W. Ian Lipkin's research while affiliated with University of Oslo and other places

Publications (559)

Article
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Background The global burden of sepsis is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa, where severe infections disproportionately affect young, HIV-infected adults and high-burden pathogens are unique. In this context, poor understanding of sepsis immunopathology represents a crucial barrier to development of locally-effective treatment strategies. We sough...
Article
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Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a chronic and debilitating disease characterized by unexplained physical fatigue, cognitive and sensory dysfunction, sleeping disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, and gastrointestinal problems. People with ME/CFS often report a prodrome consistent with infections. Using regression, Ba...
Article
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Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti are emerging tick-borne pathogens in the United States. Although active infection is typically diagnosed by direct diagnostic tests, such as blood smear or polymerase chain reaction assay, serologic assays can be helpful to identify past infections, and the use of acute plus convalescent testing can pot...
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Background Some patients with acute COVID-19 are left with persistent, debilitating fatigue, cognitive impairment (“brain fog”), orthostatic intolerance (OI) and other symptoms (“Long COVID”). Many of the symptoms are like those of other post-infectious fatigue syndromes and may meet criteria for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (...
Preprint
Background Univariate analyses of metabolomics data currently follow a frequentist approach, using p-values to reject a null-hypothesis. However, the usability of p -values is plagued by many misconceptions and inherent pitfalls. We here propose the use of Bayesian statistics to quantify evidence supporting different hypotheses and discriminate bet...
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Immunocompromised individuals are at risk of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection due to weaker immunity, co-morbidities, and lowered vaccine effectiveness, which may evolve highly mutated variants of SARS-CoV-2. Nonetheless, limited data are available on the immune responses elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection, reinfections, and vaccinations with emerging...
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Maternal infections during pregnancy are common events that have been suggested to be risk factors for Attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring. Only a few studies have been conducted to date and results are conflicting. The current study investigates the associations between specific groups of prenatal maternal infections and o...
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Epidemiological studies and work in animal models indicate that immune activation may be a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We measured levels of 60 cytokines and growth factors in 869 maternal mid-gestational (MMG) and 807 child cord blood (CB) plasma samples from 457 ASD (385 boys, 72 girls) and 497 control children (418 boys, 79...
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Assay sensitivity can be a limiting factor in the use of PCR as a tool for the detection of tick-borne pathogens in blood. We evaluated the performance of Tick-borne disease Capture Sequencing Assay (TBDCapSeq), a capture sequencing assay targeting tick-borne agents, to test 158 whole blood specimens obtained from the Lyme Disease Biobank. These in...
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The COVID-19 pandemic exposed global vulnerabilities to emerging infectious diseases, heralded by earlier outbreaks, that did not result in appropriate investments in surveillance, international collaboration, and response. We propose specific steps that should be taken to reduce future risks to public health, economic and political stability, and...
Research
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This study was conducted to determine whether the surge of cases in Mongolia was associated with the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant or another SARS-CoV-2 variant or with breakthrough infections after vaccination
Article
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Disease associated with Nipah virus infection causes a devastating and often fatal spectrum of syndromes predominated by both respiratory and neurologic conditions. Additionally, neurologic sequelae may manifest months to years later after virus exposure or apparent recovery. In the two decades since this disease emerged, much work has been complet...
Article
Importance: We describe the first report to our knowledge of cutaneous and systemic pathogenicity of human polyomavirus 9 in solid organ transplant recipients. Objective: Three solid organ transplant recipients developed a widespread, progressive, violaceous, and hyperkeratotic skin eruption. All died from pulmonary and multiorgan failure around...
Article
Emerging viruses impose global threats to animal and human populations and may bear novel genes with limited homology to known sequences, necessitating the development of novel approaches to infer and test protein functions. This challenge is dramatically evident in tilapia lake virus (TiLV), an emerging "orthomyxo-like" virus that threatens the gl...
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Enteroviruses (EVs) are common human pathogens. Although infection with EVs leads to cross-reactive antibodies, the clinical relevance of these antibodies is unclear given the estimated incidence of EV infections in the general population of one per year.
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Objectives: Many patients with meningitis have no aetiology identified leading to unnecessary antimicrobials and prolonged hospitalisation. We used viral capture sequencing to identify possible pathogenic viruses in adults with community-acquired meningitis. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 73 patients was tested by VirCapSeq-VERT, a prob...
Preprint
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Transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) primarily occurs via contact exposure of mucosal surfaces with infected body fluids. Historically, nonhuman primate (NHP) challenge studies have employed intramuscular or small particle aerosol exposure, which are uniformly lethal routes of infection, but mimic worst-case scenarios such as a needlestick. When expo...
Preprint
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Background: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex, debilitating disease of unknown cause for which there is no specific therapy. Patients suffering from ME/CFS commonly experience persistent fatigue, post-exertional malaise, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever and irritable bo...
Article
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In June 2021, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases surged in Liberia. SARS-CoV-2 sequences from patients hospitalized during March-July 2021 revealed the Delta variant was in Liberia in early March and was dominant in June, irrespective of geography. Mutations and deletions suggest multiple SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant int...
Preprint
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Background: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex, debilitating disease of unknown cause for which there is no specific therapy. Patients suffering from ME/CFS commonly experience persistent fatigue, post-exertional malaise, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever and irritable bo...
Article
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Oropouche virus (OROV) infection of humans is associated with a debilitating febrile illness that can progress to meningitis or encephalitis. First isolated from a forest worker in Trinidad and Tobago in 1955, the arbovirus OROV has since been detected throughout the Amazon basin with an estimated 500,000 human infections over 60 years. Like other...
Article
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Maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of ADHD in the child. This could reflect causal influence of acetaminophen on fetal neurodevelopment or could be due to confounding factors. The aim of the current study was to examine unmeasured familial confounding factors of this association. We used data from 26,613 c...
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Inadequate sensitivity has been the primary limitation for implementing high-throughput sequencing for studies of tick-borne agents. Here we describe the development of TBDCapSeq, a sequencing assay that uses hybridization capture probes that cover the complete genomes of the eleven most common tick-borne agents found in the United States. The prob...
Article
SARS-CoV-2 can cause chronic and acute disease. Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) include injury to the lungs, heart, kidneys and brain, that may produce a variety of symptoms. PASC also includes a post-COVID-19 syndrome (“long COVID”) with features that can follow other acute infectious diseases as well as myalgic encephalomyeliti...
Article
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In an effort to strengthen global capacity to prevent, detect, and control infectious diseases in animals and people, the United States Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) PREDICT project funded development of regional, national, and local One Health capacities for early disease detection, rapid response,...
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Hunters are at a higher risk for exposure to zoonotic pathogens due to their close interactions with wildlife and arthropod vectors. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to explore the viromes of two tick species, Amblyomma dissimile and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, removed from hunted wildlife in Trinidad and Tobago. We identified seque...
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01866-z
Preprint
Full-text available
Oropouche virus (OROV) infection of humans is associated with a debilitating febrile illness that can progress to meningitis or encephalitis. First isolated from a forest worker in Trinidad and Tobago in 1955, the arbovirus OROV has since been detected throughout the Amazon basin with an estimated 500,000 human infections. Like other members of the...
Article
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Serodiagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is impeded by immunological cross-reactivity among the human coronaviruses (HCoVs): SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, OC43, 229E, HKU1, and NL63. Here we report the identification of humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 peptides that may enable discrimination between exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and other HCoVs. We...
Article
Background: Delayed walking is common in intellectual disability (ID) but may be less common when ID occurs with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies examining this were limited by reliance on clinical samples and exclusion of children with severe motor deficits. Objective: To examine in a population-based sample if age of walking is...
Article
The G12 rotaviruses are an increasingly important cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. Seven human G12P[6] rotavirus strains were detected in stool samples from children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in Lebanon during a 2011–2013 surveillance study. Complete genomes of these strains were sequenced using VirCapSeq-V...
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Within the past 30 yr molecular assays have largely supplanted classical methods for detection of tick-borne agents. Enhancements provided by molecular assays, including speed, throughput, sensitivity, and specificity, have resulted in a rapid increase in the number of newly characterized tick-borne agents. The use of unbiased high throughput seque...
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Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of human anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma in hospitalized adults with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Trial Design This is a prospective, single-center, phase 2, randomized, controlled trial that is blinded to participants and clinical outcome assessor. Participants Eligible...
Article
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Background The second largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak began in the Democratic Republic of Congo in July 2018 in North Kivu Province. Data suggest the outbreak is not epidemiologically linked to the 2018 outbreak in Equateur Province, and that independent introduction of Ebola virus (EBOV) into humans occurred. We tested for antibodies to...
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Significance Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus and World Health Organization (WHO) priority pathogen that causes near-annual outbreaks in Bangladesh and India with >75% mortality. This work advances our understanding of transmission of NiV in its natural bat reservoir by analyzing data from a 6-y multidisciplinary study of serology, viral phylo...
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Postinfectious hydrocephalus (PIH), which often follows neonatal sepsis, is the most common cause of pediatric hydrocephalus worldwide, yet the microbial pathogens underlying this disease remain to be elucidated. Characterization of the microbial agents causing PIH would enable a shift from surgical palliation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulat...
Preprint
Serodiagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is impeded by immunological cross-reactivity to the human coronaviruses (HCoV) SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, OC43, 229E, HKU1, and NL63. Here we report the identification of humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and other HCoV peptides that can be used to detect asymptomatic, mild and, severe SARS-CoV-2 in...
Preprint
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Postinfectious hydrocephalus (PIH), often following neonatal sepsis, is the most common cause of pediatric hydrocephalus world-wide, yet the microbial pathogens remain uncharacterized. Characterization of the microbial agents causing PIH would lead to an emphasis shift from surgical palliation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation to prevention...
Article
Haemaphysalis longicornis, the Asian longhorned tick, is an invasive tick species that has spread rapidly across the northeastern and southeastern regions of the United States in recent years. This invasive pest species, known to transmit several tick-borne pathogens in its native range, is a potential threat to wildlife, livestock, domestic animal...
Article
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Virus attachment to cell surface receptors is critical for productive infection. In this study, we have used a structure-based approach to investigate the cell surface recognition event for New Jersey polyomavirus (NJPyV) and human polyomavirus 12 (HPyV12). These viruses belong to the polyomavirus family, whose members target different tissues and...
Article
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Background: Metagenomic studies have revealed the presence of a filarial nematode in Ixodes scapularis. The phylogeny of this agent, and its potential for human infection, are unknown. Methods: We used existing metagenomic data from I. scapularis to determine the phylogeny of this tick-associated nematode and employed quantitative PCR to determi...
Article
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Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is an unexplained chronic, debilitating illness characterized by fatigue, sleep disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, orthostatic intolerance and gastrointestinal problems. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), we analyzed the plasma proteomes...
Article
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Metagenomics revealed an impressive breadth of previously unrecognized viruses. Here, we report the virome of the Culex annulirostris Skuse mosquito, an important vector of pathogenic arboviruses in Australia. Mosquitoes were collected from three sites in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing (HTS) revealed...
Article
Background Polymerase chain reaction analyses of cardiac tissues have detected viral sequences in up to 67% of cases of myocarditis. However, viruses have not been implicated in giant cell myocarditis (GCM). Furthermore, efforts to detect viruses implicated in myocarditis have been unsuccessful in more accessible samples such as peripheral blood....
Chapter
Maternal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can have profound teratogenic effects including microcephaly and intracranial calcification. In adults, infection may cause acute inflammatory polyneuropathy. These complications appear after resolution of viremia. Thus, molecular assays of blood are typically insufficient to make the link betwe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Metagenomic studies have revealed the presence of a filarial nematode in Ixodes scapularis. The phylogeny of this agent, and its potential for human infection, are unknown. Methods We used existing metagenomic data from I. scapularis to determine the phylogeny of this tick-associated nematode and employed quantitative PCR to determine if...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Metagenomic studies have revealed the presence of a filarial nematode in Ixodes scapularis. The phylogeny of this agent, and its potential for human infection, are unknown. Methods: We used existing metagenomic data from I. scapularis to determine the phylogeny of this tick-associated nematode and employed quantitative PCR to determine...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Metagenomic studies have revealed the presence of a filarial nematode in Ixodes scapularis. The phylogeny of this agent, and its potential for human infection, are unknown. Methods We used existing metagenomic data from I. scapularis to determine the phylogeny of this tick-associated nematode and employed quantitative PCR to determine if...
Article
Full-text available
Host response to infection is a major determinant of disease severity in Ebola virus disease (EVD), but gene expression programs associated with outcome are poorly characterized. Collaborative Cross (CC) mice develop strain-dependent EVD phenotypes of differential severity, ranging from tolerance to lethality. We screen 10 CC lines and identify cli...
Article
We present the largest exome sequencing study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to date (n = 35,584 total samples, 11,986 with ASD). Using an enhanced analytical framework to integrate de novo and case-control rare variation, we identify 102 risk genes at a false discovery rate of 0.1 or less. Of these genes, 49 show higher frequencies of disruptiv...
Article
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The discovery of hepaciviruses in non-human hosts has accelerated following the advancement of high-throughput sequencing technology. Hepaciviruses have now been described in reptiles, fish, birds, and an extensive array of mammals. Using metagenomic sequencing on pooled samples of field-collected Culex annulirostris mosquitoes, we discovered a div...
Article
Overall, our studies demonstrate that proteolytic cleavage is the primary barrier to infection for a subset of zoonotic coronaviruses. Moving forward, the results argue that both receptor binding and proteolytic cleavage of the spike are critical factors that must be considered for evaluating the emergence potential and risk posed by zoonotic coron...
Article
Rotaviruses are the most common infectious agents causing severe diarrheal diseases in young children globally. Three rare human rotavirus strains, two G3P[9] and one G3P[6], were detected in stool samples of children under 5 years of age hospitalized for gastroenteritis in Lebanon during the course of a surveillance study. Complete genomes of thes...