W J Fink's research while affiliated with Ball State University and other places

Publications (157)

Article
Studies of real and simulated microgravity exposure show the lower limb muscles atrophy to the greatest extent, with the calf muscles being most affected and most difficult to target with exercise countermeasures. This ground-based study examined the metabolic involvement of the thigh and calf muscles during two cycle exercise protocols (moderate a...
Article
Full-text available
We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes (n=9, 81±1 y, 68±3 kg, BMI=23±1 kg/m(2)) and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n=6; 82±1 y, 77±5 kg, BMI=26±1 kg/m(2)). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract: PURPOSE: To examine whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative capacity in lifelong endurance athletes (n=9, 81±1 y, 68±3 kg, BMI=23±1 kg/m2) and compare to age-matched, independent living, healthy men (n=6; 82±1 y, 77±5 kg, BMI=26±1 kg/m2). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic...
Article
Full-text available
Two pathways that have been implicated for cellular growth and development in response to muscle contraction are the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt signaling pathways. Although these pathways are readily stimulated after exercise, little is known about how nutritional status may affect stimulation of these pathways in respon...
Article
The significance and relevance of the topics being discussed in this text is under scored by Westerhoff’s (2000) suggestion that biochemistry is poised to make major advances in this century, similar to those made in physics in the 20th century. He anticipates that, to understand the nonlinear kinetic interactions between molecules and interpret th...
Article
Renal insufficiency is associated with altered vitamin B-6 metabolism. We have observed high concentrations of 4-pyridoxic acid, the major catabolite of vitamin B-6 metabolism, in plasma during renal insufficiency. The objective was to evaluate the renal handling of 4-pyridoxic acid and the effects of renal dysfunction on vitamin B-6 metabolism. We...
Article
Full-text available
This investigation examined the effects of 4 weeks of non-dominant arm unloading on the functional and structural characteristics of the triceps brachii muscle of six normo-active college-age males (age: 23 +/- 1 years, height: 176 +/- 4 cm, weight: 76 +/- 6 kg). The primary intention of this study was to determine if arm unloading is an effective...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training on physiological adaptations including muscle fiber hypertrophy and muscle creatine accumulation. Nineteen healthy resistance-trained men were matched and then randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either a creatine (N =...
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of diet on muscle triglyceride and endurance performance. Seven endurance-trained men completed a 120-min cycling bout at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Each subject then ingested an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (Hi-CHO; 83% of energy) or a high-fat (Hi-Fat; 68% of energy) diet for the ens...
Article
Ten competitive male cyclists completed a Wingate Bike Test (WIN), a 30-min self-paced cycling performance bout (END), and a constant load, supramaximal cycling spring (SPN) to fatigue following 5 d of oral supplementation (5,000 mg.day-1) with inosine and placebo. Blood samples were obtained prior to and following both supplementation periods, and...
Article
This study compared the physiological responses and performance following the ingestion of a waxy starch (WS), resistant starch (RS), glucose (GL) and an artificially-sweetened placebo (PL) ingested prior to exercise. Ten college-age, male competitive cyclists completed four experimental protocols consisting of a 30 min isokinetic, self-paced perfo...
Article
The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of starch structure on muscle glycogen resynthesis and cycling performance. Eight male cyclists (22 +/- 1 yr) completed an exercise protocol (DP) to decrease vastus lateralis glycogen concentration. This exercise consisted of 60 min cycling at 75% VO2max, followed by six 1-min sprints at appr...
Article
Ten competitive male cyclists completed a Wingate Bike Test (WIN), a 30-min self-paced cycling performance bout (END), and a constant load, supramaximal cycling sprint (SPN) to fatigue following 5 d of oral supplementation (5,000 mg.day -1 ) with inosine and placebo. Blood samples were obtained prior to and following both supplementation periods, a...
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of caffeine ingestion on work output at various levels of perceived exertion during 30 min of isokinetic variable-resistance cycling exercise. Ten subjects completed six trials 1 hr after consuming either 6 mg.kg-1 caffeine (3 trials) or a placebo (3 trials). During each trial the subjec...
Article
Full-text available
Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be h...
Article
In order to determine the effect of oral Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) dosing on exercise capacity, 15 middle-aged men (44.7 +/- 2.0 years) received either CoQ10 (150 mg/day x 2 months-Q10 GRP) or placebo (2 months-CON GRP). Blood CoQ10 levels increased (p < 0.05) during the treatment in the Q10 GRP (Pre = 0.72 +/- 0.06, 2 months = 1.08 +/- 0.14 micrograms/...
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the histochemical and enzymatic characteristics of skeletal muscle after 20 yr of distance running training. Twenty-eight men were first studied between 1966 and 1974 when they were all highly trained distance runners. On the basis of their training regimens in the interim between testing, subjects w...
Article
Muscle carnitine levels were examined in 31 younger [mean (SD), 27 (5) years] and 27 older [49 (8) years] men. Needle biopsies were obtained from the lateral gastrocnemius or vastus lateralis muscles and assayed for free and total carnitine concentrations via a 5,5'-Dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) DTNB-linked spectrophotometric procedure. A subgrou...
Article
This study investigated the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle carnitine and glycogen content during submaximal exercise (EX). Triglycerides were evaluated by a fat feeding (90 g fat) and 3 h later subjects cycled for 60 min at 70% VO2max (CON). Muscle biopsies were obtained preexercise and after 30 and 60 min of EX. Blood samples wer...
Article
This study examined the effects of 14 days of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle and blood carnitine fractions, and muscle and blood lactate concentrations, during high-intensity sprint cycling exercise. Eight subjects performed three experimental trials: control I (CON I, Day 0), control II (CON II, Day 14), and L-carnitine (L-CN, Day 28). Each...
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of passive and active recovery on the resynthesis of muscle glycogen after high-intensity cycle ergometer exercise in untrained subjects. In a cross-over design, six college-aged males performed three, 1-min exercise bouts at approximately 130% VO2max with a 4-min rest period between eac...
Article
To examine the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on short high-intensity exercise, twenty male collegiate swimmers completed two trials separated by seven days. Each trial consisted of five 91.4 m (100 yd) swims with a two minute rest interval between each bout. Following the first trial subjects were evenly and randomly assigned to either an...
Article
To determine the effect of carbohydrate feeding on muscle glycogen resynthesis, 8 male cyclists pedaled for 2 hrs on a cycle ergometer at 70% of VO2max while consuming either a 10% carbohydrate solution (CHO) or a nonnutritive sweet placebo (No CHO). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis prior to, immediately postexercise, and at...
Article
Elevated plasma fatty acids have been shown to spare muscle glycogen during exercise. However, on the basis of recent findings, the saturation of fatty acids may influence this response. The purpose of this study was to determine whether saturated or unsaturated fatty acids affected muscle glycogenolysis to varying degrees during cycle exercise. Fi...
Article
Full-text available
To determine the value of dry-land resistance training on front crawl swimming performance, two groups of 12 intercollegiate male swimmers were equated based upon preswimming performance, swim power values, and stroke specialties. Throughout the 14 wk of their competitive swimming season, both swim training group (SWIM, N = 12) and combined swim an...
Article
Full-text available
TANAKA, H., D. L. COSTILL, R. THOMAS, W. J. FINK, and J. J. WIDRICK. Dry-land resistance training for competitive swimming. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 25, No. 8, pp. 952-959, 1993. To determine the value of dry-land resistance training on front crawl swimming performance, two groups of 12 intercollegiate male swimmers were equated based upon pre...
Article
Full-text available
To determine whether the ergogenic benefits of carbohydrate (CHO) feedings are affected by preexercise muscle glycogen levels, eight cyclists performed four self-paced time trials on an isokinetic ergometer over a simulated distance of 70 km. Trials were performed under the following preexercise muscle glycogen and beverage conditions: 1) high glyc...
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of post-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) intake on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after high intensity weight resistance exercise in subjects not currently weight training. In a cross-over design, eight male subjects performed sets (mean = 8.8) of six single leg knee extensions at...
Article
Full-text available
This investigation evaluated the effects of beverage carbonation and carbohydrate (CHO) content on fluid replacement following exercise/thermal dehydration. On four occasions separated by at least 7 days, eight healthy men cycled at 50% of VO2max in a hot environmental chamber (40 degrees C, 40% relative humidity) until a weight loss of 4.12 +/- 0....
Article
This study was conducted to assess whether a previously described dose-response relationship between the amount of exercise and the magnitude of change in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels is observed with large volumes of exercise in young, healthy individuals. Blood lipid and lipoprotein levels were monitored during a 25-wk season of training an...
Article
This study assessed the need to replace sodium in endurance exercise less than or equal to 6 h in duration by comparing responses to fluid replacement with water, saline (25 mmol.l-1), or no fluid. Eight subjects (five male, three female) participated in three 6-h exercise trials on an electrically braked cycle ergometer at 55% VO2max, at 30 degree...
Article
Full-text available
Previous reports indicated that in growing rats the vitamin B-6 pool in muscle was relatively stable during deficiency but increased in response to increased vitamin B-6 intake. To determine whether human muscle would show a similar response 10 college-aged males received a low vitamin B-6 diet (1.76 mumol/d) for 6 wk followed by 6 wk on a self-sel...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism was investigated in eight male subjects during and after six sets of 70% one repetition maximum (1 RM, I-70) and 35% 1 RM (I-35) intensity weight-resistance leg extension exercise. Total force application to the machine lever arm was determined via a strain gauge and computer interfaced system and was equated bet...
Article
In an effort to assess the contributions of a period of increased training volume on swimming performance, two matched groups of collegiate male swimmers were studied before and during 25 wk of training. For the first 4 wk of this study, the two groups trained together in one session per day for approximately 1.5 h.d-1. During the following 6 wk (w...
Article
In an effort to determine what effect the degree of muscle glycogen depletion has on the rate of resynthesis, six male cyclists completed an exercise protocol that involved both one- and two-legged cycling. One leg completed 30 min of single-leg cycling, ten one-min sprints, and 30 min cycling with both legs. This resulted in a large degree of depl...
Article
This study investigated the effects of preliminary exercise (warm-up) on glycogen degradation and energy metabolism during intense cycle ergometer exercise. After determination of VO2max, six male subjects were randomly assigned to perform warm-up (WU) and no warm-up (NWU) trials incorporating a 2 min standardized sprint ride (SR) at 120% of the po...
Article
This study examined the effects of a short-term sudden increment in training load on the oxidative capacity, glycogen content and tension-generating ability of rat skeletal muscle. After training on a treadmill 5 dwk-1 for 9 wk (30 m.min-1 6 degrees, 60 min.d-1), rats were randomly divided into a normal training volume (NTV) group (N = 11) and an i...
Article
Despite similar rates of energy expenditure during training, it has been suggested that swimmers store greater amounts of body fat than runners. To investigate these discrepancies, eight male swimmers (S) and runners (R) were monitored during 45 min of swimming or running (75% VO2max), respectively, and six triathletes were monitored during swimmin...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in muscle glycogen storage during three successive days of running or cycling. In a crossover design, seven male subjects performed two 3-d trials of either running (trial R) or cycling (trial C) for 60 min at 75% VO2max. Biopsy samples were obtained before and after each day's exercise from the...
Article
Ten runners were studied to determine whether selected blood measures were useful indices of the metabolic stress associated with intense training and dietary carbohydrate (CHO) deficiency. The runners performed two diet/training regimens, involving 5 repeated days of intense training approximately 80 min/d, approximately 80% VO2max) and dietary CH...
Article
A standardized 200-m front crawl sprint swim (SpS) was used to evaluate the effects of warm-up on pH, blood gases, and the concentrations of lactate ([La-]) and bicarbonate ([HCO3-]) in arterialized and venous blood. Eight trained male swimmers performed two randomly assigned 200-m front crawl swims at previously determined intensities correspondin...
Article
Eight men performed 10 sets of 10 eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles with one leg [eccentrically exercised leg (EL)]. The weight used for this exercise was 120% of the maximal extension strength. After 30 min of rest the subjects performed two-legged cycling [concentrically exercised leg (CL)] at 74% of maximal O2 uptake for 1 h. I...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine if reduced training would reestablish normal testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase (CK) levels in male distance runners. Ten male runners (mean +/- SE) age 32.0 +/- 2.6 yrs, body fat 9.6 +/- 1.0%, VO2max 61.8 +/- 1.1 ml/kg/min) were monitored during 4 weeks of normal training (baseline training, BT) an...
Article
This study was undertaken to determine the effects of ingesting 5.0 (CHO-5), 6.0 (CHO-6), and 7.5 g/100 ml (CHO-7.5) carbohydrate (CHO) solutions on blood glucose and counterregulatory hormonal responses during prolonged intermittent exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists performed four trials consisting of seven 12-min cycling bouts at 70% of VO2ma...
Article
This study was undertaken to examine the effects of ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) solutions of 0 (WP), 6 (CHO-6), 12 (CHO-12), and 18 g CHO/100 ml (CHO-18) on performance and muscle glycogen use. Ten trained cyclists performed five 120-min cycling trials. The first 105 min of each trial was at 70% of maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), and the final...
Article
Gastric emptying: influence of prolonged exercise and carbohydrate concentration, Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 269-274, 1989. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of serial feedings of different concentrations of carbohydrate (CHO) on gastric emptying and to compare the rates of gastric emptying at rest and during pr...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle and blood lactate concentrations during progressive exercise. Seven endurance-trained male college students performed three incremental bicycle ergometer exercise tests. The first two tests (tests I and II) were identical and consisted of 3-min stage durations with 2-min r...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle and blood lactate concentrations during progressive exercise. Seven endurance-trained male college students performed three incremental bicycle ergometer exercise tests. The first two tests (tests I and II) were identical and consisted of 3-min stage durations with 2-min r...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to investigate the effect of intense training on muscle glycogen stores under conditions of controlled carbohydrate (CHO) intake. On two separate occasions, 10 highly trained distance runners increased their training load for 5 days (20 km/day, approximately 80% maximal O2 consumption) while eating a diet whose carbohydrate...
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the minimum oral dosage of bicarbonate needed to significantly elevate blood bicarbonate and the influence of induced alkalosis on performance in high-intensity, short-duration exercise. Nine endurance-trained cyclists performed four 2-min sprints on separate occasions using an isokinetic cycle erg...
Article
Full-text available
Previous estimates of total vitamin B-6 pools in humans based on extrapolations from tracer studies yielded values of 107-190 mumol when the tracer was administered orally and 345-725 mumol when the tracer was administered intravenously. To obtain a more direct estimate of vitamin B-6 pools, muscle biopsies from five female and seven male adults we...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the physiological responses to successive days of intense training, 12 male collegiate swimmers doubled their training distance (4,266 +/- 264 to 8,970 +/- 161 m.d-1) while maintaining the intensity at approximately 95% VO2max for 10 d. Blood samples were obtained pre-exercise and immediately and 5 min after a sub-maximal (approximately...
Article
To assess the effects of repeated needle biopsies on the rate of muscle glycogen repletion, eight male subjects were studied immediately after and 2 days after an exhaustive cycling bout. A single biopsy was obtained from the right vastus lateralis muscle immediately after an exhaustive cycling bout. Two days later, a sample was taken 1 cm lateral...
Article
In an effort to determine the effects of 5 (CHO-5), 6 (CHO-6), and 7.5 (CHO-7.5) percent carbohydrate solutions on gastric emptying and performance, 8 trained male cyclists performed 4 trials of intermittent (7- x ;12-min bout) cycling at 70% VO2max. A final 12-min self-paced "performance" ride was performed on an isokinetic ergometer (Fitron) inte...
Article
In an effort to describe the skeletal muscle characteristics of trained triathletes, biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, and posterior deltoid muscles of 11 triathletes and 4 normally active controls. Each specimen was analyzed for muscle fiber composition, respiratory capacity (QO2), and citrate synthase activity. The...