W.J. Fisk's research while affiliated with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and other places

Publications (142)

Article
Fisk summarizes the findings of 10 studies investigating whether increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, with other factors constant, influence perceived air quality, health, or work performance of people. Concentrations of CO2 in occupied buildings exceed outdoor concentrations because CO2 is a product of peoples' metabolism. Indoor CO2 con...
Article
Increases in hospital admissions and deaths are associated with increases in outdoor air particles during wildfires. This analysis estimates the health benefits expected if interventions had improved particle filtration in homes in Southern California during a ten-day period of wildfire smoke exposure. Economic benefits and intervention costs are a...
Article
Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally le...
Article
The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures t...
Article
Abstract This field study of 37 small and medium commercial buildings throughout California obtained information on ventilation rate, temperature, and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system characteristics. The study included seven retail establishments; five restaurants; eight offices; two each of gas stations, hair salons, healt...
Article
An important role of building ventilation is to limit the indoor concentrations of pollutants emitted from indoor sources. Changes in ventilation rate will impact the concentrations of VOCs and SVOCs in buildings depending on factors such as source location and phase partitioning. We used a fugacity-based mass balance model to simulate the impact o...
Article
Tackifiers and adhesive additives in commercially available HVAC filters help retain particles that impinge upon the filter media. A previous report has shown that the hydrolysis of such additives can be a formaldehyde emission source. The objective of this study is to investigate formaldehyde emissions from tackifier-coated filters and to evaluate...
Article
Retail stores have many sources of indoor air contaminants that can cause potential health and odor concerns. One way to control exposure to these contaminants is to provide adequate ventilation. This study aims to characterize the whole-building emission rates of contaminants in certain retail types. The pilot study included two grocery stores and...
Article
Abstract This study estimates some of the benefits and costs of implementing scenarios that improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in the stock of U.S. office buildings. The scenarios include increasing ventilation rates when they are below 10 or 15 l/s per person, adding outdoor air economizers and controls when absent, eliminating winter indo...
Article
This project evaluated the use of activated carbon fiber (ACF) media to adsorb volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from indoor air during periods of occupancy. Each night, in a regeneration process, VOCs can be desorbed from the ACF media and vented outdoors to enable the next cycle of air cleaning. The VOC removal efficiency of the ACF media was est...
Article
The major goals of this study were to identify key organic constituents of particles deposited on heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) filters and better understand the chemical mechanisms that contribute to negative impacts of building filtration systems on indoor air quality. Several types of filter media were investigated: fiberglass,...
Article
Manganese oxide-based catalysts for active formaldehyde abatement have been synthesized in aqueous solution and characterized using X-ray Diffraction spectroscopy, porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy techniques. Initial results show good material properties such as high surface area and low pa...
Article
This paper provides quantitative estimates of benefits and costs of providing different amounts of outdoor air ventilation in U.S. offices. For three scenarios, we estimated changes in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, work performance, short term absence, and building energy consumption. The associated annual economic benefits were $13 billio...
Article
Abstract The scientific literature through 2005 on the effects of ventilation rates on health in indoor environments has been reviewed by a multidisciplinary group. The group judged 27 papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals as providing sufficient information on both ventilation rates and health effects to inform the relationship. Co...
Article
Based on a literature review, the following IEQ factors are associated with health effects and performance outcomes in numerous studies with generally consistent findings: exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, ventilation rates, temperatures, dampness and mold, and presence of air conditioning. This paper presents methods for estimating the bene...
Article
Abstract Abstract Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in...
Article
This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two "experimental" filter banks within an of...
Article
We used Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional sampling methods to monitor and identify trace level organic pollutants formed in heterogeneous reactions between ozone and HVAC filters in real time. Experiments were carried out using a bench-scale flow tube reactor operating with dry air and humidified air (50% RH), a...
Article
It is the objective of the present paper to simulate the airflow patterns numerically around an outdoor intake louver with and without velocity sensors mounted. Two sets of sensor locations are simulated, i.e. middle of blades and downstream of blades. The simulation results yield velocity magnitudes in good agreement with previous experimental dat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally le...
Article
The purpose of this commentary is not to be critical specifically of the modeling of Chen et al. (2006). To the best of my knowledge, all prior modeling of indoor airborne respiratory disease transmission, including my own efforts (Fisk et al., 2005), have failed to account for some or all of the factors mentioned above. Rather, my purpose has been...
Article
Carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO2 data that are used to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air supply. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements and to save energy by avoiding ventilation rates exceeding design requirements. However, there have been many anecdotal...
Article
Unlabelled: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences recently completed a critical review of the scientific literature pertaining to the association of indoor dampness and mold contamination with adverse health effects. In this paper, we report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of the studies reviewed in the IOM...
Article
Abstract Abstract Ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) systems for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air are being considered for use in office buildings. Here, we report an experimental evaluation of a UVPCO device with tungsten oxide modified titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the photocatalyst. The device was challenged with com...
Article
Abstract Abstract The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from W.J. Fisk, Q. Lei-Gomez & M.J. Mendell [(2007) Indoor Air17, 226–235], and asthma risks calculated from additional stu...
Article
Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) is a new method of supplying heated or cooled air throughout a building. Reported advantages of UFAD include energy savings and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). We measured several aspects of the performance of a UFAD system installed in a medium-size office building. The measured air change effectiveness was ve...
Article
Poor indoor environmental quality (IEQ) has been related to increases in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, respiratory illnesses, sick leave, and loss in productivity. Calculations indicate that the cost of poor IEQ can be higher than energy costs FOR space conditioning and ventilation and that many measures taken to improve indoor IEQ will be...
Article
Outdoor air ventilation rates vary considerably between and within buildings, and may be too low in some spaces. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential work performance benefits of increased ventilation. We analyzed the literature relating work performance with ventilation rate and employed statistical analyses with weighting facto...
Article
Acceptable indoor air quality in office buildings may be achieved with less energy by combining effective air cleaning systems for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with particle filtration then by relying solely on ventilation. For such applications, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) systems are being developed for VOC destruction. An e...
Article
Indoor temperature is one of the fundamental characteristics of the indoor environment. It can be controlled with a degree of accuracy dependent on the building and its HVAC system. The indoor temperature affects several human responses, including thermal comfort, perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance at work. In th...
Article
A deteriorated indoor climate is commonly related to increases in nick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, respiratory illnesses, sick leave, reduced comfort, and losses in productivity. The cost of this for society is high. Some calculations show that the cost is higher than the heating energy costs for the same buildings. Building-level calculation...
Article
Unlabelled: Student attendance in American public schools is a critical factor in securing limited operational funding. Student and teacher attendance influence academic performance. Limited data exist on indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, and how IEQ affects attendance, health, or performance. This study explored the associati...
Article
Where indoor concentrations are high, radon entry into houses with basements is usually due primarily to the convective transport of soil gas through openings in the subsurface part of the building shell. The factors determining the rate of entry may conveniently be divided into those associated with the undisturbed soil and those associated with t...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty-seven laboratory experiments were conducted in a simulated smoking room to quantify rates of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) leakage to a nonsmoking area as a function of the physical and operational characteristics of the smoking room. Data are presented for the various types of leakage flows, the effect of these leaks on smoking room per...
Article
Unlabelled: Our objective was to develop a process for selecting interior finish materials having low impacts with respect to emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for school relocatable classrooms (RCs). A laboratory study identified alternate materials with low VOC emissions. Two pairs of RCs then were constructed. One...
Article
Unlabelled: In chamber experiments, we investigated the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air towards a heated mannequin or a human volunteer seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while anothe...
Article
Unlabelled: We investigated the relationship between ventilation rates and individual work performance in a call center, and controlled for other factors of the indoor environment. We randomized the position of the outdoor air control dampers, and measured ventilation rate, differential (indoor minus outdoor) carbon dioxide (DeltaCO(2)) concentrat...
Article
Unlabelled: It is known that ventilation is necessary to remove indoor-generated pollutants from indoor air or dilute their concentration to acceptable levels. But as the limit values of all pollutants are not known the exact determination of required ventilation rates based on pollutant concentrations is seldom possible. The selection of ventilat...
Article
A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated indoors was conducted in a call center office building. The building, with two floors and a total floor area of 4600 m2, is located in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA. Ventilation rates were manipulated with the building...
Article
A mass-balance model, as well as data on particle-size distributions, filter efficiencies, and particle-deposition rates were used to estimate reductions in indoor concentrations of different particle types attainable with the use of filters in HVAC supply-air streams. In addition, the energy and total costs of various filtration options were estim...
Article
This paper predicts the reductions in the indoor mass concentrations of particles attainable from use of filters in building supply airstreams and also from use of stand-alone fan-filter units. Filters with a wide efficiency range are considered. Predicted concentration reductions are provided for indoor-generated particles containing dust-mite and...
Article
This paper provides a synthesis of current knowledge about the associations of ventilation system types in office buildings with sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and discusses potential explanations for the associations. Most studies completed to date indicate that relative to natural ventilation, air conditioning, with or without humidificati...
Article
An estimate of the nationwide improvements in health and productivity potentially attainable by providing better indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in U.S. buildings is given. Such estimates include the potential reductions in three categories of health effects, the associated economic benefits, and the potential direct improvements in productivity...
Article
We investigated the relationship between ventilation rates and work performance in a call center. We randomized the ventilation controls and measured ventilation rate, differential carbon dioxide (ÎCOâ) concentration, temperature, humidity, occupant density, degree of under-staffing, shift length, time of day, and time required to complete two diff...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilati...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the relationship of ventilation rates with the performance of advice nurses working in a call center. Ventilation rates were manipulated, temperatures, humidities, and CO2 concentrations were monitored, and worker performance data, with 30-minute resolution, were collected. Multivariate linear regressions were employed to investigat...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the relationship of ventilation rates with the performance of advice nurses working in a call center. Ventilation rates were manipulated; temperatures, humidities, and CO2 concentrations were monitored; and worker performance data, with 30-minute resolution, were collected. Multivariate linear regression was used to investigate the...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory and field experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of sealing leaks in commercial duct systems with an aerosol sealant. The method involves blowing an aerosol through the duct system to seal the leaks from the inside, the principle being that the aerosol particles deposit in the cracks as they try to escape under pressure....
Article
Electricity energy savings potential by eliminating air leakage from ducts in large commercial buildings is on the order of 10 kWh/m2 per year (1 kWh/ft2). We have tested, in two large commercial buildings, a new technology that simultaneously seals duct leaks and measures effective leakage area of ducts. The technology is based upon injecting a fo...
Article
This paper reviews current literature on the associations of ventilation rates and carbon dioxide concentrations in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses, and 21 studi...
Article
Full-text available
According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning ener...
Article
Abstract Occupants of office buildings are exposed to low concentrations of complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that encompass a number of chemical classes and a broad range of irritancies. “Sick building syndrome” (SBS) is suspected to be related to these exposures. Using data from 22 office areas in 12 California buildings, seve...
Article
There is strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. Theoretical considerations, and limited empirical data, suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environment...
Article
To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and...
Article
There are approximately 600,000 paint spray workers in the United States applying paints and coatings with some type of sprayer. Approximately 5% of these spray workers are in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). These spray workers apply paints or other coatings to products such as bridges, houses, automobiles, wood and metal...
Article
Workers in indoor environments often complain of symptoms, such as eye and nose irritation, headache, and fatigue, which improve away from work. Exposures causing such complaints, sometimes referred to as sick building syndrome, generally have not been identified. Evidence suggests these worker symptoms are related to chemical, microbiological, phy...
Article
A portion of electronic equipment failures is a consequenceof particle deposition on electronic circuits in normal indoorenvironments. Deposited hygroscopic particles reduce the electricalisolation (EI) between conductors. In laboratory experiments, weinvestigated the mechanisms, locations, and effects of particledeposition on electronic circuits w...
Conference Paper
A new method for characterizing ventilation in commercial buildings using the Pollutant Concentration Index (PCI) was evaluated via field studies in four buildings. The PCI parameter quantifies the effectiveness of ventilation in controlling air pollutant exposures for pollutants released continuously and spatially uniformly within the building. Fo...
Article
Abstract The air change effectiveness (ACE), an indicator of the indoor airflow pattern, was measured in twenty-six laboratory experiments. Ventilation air was supplied through induction-type diffusers located in the ceiling and removed through a ceiling mounted return grille. The tracer-gas step-up measurement procedure was employed. In five of th...
Article
The existing literature contains strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. Theoretical considerations, and limited empirical data, suggest that existing technologies and procedures can im...
Article
In cleanrooms, very low particle concentrations are maintained by recirculation of air at a high rate (e.g., 600 room air volumes/hr) through highly efficient air filters. Results are reported in a Class M3.5 (Class 100) cleanroom with 28 m 2 (300 ft 2) floor area, where significant energy savings were realized by controlling the rate of air recirc...
Article
Active sub-slab depressurization (SSD) systems are an effective means of reducing indoor radon concentrations in residential buildings. However, energy is required to operate the system fan and to heat or cool the resulting increased building ventilation. We present regional and national estimates of the energy requirements, operating expenses and...
Article
A laboratory-based study of the performance of a floor-based task ventilation system designed for use in office buildings has been completed. With the task ventilation system, occupants can adjust the flow rate and direction of air supplied to their work space through floor-mounted supply grilles. Air exits the ventilated space through a ceiling-mo...
Article
Radon is the largest source of risk to human health caused by an indoor pollutant in the industrial countries. Subslab ventilation (SSV) is one of the most effective and common methods of reducing indoor radon concentrations in houses with a basement. In this paper, the impact of SSV on the air exchange rate is quantified, through numerical modelin...
Article
Concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and of 39 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in 12 northern California office buildings of three different ventilation types. The objectives were to characterize indoor air exposures to VOCs, to investigate variations in chemical composition and concentrations among t...
Article
Full-text available
The primary goal of the California Healthy Building Study (CHBS) is to identify the major characteristics of buildings, ventilation systems, jobs, and indoor environmental quality that are associated with building-related sick-building health symptoms. The first phase of the CHBS was a cross sectional study of 12 office buildings located in the San...
Article
Radon entry into a Florida house whose concrete slab is supported by a permeable concrete-block stem wall and a concrete footer is modeled. The slab rests on backfill material; the same material is used to fill the footer trench. A region of undisturbed soil is assumed to extend 10 m beyond and below the footer. The soil is assumed homogeneous and...
Article
Today's office designs, technologies and work processes make it increasingly difficult for conventional HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental needs of office workers--especially as those workers more openly express personal preferences about air quality and comfort. In an open-plan office workplace, the design and configuration of furniture and...
Conference Paper
In buildings with elevated radon concentrations, the dominant transport mechanism of radon is advective flow of soil gas into the building substructure. However, the building-soil system is often complex, making detailed studies of the radon source term difficult. In order to examine radon entry into buildings, the authors have constructed two room...
Article
The California Healthy Building Study (CHBS) is a multidisciplinary research based in 12 office buildings within California. The overall goal the CHBS is to elucidate relationships between occurrences of office worker health symptoms and characteristics of the workers` buildings, ventilation systems, work spaces, jobs, and indoor environments. A Ph...
Conference Paper
Reduction in the breathing zone concentration of an experimentally simulated pollutant, by factors ranging from 100 to 800, was observed with the device (called an airvest). With use of the airvest by the worker, the hood face velocity can be reduced, leading to substantial energy savings in conditioning of make up air in the building. The airvest...
Article
We describe the experimental approach, structures, and instrumentation of a research project on radon generation and transport in soil and entry into basements. The overall approach is to construct small precisely-fabricated basements in areas of different geology and climate, to control the pressures and ventilation rates in the structures, and to...
Article
Full-text available
Results are presented from a research project to investigate the effects of office partition design on air movement, worker comfort, and ventilation in workstations. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the comfort and ventilation conditions produced by a conventional ceiling supply-and-return air distribution system in workstations separat...
Conference Paper
Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The...
Article
We studied the performance of a task ventilation system that permits occupants to control the flow rate and direction of air supplied to their work space through four floor-mounted supply grill. Air exited the room through a ceding-mounted return grill. To study air-flow patterns, we measured the age of air at multiple locations using a tracer gas...
Article
The effectiveness of the technique of subslab ventilation (SSV) for limiting radon entry into basements was investigated through complementary experimentation and numerical modeling. Determination of the impact of subslab aggregate permeability on SSV performance was a primary objective. Subslab pressure fields resulting from SSV were measured in s...
Article
We model radon entry into basements using a previously developed three-dimensional steady-state finite difference model that has been modified in the following ways: first, cylindrical coordinates are used to take advantage of the symmetry of the problem in the horizontal plane, thereby increasing resolution and computing eficiency without signifia...
Article
This report presents findings from a research project to investigate the effects of office partition design on air movement, worker comfort, and ventilation in workstations. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the comfort and ventilation conditions produced by a conventional ceiling supply-and-return air distribution system in workstations...
Article
The energy performance of two residential exhaust-air heat pumps (EAHP) with different condenser designs was studied experimentally in a laboratory with a focus on transient heat-pump performance associated with time varying requirements for water and space heating. Experimental variables included the total daily volume of hot water required, the s...
Conference Paper
During the last few years, a new displacement air distribution system with low velocity air supplied directly to the occupied zone and a displacement flow in the floor-to-ceiling direction has been introduced into office buildings in the Scandinavian countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate displacement air distribution systems and comp...
Conference Paper
A multiple tracer system has been utilized within commercial buildings to monitor ventilation rates, air exchange efficiencies, age of air at multiple indoor locations, and the fractions of air at a monitoring point that entered the building through a particular air handler and by infiltration. To label the incoming air, a distinct tracer gas is in...
Conference Paper
Researchers in the US have reported the results of measuring the nominal ventilation rate, i.e., outside air supply rate per unit building volume, in approximately 50 US commercial buildings. The nominal ventilation rate, and parameters that can be derived from the nominal ventilation rate, are sufficient for characterizing the rate of ventilation...
Article
Continuous mechanical exhaust ventilation of moderately air-tight residences is common in Scandinavia and has recently been employed in several U.S. residences. Exhaust ventilation decreases the indoor pressure and, thus, increases the pressure difference which drives 222Rn entry. Relatively simple analytical (i.e. closed form) models were develope...

Citations

... The complexity of research into the impact of air quality on people's health or work performance is also evidenced by Fisk et al. (2019). Published research results are unclear, and TQM further research is needed to address the discrepancies among the current findings. ...
... However, some classrooms cannot provide a satisfactory indoor climate for children [1]. Poor indoor climate causes some adverse effects on pupil health, shortened concentration, and impaired performance on standardized tests [2]. This is especially important in the Nordic countries, where it is cold most of the time of the year and pupils spend longer indoors. ...
... The DV system was first used as industrial ventilation in 1970s, and since then it has spread and been widely used especially in Nordic countries to provide good indoor air quality (IAQ) and also to save energy [3,4]. The performance of the DV for practical use has been investigated by a number of researchers [5][6][7][8][9], and many findings have been acquired in 1990s [10][11][12][13]. To facilitate practical application of stratified ventilation systems, numerical models to predict vertical temperature distribution are beneficial, and several models have also been proposed for DV since 1990s [14][15][16][17]. ...
... Nevertheless, modern designs are staying the most requesting [99,100]. Thermal conditions inside buildings vary considerably with time [137]. Numerous studies reported that occupants who perceived their control opportunity as being insufficient were less satisfied of energy consumption in their residence [138,139]. ...
... However, the old filter had seen little use so the difference between filters was small. Fisk et al. (1987 Fisk et al. ( , 2000 Fisk et al. ( , 2002 Fisk et al. ( , 2003) have concentrated on performance and cost of air filtration technologies. Clausen (2004) and Jamriska et al., (2000 and Jamriska et al., ( , 2003) to determine the impact of air filtration in buildings. ...
... According to Power and Worsley, urban air pollution (industrial emissions, car exhaust, high levels of bacteria and allergens) is a major environmental concern (Power & Worsley, 2018) while extreme events such as wildfires (forest fires), volcanic eruptions, and sandstorms generate high amounts of particulate matter and organic aerosols (Liu et al., 2017) which pollute the outdoor air. Under these scenarios, filtration -which is effective in lowering particulate matter from wildfires -and air cleaning may be the only effective solutions at reducing pollution in the indoor air (Barn et al., 2008;Carlsten et al., 2020;Fisk & Chan, 2017). ...