smiling facial movement were more frequent in deliberate imitations than spontaneous emotional expressions. When asymmetries did occur they were usually stronger on the left side of the face if the smile was deliberate. Asymmetrical emotional expressions, however, were about equally divided between those stronger on the left side...
Article
Three experiments correlated judgments made from observing single channels (face, body, or speech) with multiple channel judgments (face, body, and speech together; or face and speech together). Judges observed the spontaneous behavior of videotaped student nurses in 2 types of interview situations, "deceptive" and "honest," and rated the nurses on...
Article
Whether the video-image of the face was larger than life or about one-fifth life size made no difference in observers' judgments of emotions, attitudes, and personality traits.
Article
Hand movements were classified into speech illustrators, body manipulators, and actions which convey precise symbolic information. The behavioral code noted whether the action involved the left, right, or both hands, and the manipulator code also included the part of the body manipulated. The application of this code to videotapes of conversations...
Article
The behavior of nine patients with the de Lange syndrome was studied using videotape, a recording protocol of eight standardized stimulus conditions, and a visual, digital time reference which permitted precise coding and quantitative analysis. These patients avoid or reject social interactions and physical contact, and they do not distinguish in t...
Article
A procedure has been developed for measuring visibly different facial movements. The Facial Action Code was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The method can be used to describe any facial movement (observed in photographs, motion picture film or videotape) in terms of anatomically based action units. The developme...
Article
Tested 2 hypotheses concerning differences between the face and body when a person is engaged in deception. 21 female nursing students were required to be honest in one interview, frankly describing their feelings about a pleasant film, and to be deceptive in another interview concealing negative affect aroused by an unpleasant film and simulating...
Article
A revision of our theoretically based classification of nonverbal behavior is presented, as it relates to the interpretation and measurement of hand movements. On the basis of the origins, usage and coding of the behavior distinctions are drawn and hypotheses offered about three classes of behavior: emblems, illustrators and adaptors. Findings from...
Article
Investigated the question of whether any facial expressions of emotion are universal. Recent studies showing that members of literate cultures associated the same emotion concepts with the same facial behaviors could not demonstrate that at least some facial expressions of emotion are universal; the cultures compared had all been exposed to some of...
Article
Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures m...
Article
Describes the Visual Information Display and Retrieval (VID-R) system, designed for the analysis of visual records, archiving, and visual displays in programed instruction. The necessities for permanent visual records are reviewed. Employment of VID-R functions of (a) viewing speed, (b) search and retrieval, (c) temporal reorganization (editing), a...
Article
: Research relevant to psychotherapy regarding facial expression and body movement, has shown that the kind of information which can be gleaned from the patients words - information about affects, attitudes, interpersonal styles, psychodynamics - can also be derived from his concomitant nonverbal behavior. The study explores the interaction situati...
Article
MMPI is given to recruits in 1st, 4th, and 8th week of basic training. The 8th week group is more willing to admit mild antisocial behavior. The changes imply "more callous attitudes, a tendency to ignore the needs of others and feelings of self-importance increase slightly less prone to examine their own responsibility for conflicts, and more read...
Article
"Hand Movements" / Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen / Discusses 3 classes of nonverbal behavior (emblems, illustrators, adaptors), concentrating on hand movements. / "Deaf Babies Babble with Hands" / Natalie Angier / Argues that speech is not essential to learning language, in that deaf children use hand movement to help them acquire language. / "...

Citations

... Many aspects of gestural practices are cultural in nature, such as emblems (e.g., Brookes 2004 ;Johnson, Ekman, and Friesen 1981 ;Morris et al. 1979 ;Payrat ó 1993 ), norms for polite gesture use (Bremmer and Roodenburg 1991 ), how to point appropriately (see papers in Kita 2003 ), typical size of gesture (Efron 1941(Efron /1972, what hand to use (Kita and Essegbey 2001 ), whether to indicate the future in front of or behind you (N ú ñ ez and Sweetser 2006 ), etc. Importantly for linguistic studies of bilingualism, the properties of language itself also affect gestures. There is a growing body of work showing that the form and distribution of gestures differ cross -linguistically depending on semantic, syntactic, and discursive organization (see Kita 2009 for an overview). ...
... Engagement is displayed differently during a traditional lecture as opposed to a conversation, where a number of social constraints related to speech interactions are relevant, e.g., turn-taking and verbal and non-verbal feedback. Conversations are highly social situations where par-ticipants may, for example, attempt to disguise negative emotions as a result of social pressure (Ekman and Friesen, 1969). Conversational engagement in an educational context can be defined as the degree of involvement of students in a topic being discussed and their willingness to continue the interaction. ...
... Gestures such as illustrators and adaptors also signal power. Illustrators are gestures intimately related to speech unfolding (e.g., swiftly moving hands downward to reinforce the forcefulness of what is said verbally), whereas adaptors are movements meant to satisfy a bodily or physiological need (e.g., scratching one's head if it itches; Ekman & Friesen, 2008). Dunbar and Burgoon (2005b) found people use more illustrators when their romantic partner is highly powerful, which might constitute an attempt to convince the highly powerful partner of their viewpoint. ...
... The "inhibition hypothesis" (Darwin, 1872) posits that highly intense facial expressions may not be subject to voluntarily control. In some situations, neuroanatomical and cultural differences may interact in a way that produces facial expressions that escape efforts to control or mask, thus emerging as leaked expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1969b). Such leakage of expressions has been shown to be most likely under incongruent conditions (Jens, 2017). ...
... EmotionROI dataset has six classes corresponding to Ekman's six basic emotions [47] and has the same number of images for each class, namely 330 for each. We evaluated this dataset as 6 classes and 2 classes. ...
... Moreover, FER relates to pattern recognition, image processing, computer vision, and other aspects [5]. Generally speaking, Paul Ekman proposes that there are seven kinds of expressions, i.e. anger, disgust, fear, happy, sad, surprise, and neutral [6][7][8], in the emotional state. Figure 1 shows some expression examples in the real world. ...
... I never think about it), as well as expletives, which are more likely to be used in an informal setting (Jay and Janschewitz, 2008). Finally, as conversational speech is often characterized by a blending of emotions, rather than discrete productions (Cowie and Cornelius, 2003;Ekman et al., 1972;Williams and Stevens, 1972), the degree to which emotional characteristics may be associated with expressions of Passion and Indifference by listeners was also explored. ...
... However, according to the author, the advancement of interdisciplinary studies around the role of affective phenomena requires the construction of minimal consensus. EKMAN et al. (1982) andBELZUNG (2007) go in the same direction and point to the absence of a definition of what is an emotion. ...
... happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, sadness, contempt and embarrassment (Aronson et al., 2018;Buck, 1984;Ekman, Friesen, & Ellsworth, 1982, Izard, 1977. Research has indicated that (1) when shown pictures of the faces of political candidates for about one second and tasked with judging competence, people's judgments predicted congressional outcomes 68% of time (Todorov, Mandisodza, Goren, & Hall, 2005), (2) based solely on photos of faces, people can accurately distinguish people's political and sexual orientation (Rule & Ambady, 2010;Rule, Ambady, Adams, & Macrae, 2008;Rule, Ambady, & Halett, 2009;Rule, Ishii, Ambady, Rosen & Hallet, 2011) and (3) when shown unfamiliar faces and challenged with evaluating attractiveness, likeability, trustworthiness, competence and aggression, people's judgments made after 100 ms (about a tenth of a second) exposure highly correlated with judgments made in the absence of time restraints (Wilis & Todorov, 2006). ...
... The six used affective datasets contain less than two thousand images, except the FI dataset (see Table 1), which are far from the required number for training robust deep networks. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on binary emotion prediction (positive and negative) and convert the emotional labels of Mikel [30] and Ekman [36] into the original binary affective tags, which are compared with existing advanced methods in the above datasets. In visual sentiment analysis tasks, different labeling methods are used, and the number of categories in the dataset is different. ...