W. A. Kolasinski's research while affiliated with Aerospace Corporation and other places

Publications (48)

Article
During a ~3 month period in mid-1996 outer radiation belt electrons in the energy range from ~3 to 8 MeV were diffusing inward and decaying in intensity with no internal or external source. Measurements from the HIST instrument on POLAR are used to constrain a model for time dependent lossy radial diffusion of these electrons, and to obtain estimat...
Article
The CEPPAD Experiment consists of four sensors for investigating energetic particle phenomena on the POLAR mission. These sensors provide 3-D proton and electron angular distributions in the energy range of 20 keV to 1 MeV, energetic proton and electron measurements extending to energies greater than 10 MEV, high angular and time resolution measure...
Article
The CEPPAD Experiment consists of four sensors for investigating energetic particle phenomena on the POLAR mission. These sensors provide 3-D proton and electron angular distributions in the energy range of 20 keV to 1 MeV, energetic proton and electron measurements extending to energies greater than 10 MeV, high angular and time resolution measure...
Conference Paper
The occurrence of single ion induced multiple-bit upset in IDT71256 256K SRAMs was investigated using high energy heavy ions, with special attention to upsets affecting bits within the same logical memory word
Article
On 24 March 1991 instrumentation aboard CRRES observed the almost instantaneous injection of electrons and protons with energies above 15 MeV into the L-region in the range 2-3. The energy spectrum of the injected electrons, a power law (E exp -6) peaked at 15 MeV and continued to at least 50 MeV.
Article
Full-text available
Linear energy transfer (LET) distributions of Bevalac ion beams were measured. Subsequent analysis has called into question the standard assumption of a monoenergetic, single-species beam at Bevalac. Both high-LET contaminants in the primary beam and very broad LET peaks in degraded beams were observed. High-energy ion beams at other accelerators m...
Article
Full-text available
Single-event-snapback (SES) susceptibilities of selected CMOS devices to heavy ions were measured using N, Ne, Ar, Cu, and Kr ion beams. Like latchup, snapback was observed macroscopically by detecting the abnormally high bias current condition. However, the snapback susceptibility characteristics differed from those of latchup, and consequently it...
Article
Full-text available
JPL and Aerospace have collected a third set of heavy-ion single-event phenomena (SEP) test data since their last joint IEEE publications in December 1985 and December 1987. Trends in SEP susceptibility (e.g. soft errors and latchup) for state-of-the-art parts are presented. Results of the study indicate that hard technologies and unacceptably soft...
Article
The single event effects or phenomena (SEP), which so far have been observed as events falling on one or another of the SE classes: Single Event Upset (SEU), Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Single Event Burnout (SEB), are examined. Single event upset is defined as a lasting, reversible change in the state of a multistable (usually bistable) electron...
Article
Report provides nearly comprehensive body of data on single-event upsets due to irradiation by heavy ions. Combines new test data and previously published data from governmental and industrial laboratories. Clear trends emerge from data useful in predicting future performances of devices.
Article
A system has been developed that tests microprocessors for single-event upset (SEU) at the specified clock speed and without adding wait or hold states. This system compiles a detailed record of SEU-induced errors and has been used to test the Sandia SA3000 microprocessor and prototypes of its commercial equivalent, the Harris H80C85 at the Lawrenc...
Article
Full-text available
Test procedures needed to observe the single-event phenomena for various 256 K CMOS/NMOS static RAMs are described. The tests were conducted with both protons and heavy ions, yielding correlated comparisons of results. Most of the single-event vulnerability data were obtained using EDI EDH8832C, IDT IDT71256, OMNI-WAVE OW62256, and RCA XCDM62256 32...
Article
A highly modified version of the PISCES 2-D simulator has been developed that allows simultaneous solution of the charge collection and circuit problems and the optional use of cylindrical coordinates. The code has been designed for use in industry and uses robust numerical methods. The program runs on a VAX-11-780, and a typical simulation takes a...
Article
Long time constants associated with extremely high pull-up resistances commonly used in high-density, polysilicon-load NMOS SRAMs were identified as the primary cause of single-event-induced, multiple-bit upsets recently observed in cyclotron tests. Diffusion currents can cause single-event errors in this long-time-constant regime. Above certain th...
Article
JPL and Aerospace have collected an extensive set of heavy ion single event upset (SEU) test data since their last joint publication in December, 1985. Trends in SEU susceptibility for state-of-the-art parts are presented.
Article
Samples of the 54F109, 54AS109, 54ALS109, and the 54AHCT109, as well as, the 54F374, 54AS374, 54ALS374, and the 54AHCT374 were tested at the Berkeley Cyclotron. The results indicate that the 54AHCT109 possesses a LET threshold an order of magnitude greater and a SEU cross-section that is 20 times less than its advanced TTL counterparts. The same tr...
Article
Single event upset (SEU) by argon and krypton ions has been observed in 1.25 micron CMOS-SOS integrated circuits. Mixed-mode PISCES-SPICE, circuit-device simulations were conducted and the calculated LET threshold compared favorably to experimental data. Analysis with the two-dimensional finite element PISCES code has revealed the upset charge coll...
Article
Full-text available
Upsets of microcircuits in space have been attributed to heavy ions. In recent studies of the failure mechanisms, we have employed a wide range of test methods. These studies and the application of the test results to space borne microcircuits are presented.
Article
Full-text available
Equipment for testing microcircuits at elevated temperatures for Single Event Phenomena (SEP) such as upset (SEU) and latchup (SEL) has been developed and measurements on several device types have been performed. Very large changes in cross-section and threshold LET have been observed over the temperature range of 25°C to 120°C for SEU and SEL.
Article
SRAM cell recovery time following a 140 MeV Krypton strike on a Sandia SRAM is modelled using a two-dimensional transient numerical simulator and circuit code. Strikes at both n- and p-channel "off" drains are investigated. Four principle results are obtained. The recovery time after a strike is strongly dependent on the drive of the restoring tran...
Article
Careful measurements of the SEU cross section versus the LET of the incident heavy ion were carried out on a single Intel 64K dRAM for which proton SEU data had been recently obtained in order to test whether a single set of modeling assumptions could provide fits to both data sets. The Intel 2164A 64k dRAM exhibited consistent cross-section measur...
Article
The PISCES-II device analysis program has been modified to perform two-dimensional SEU induced latch-up simulations. The results of the simulations have been compared to cyclotron test data taken on a custom test chip. The comparison indicates that the simulations are accurate for light ions. A description of the latch-up process is also given.
Article
A detailed analysis of the SEU vulnerability of the Zilog Z-80 microprocessor is presented based upon data obtained with heavy ions and protons. The analysis demonstrates a method for separating upsets of the general purpose registers from upsets of the internal latches. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the bulk of the upsets observed below a L...
Article
Single event upset (SEU) simulations in SRAM cells have been carried out and the results are compared to experimental data on 16K bit memories. The simulations consisted of simultaneous calculations of charge transport and transient circuit response for four cross-coupled CMOS transistors following the introduction of a slab of excess carriers into...
Article
Measurements of upset cross-sections and linear energy transfer thresholds have been made on two 16K CMOS/NMOS static RAMs, using both bulk process parts and radiation-hardened epitaxial process parts. Test beams include 62-MeV protons at 0 degrees produced at the University of California Davis cyclotron as well as beams of 140-MeV krypton, 178- Me...
Article
Several different approaches have been used in the past to assess the vulnerability of microprocessors to SEU. In this paper we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of these test methods, and address the question of how the microprocessor test results can be used to estimate upset rate in space. Finally, as an application of the above t...
Article
A radiation-hardened 16-K CMOS SRAM has been developed for satellite and deep space applications. The RAM memory cell was modeled to predict the critical charge, necessary for single-particle upset, as a function of temperature, total dose, and hardening feedback resistance. Laboratory measurements of the single event cross section and effective fu...
Article
New test data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), The Aerospace Corporation, Rockwell International (Anaheim) and IRT have been combined with published data of JPL [1,2] and Aerospace [3] to form a nearly comprehensive body of single event upset (SEU) test data for heavy ion irradiations. This data has been arranged to exhibit the SEU suscept...
Article
A detailed analysis of the SEU vulnerability of the Zilog Z-80 microprocessor is presented based upon data obtained with heavy ions and protons. The analysis demonstrates a method for separating upsets of the general purpose registers from upsets of the internal latches. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the bulk of the upsets observed below a L...
Article
Single event upset (SEU) and latchup vulnerabilities were determined for a number of parts of interest to NASA space programs. In cases where a threshold linear energy transfer (LET) for SEU could be measured, an upset rate in a low inclination Space Shuttle orbit was computed. The predicted upset rates are extremely low, except for the devices wit...
Article
Full-text available
Single event upset (SEU) and latchup vulnerabilities were determined for a number of parts of interest to NASA space programs. In cases where a threshold linear energy transfer (LET) for SEU could be measured, an upset rate in a low inclination Space Shuttle orbit was computed. The predicted upset rates are extremely low, except for the devices wit...
Article
Heavy ions produced at various accelerator facilities have been employed to measure the effect of cosmic rays on semiconductor devices in space. An ion transmission counter, a solid state detector, and a position sensitive detector comprise the beam-monitor system used to measure the flux in real time and to monitor the spatial beam uniformity. An...
Conference Paper
An advance in the simulation methodology for memory circuit soft-error is accomplished by simultaneous calculation of transient charge transport and circuit response for the four cross-coupled CMOS transistors of a SRAM cell following a severe carrier density perturbation. By comparing the critical circuit voltage required for error immunity direct...
Article
CRUX is the first engineering flight experiment designed to test for the incidence of upsets in microcircuits by energetic particles. Harris HM 6504 4K × 1 static CMOS RAM's were used as the test device types in a 1.3 megabit memory which flew on two shuttle flights. Ground (cyclotron) test information led to a prediction of about one error every...
Article
A summary of heavy ion SEU and latch-up data collected within the last several years is presented in this report. The devices tested range from simple logic circuits to microprocessors including examples of bipolar, CMOS, and NMOS technologies.
Article
This paper reports on an experimental effort to determaine the dependence of critical charge, Qc on feature size (channel length L), in CMOS/SOS rad-hard 16K memories. The Single Event Upset (SEU) tests were conducted at the Berkeley 88" cyclotron, using krypton ions of 138 MeV and argon ions of 85 MeV with LET values of 40 and 18.3 MeV-cm2/mg, res...
Article
We present heavy ion test results for a bipolar logic device of moderate complexity. Such devices require the implementation of special techniques for testing circuits of varying upset sensitivity, and unlike similar MOS devices, present problems with test data interpretation.
Article
In an effort to design fully radiation-hardened memories for satellite and deep space applications, a 16K and a 2K CMOS static RAM were modeled for single-particle upset during the design stage. The modeling resulted in the addition of feedback resistors in the 16K, while the 2K remained tentatively unaltered. Subsequent experiments, using the Lawr...
Article
Measurements of single event upset probability for several types of prototype bulk CMOS and CMOS/SOS RAM's have been made using beams of 140 MeV krypton, 160 MeV argon and 33 MeV oxygen ions from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-in cyclotron. Upset thresholds, determined by varying the ion species and beam-incidence angles, were used in conjunct...
Article
Cosmic ray interactions with memory cells are known to cause temporary, random, bit errors in some designs. The sensitivity of polysilicon gate CMOS static RAM designs to logic upset by impinging ions has been studied using computer simulations and experimental heavy ion bombardment. Results of the simulations are confirmed by experimental upset cr...
Article
A technique involving resistive decoupling has been developed and applied to the memory cells of a 1024-bit CMOS static RAM to provide immunity to single event upset by cosmic rays. Doped polysilicon resistors were inserted in the inverter-pair cross-coupling lines of an existing memory-cell design with negligible effect on the device operating cha...
Article
Two types of a delidded CMOS 1024 × 1 RAM (Harris HM 6508-RH and Sandia TA597) have been tested for susceptibility to soft bit errors caused by 150-MeV krypton ions. Bit-error susceptibility was measured as a function of bias voltage and ion beam angle with respect to the chip-face normal. Comparison of measured bit-error rates and thresholds with...
Article
A follow-up series of simulation experiments have been conducted to study cosmic ray-induced soft errors in CMOS/SOS memories. Devices were tested in beams of krypton and argon ions from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) 88-inch Cyclotron at energies near 2 MeV/nucleon. The SOS test samples consisted of three versions of the TCS 146, 4K, stati...
Article
Soft errors have been induced in solid-state static RAM's by iron nuclei from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Bevalac, in experiments designed to prove the ability of iron-roup cosmic rays to generate such errors. Subsequently, various de-lidded device types were tested in beams of argon and krypton ions from the LBL 88-inch Cyclotron, at en...
Article
Heavy-ion test results for a bipolar logic device of moderate complexity are presented in this report. Such devices required the implementation of special techniques for testing circuits of varying upset sensitivity, and unlike similar MOS devices, present problems with test data interpretation.

Citations

... The sudden changes in charged-particle fluxes in the inner magnetosphere, including both relativistic electrons in the radiation belt (Arnoldy, 1982;Blake et al., 1992;Li et al., 1993;Hudson et al., 1994;Tan et al., 2004;Zong et al., 2009;Hao et al., 2019) and energetic ions (Zong et al., 2012Ren et al., 2016Ren et al., , 2017a in the ring current region, are noted to be closely related to a SSC caused by the interplanetary shock impacting Earth's magnetosphere. These results suggest that a significant portion of energetic charged particles in the ring current and radiation belt and region could be produced even before the build-up of the enhanced ring current which produces the magnetic storm. ...
... As for the domestic satellites, such as FY series satellites, SZ series satellites, Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) and ZH-1 satellite that have carried the particle detectors, most of the sensor parts are semiconductor detectors, mainly for space environment monitoring and particle energy spectrum and flux measurement [19][20][21][22][23][24]. For the overseas satellites, such as ARINA, SOHO, DEMETER and Van Allen which have carried particle detectors, they mainly use silicon detectors and scintillators to measure energy, and use position-sensitive silicon strip detectors or multiple plastic scintillators to measure the direction of incidence of charged 4 particles and achieve particle identification [25][26][27][28][29]. Different detectors vary in size and specific design as they are used for different principal purposes. ...
... The single particle impact gives rise to an ionized track of electron-hole pairs along the particle's trajectory through a semiconductor material. Single event phenomena can be classified into various types (Kolasinski, 1989): -Single Event Upset (SEU): A particle incident on a digital device causes an undesirable change in the logic state of the device. This is a transient effect that causes temporary problems. ...
... Radial diffusion coefficients are used to quantify the amount of transport due to radial diffusion. There are a number of models that calculate the radial diffusion coefficients (e.g., Ali et al., 2016;Ozeke et al., 2014;Selesnick et al., 1997) and the choice of radial diffusion model can have significant impact. Tu et al. (2019), for example, simulated a dropout event with two different radial diffusion models and found that one radial diffusion model lead to simulated PSD that was up to an order of magnitude greater than in-situ observations immediately after the dropout, while the other radial diffusion model produced simulated PSD that was much more similar to the observations. ...
... Such data permit direct correlations to be made between globally integrated ENA images and the total energy of the ring current Jorgensen et al., 1997), while in addition, allowing the storm-time injection process to be visually tracked (Brandt et al., 2002b). Azimuthal asymmetry can be seen to evolve during a magnetic storm, reflecting the cumulative effects of ion drifts and the establishment and decay of the partial ring current (see, for example, Blake et al., 1995;Burch, 2003;Brandt et al., 2002a;Kozyra and Liemohn, 2003;Pollock et al., 2003). The drift of injected ions was first imaged by PO-LAR CEPAD/IPS, (Henderson et al., 2000). ...
... The neutrons undergo β-decay, transferring most of their kinetic energy to the daughter protons (∼100 MeV) and lesser energy to the electrons (<1 MeV) (see [199]). A secondary source of the inner zone protons, particularly at the lower energy tail of the spectrum (<50 MeV), is solar energetic protons from production at solar flares and ICME shocks [200], [201], [202], [203]. These protons become trapped as they enter the inner zone and get scattered owing to their gyroradii being larger than the local magnetic gradient scale-lengths. ...
... Several approaches have demonstrated that Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) combined with reliability-oriented place and route algorithm (RoRA) [3] [4] effectively mitigates the results of radiation-induced Single- Bit Upsets (SCUs). In addition to SCUs, Multiple Bit Upsets (MCUs) provoked by ionizing radiations have been observed in SRAM-based memory devices [5] [6]. MCUs within not rad-hard SRAM-based FPGAs have been observed during radiation experiments with proton and heavy ions [7]. ...
... In 1985, Nichols et al. [1] published the first nearly comprehensive listing of SEE test data for 186 parts. This presentation was updated in 1987 with the publication [2] of data for 83 additional parts and again in 1989 [3] with data for 154 more parts. In this report, the authors extend the data base for 182 new parts. ...
... Note This table is based on data obtained from manufacturer's specification sheets FACT microcircuits therefore appear to be good candidates for replacing members of high-power or low-speed logic families in space applications To determine the suitability of these devices for use in the cosmic ray environment we have systematically measured the SEU and latchup susceptibilities of selected FACT device types FACT devices utilize a ''2 0 mm CMOS process'' on a thin epitaxial layer as shown in Figure 1 The substrate material is N a k 100 l which has a resistivity of 0 008 X-cm -0 025 X-cm the 7 5 mm -8 0 mm thick epitaxial layer consists of N k 100 l material with a resistivity of 6 X-cm-10 X-cm Other transistor characteristics of this family of logic devices are listed below 1 The n-channel MOSFETs are located in p-wells 2 The effective gate length of this (single polysilicon self-aligned) process is 1 3 mm for both p-channel and n-channel transistors 3 No special hardening process is incorporated during the formation of the field oxide whose thickness is about 5 000 4 After the gate oxidation is performed low temperature (900 C) processing is employed 5 The first layer of dielectric material (LTO1) which is deposited in a low temperature environment has a thickness of 5 000 the second dielectric (LTO2) has a thickness of 9 000 ...
... Благодаря диэлектрическим свойствам сапфира, высокочастотные сигналы не искажаются и не смешиваются. Паразитные емкости между интегральными элементами на КНС в 20 раз ниже по сравнению с аналогичными устройствами на объемном кремнии и в 2 раза ниже по сравнению с ИС на КНИ [8,10,17,18]. ...