# W -Y. P. Hwang's research while affiliated with Indiana University Bloomington and other places

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## Publications (18)

We derive, in the context of a previously proposed chiral soliton bag model with colored Higgs mechanism, the field equations for the eight gluons and the remaining four Higgs particles. It is pointed out that the boundary condition used by Jändel for supporting his claim about the lack of a suppression mechanism for open-color states do not follow...

We describe a compact scheme which allows gluons to acquire large masses outside a bag, and only outside the bag, via the Higgs mechanism of a specific kind ("colored"). The proposed mechanism does not give rise to "unwanted" massless particles and yet maintains color gauge invariance. Accordingly, we demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a r...

We study proton-antiproton (pp¯) scattering using the static real
potential of Bryan and Phillips outside a cutoff radius r0
and two different shapes for the imaginary potential inside a radius
R*. These forms, motivated by bag models, are a
one-gluon-annihilation potential and a simple geometric-overlap form. In
both cases there are three adjustab...

We confirm a suggestion made by Desplanques that the nuclear induced parity violation caused by the magnetization current is numerically more important than that due to the convection current. The resulting deuteron parity-violating electromagnetic form factor GV(q2) remains sensitive mainly to the P̃13 abnormal-parity admixture in the deuteron wav...

The effects of nuclear parity violation on atomic deuterium parity violation experiments and elastic electron-deuteron scattering are treated. Since the hadronic isoscalar axial neutral weak current is very small in the Weinberg-Salam theory, the effects of nuclear parity violation are important in parity violation measurements which test the vecto...

We describe a soliton bag model which incorporates explicitly SU(2) × SU(2) chiral dynamics, including the conservation of the polar vector current, the partial conservation of the axial vector current, and the SU(2) × SU(2) current algebra. This model appears to be renormalizable so that higher order effects may be treated systematically.

An impulse approximation with relativistic corrections is derived to incorporate the fact that each constituent nucleon of the target nucleus is moving in an average local central potential generated by the other nucleons. The constraint imposed by current conservation is described. An application of the resultant impulse approximation to reanalyze...

We present a simple model of the NN̅ imaginary optical potential at low energies based on the bag model of hadrons. NN̅ annihilation is assumed to proceed via qq̅ annihilation in the region where the nucleon and antinucleon bags overlap. This potential depends parametrically on the bag radius R, and so may be fitted to scattering data to yield info...

We study the question of whether calculations of deuteron photodisintegration respect gauge invariance, and show that the impulse approximation is in severe disagreement with gauge invariance. The method in which Siegert's theorem is implemented is consistent with gauge invariance to within ten percent. We introduce a modification of the impulse ap...

It is shown by relating the transition amplitude of radiative muon capture to that of radiative pion capture, that the transition amplitude of radiative muon capture proposed recently by Hwang and Primakoff differs from the others mainly by Low's counter terms. Despite the fact that the "original" transition amplitude does not violate seriously the...

It is found that, if the off-shell form factors for nucleons can be invoked to ensure current conservation during the instantaneous absorption of the four-momentum transfer by a particular constituent nucleon, the nuclear current in the resultant impulse approximation is conserved in the operator sense. It is also found that, if we start with a rel...

We use the quark-parton model with perturbative QCD corrections in the Weinberg-Salam theory to calculate a parity-violating asymmetry in inclusive lepton pair production. We estimate the asymmetry proportional to the triple correlation of the lepton momenta l+ and l- and the incident hadron momentum P. We find that a nonzero asymmetry requires inc...

We demonstrate, on the basis of gauge invariance, hermiticity, and time-reversal invariance, that there can be no long range transmission of nuclear parity violation to electrons in an atom or in elastic electron scattering. It follows that the ratio of the nuclear induced parity violation in atoms or in elastic electron scattering to that due to w...

It is shown, in the "elementary-particle" treatment, that, if the source to produce the background 12B(g.s.) comes only from the cascade processes μ-12C(g.s.)→νμ12B*(2.62)→νμ12B(g.s.) γ, the average polarization of the recoil 12B(g.s.) produced by the direct polarized-muon capture μ-12C(g.s.)→νμ12B(g.s.) can be extracted reliably from the observed...

It is shown, in the "elementary-particle" treatment, that, if the source to produce the background 12B(g.s.) comes only from the cascade processes μ-12C(g.s.)→νμ12B*(2.62)→νμ12B(g.s.) γ, the average polarization of the recoil 12B(g.s.) produced by the direct polarized-muon capture μ-12C(g.s.)→νμ12B(g.s.) can be extracted reliably from the observed...

It is shown in a model-independent fashion that, even without the conserved vector current test by extracting the shape factors from the observed e∓ energy spectra in the beta decays of 12B and 12N, the validity of conservation of vector current and partial conservation of axial vector current and the absence of second-class axial currents have now...

The theory of radiative muon capture, as formulated in a previous paper on the basis of the conservation of the hadronic electromagnetic current, the conservation of the hadronic weak polar current, the partial conservation of the hadronic weak axial-vector current, the SU(2)×SU(2) current algebra for the various hadronic currents, and the "lineari...

A theory of radiative muon capture, with applications to nuclear spin and isospin doublets, is formulated on the basis of the conservation of the hadronic electromagnetic current, the conservation of the hadronic weak polar current, the partial conservation of the hadronic weak axial-vector current, the SU(2) × SU(2) current algebra for the various...

## Citations

... We neglect the energy shift due to corrections of QED and relativistic effects (3×10 −3 E n /n) [2], which is much smaller than the collision energies considered here. Let U be the optical potential representing the effective strong interaction between the proton and the antiproton [10]. Then, to the first order, the energy of the ¯ pp atom is given by E nn = E n + (ψ nnm |U |ψ nnm ). ...

... current for on-shell nucleons is conserved as implied by gauge invariance, the nuclear or hadronic e.-m. currents generated by the conventional IA are not conserved in general and are inconsistent with gauge invariance[41]. To restore current conservation in conventional IA, we should incorporate also MEC and take seriously the argument that only the sum of all the contributions shall be conserved. In other words, we have to take seriously the two basic ingredients of the IA, viz.: (1) The interaction with the whole nucleus can be approximated by a simple sum of the " elementary " interactions with the constituent nucleons, and (2) each elementary interaction with the constituent nucleon takes place instantaneously. ...

... The dominating dressing in even NN-partial waves (S, D, · · ·) is the σ-meson field while in odd partial waves this will come from the ρ-meson field. It is also important that the initial and final NN-components (in Sand Dwaves) are described by mixed symmetry six-quark states |s 4 p 2 [42] x ; L = 0, 2, ST whereas the intermediate bag has a completely symmetric structure |s 6 [6] x ; L = 0, ST ; both sixquark components being orthogonal to each other. Thus, the effective interaction in the NN channel will result after elimination of other Fock-components in the row (eq. ...

... Much less has been done on RMC in 3 He than on OMC, though there have been calculations of the exclusive rate both in IA and EPM. Calculations in the EPM were made by Hwang and Primakoff (1978), who however made an incorrect assumption, and thus obtained incorrect results, and also by Fearing (1980), Klieb and Rood (1981), Klieb (1982) and Ho et al. (2002). For RMC however the EPM seems to be less reliable than for OMC. ...

... No experimental data for the photon spectrum from RMC on aluminum near the endpoint are available and so theoretical predictions must be used to extrapolate to the endpoint. Following Hwang [97], the spectrum based on Hwang-Primakoff theory is given by ...

Reference: COMET Phase-I technical design report

... After I "solved" μ -+ p → ν μ + n + γ, it immediately applied to μ -+ 3 He → ν μ + 3 H + γ [1], the other well-known spin and isospin doublet via the so-called "elementary-particle treatment" (EPT). The application to the A=12 triads, μ -+ 12 C (S = 0, I = 0) → ν μ + 12 B(S = 1, I = 1) + γ, took the effort of another few months [2]. Again, I used the LH to turn the equations into a set of algebraic equations. ...

Reference: Hwang-Kim-Primakoff Methods