W. N. Bruce's research while affiliated with United States Geological Survey and other places

Publications (15)

Article
A 4-year residue study of soybeans grown on soil treated with aldrin and heptachlor establishes a basis for computing the amount of pesticides translocated into soybeans from soils of known residues. Aldrin and heptachlor granules were applied and soil was analyzed during each growing season to find the average residue levels. The level of insectic...
Article
Peanuts, soybeans, oats, corn, and barley were grown on soil treated in 1961 with granular aldrin and heptachlor at rates of 2, 5, 10, and 20 lb per acre. Data from the analyses of the soil and the seeds were used to establish direct relationships (1) between residues found in the soil and in the seed, and (2) between oil content of the seed and th...
Article
When heptachlor epoxide was fed to Shorthorn dairy cows at levels of 0.2, 0.5, 1.5, 10, and 50 p.p.m., at the end of 12 weeks it appeared in the butterfat of milk at levels of 4.25, 11.25, 21.7, 119.7, and 460 p.p.m., and in body fat at levels of ?, 7.1, 14.7, 83.5, and 293.4 p.p.m., respectively. In a subsequent feed-off period, the heptachlor epo...
Article
Face flies (Musca autumnalis DeGeer) became numerous in the northern half of Illinois during the summer of 1959. Large-scale residual treatments of farm premises and animals were not effective in controlling face flies. Repellent treatments with R-326 (di-n-propyl isocinchomeronate) or Tabatrex (di-n-butyl succinate) gave a practical level of contr...
Article
Intensive studies, involving two distinct procedures, conducted over a period of 3 years(1955 -57) developed very significant correlations between stable fly (Stomoxys culcitrans (L.)) abundance and reductions in milk and butterfat production during the summer months ( May-September). On the basis of two distinct regression lines, average monthly r...
Article
Recent work on the genetics of DDT resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica L., has indicated the presence of a single autosomal dominant gene for high tolerance to DDT. Two laboratory strains of house flies have been shown to carry this gene, the Multi X strain, studied by Maelzer and Kirk (1953), and the DDT I strain, studied by Lichtwardt (1...
Article
It is no doubt significant that housefly resistance to DDT was first recognized and reported in Europe, where DDT came into commercial use in 1944 and was used extensively by civil and military personnel in 1945. In 1947, Sacca and Missiroli attributed the failure of DDT to control flies in Italy to the presence of a variety of house fly which had...

Citations

... Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) are biting flies that feed on blood leading to high stress and elevated cortisol levels which may impact cattle health, productivity and welfare [1]. Previous studies have reported severe reduction in US dairy and beef cattle productivity due to S. calcitrans [2][3][4][5][6][7]. In 2009, the losses due to stable flies in the U.S. cattle industry were estimated to be $2.2 billion/year, with $360 million losses in the dairy industry [8]. ...
... The ge strain had been maintained and studied in this laboratory for 11 years at the start of these experiments. It is marked with the autosomal recessive eye color green (ge) described by Zingrone, et aL (1959) and located in linkage group II (Hiroyoshi, 1961). Recent electrophoretic studies in our laboratory (J. ...
... Repellents specific to stable flies were reported in several studies in the 1940s and 1950s [121][122][123][124]. Most repellent formulations, however, have only demonstrated at best 1 to 2 d reprieve for animals [32,125], and with many less than 12 h of measurable reduction in stable flies [126]. ...
... A common design flaw is the evaluation of genetically unrelated populations in the experimental set-up. The different genetic background and adaptive variations in life history traits across such populations hamper any reliable claim of a causal effect of the point mutation of interest to the observed differences in population growth dynamics (Raymond et al., 2011;The Anopheles gambiae Genomes, 2017;Varzandeh et al., 1954). An elegant solution to overcome this experimental limitation is to back-cross the target-site mutation of interest into a susceptible genomic background over multiple generations, hereby generating near-isogenic lines. ...
... Pyrethrum and allethrin sprays did not protect animals for more than three days even when used at high concentrations. Field tests with sprays applied to livestock to protect them against tabanids are reported by Goodwin et al. (37), and Bruce & Decker (38,39). They showed pyrethrum preparations were practical and effective against tabanids in the midwestern and eastern United States. ...
... and tabanids, it is generally accepted that biting ies are responsible of a huge loss in livestock production. In a very early study made in 1947 in Illinois, US, it was estimated that controlling tabanids through insecticide spray (every 3-4 days) might bring an additional weight gain of 9-13.5 Kg per 5.5 weeks in free pasturing cattle Decker 1951a, Bruce andDecker 1951b). In a study made in USSR in 1982-84, it was estimated that tabanids were responsible of a decrease of 13% of dairy production; at that time only insecticide spray was proposed to decrease their impact (Minár et al. 1987). ...
... The stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) is a cosmopolitan blood-feeding fly that is distributed globally wherever humans keep domesticated animals [1]. Due to their very painful bites, stable flies influence the behavior, health, productivity, and welfare of cattle [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Fly-defensive behaviors of cattle bitten by stable flies include tail switching, foot stomping, head tossing, skin twitching, and ear flicking [9][10][11][12]. ...
... Some of the absorbed chemicals are metabolized during the life time of the plant. Dormal et al. (1959) and Breft and Bowery (1958) found 0.3-1.5 g/g DDT residues and 0.4 g/kg lindane residues, respectively, in beans, and McCaskill et al.(1970) found 6 ng/g lindane residues in soybean, while Bruce et al. (1966) reported levels as high as 0.11 g/g heptachlor in soybean. The mean concentration of heptachlor epoxide detected in tomato crops at Akumadan was 1.65 g/ kg, and this was in 51% of the samples analyzed. ...
... Early reports on the potential of plants for the uptake of OCPs were published in the 1960s and 1970s: aldrin and heptachlor by cucumber, alfalfa, and soyabean (Lichtenstein et al. 1965;Bruce and Decker 1966); dieldrin by corn and peanut (Beetsman et al. 1969;Thompson et al. 1970); and heptachlor and dieldrin by soybeans (Turner et al. 1972). Considerable advances have been made subsequently and are discussed here in this article, which show the potential of plants and their associated microbes for OCPs remediation. ...
... Metabolic physiology of animals also plays an important role that interferes in pesticides identification in milk, as lactating animals have the ability to remove these pesticide residues efficiently through urination and defecation. But the rate of bio-accumulation of these pesticides varies and depend upon their nature, actual load and quantity of produced milk daily (Bruce et al. 1965, Demott et al. 1966). Li et al. (1970) and Surendranath et al. (2000b found that endosulphan present in the crops used for cattle feeding are not passed on to milk. ...