# Volker Koch's research while affiliated with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and other places

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## Publications (185)

In order to complete the Beam Energy Scan (BES) physics program, including the search for the QCD critical point, the extraction of the hyperon-nucleon interaction, and the determination of constraints on the nuclear matter equation of state at high baryon density, active US participation in the international collaboration of the Compressed Baryoni...

We show that the values of the first three cumulants of the baryon number distribution can be used to calculate the isothermal speed of sound and its logarithmic derivative with respect to the baryon number density. We discuss applications of this result to heavy-ion collision experiments and address possible challenges, including effects due to ba...

We demonstrate that proton and pion flow measurements in heavy-ion collisions at incident energies ranging from 1 to 20 GeV per nucleon in the fixed target frame, $E_{lab} \in [1, 20]$ AGeV, potentially allow for an accurate determination of the symmetric nuclear matter equation of state at 2 -- 5 $n_0$. We simulate Au+Au collisions at these energi...

A set of different equations of state is implemented in the molecular dynamics part of a non-equilibrium transport simulation (UrQMD) of heavy-ion collisions. It is shown how different flow observables are affected by the density dependence of the equation of state. In particular, the effects of a phase transition at high density are explored, incl...

We analyze the behavior of (net-)proton number cumulants in central collisions of heavy ions across a broad collision energy range by utilizing hydrodynamic simulations. The calculations incorporate essential non-critical contributions to proton fluctuations such as repulsive baryonic core and exact baryon number conservation. The experimental data...

We develop a framework to relate proton number cumulants measured in heavy-ion collisions within a momentum space acceptance to the susceptibilities of baryon number, assuming that particles are emitted from a fireball with uniform distribution of temperature and baryochemical potential, superimposed on a hydrodynamic flow velocity profile. The rap...

We study fluctuations of particle number in the presence of a critical point by utilizing molecular dynamics simulations of the classical Lennard-Jones fluid in a periodic box. The numerical solution of the N-body problem naturally incorporates all correlations, exact conservation laws, and finite size effects, allowing us to study the fluctuation...

We point out how proton number cumulants measured in heavy-ion collisions within a momentum space acceptance can be related to the grand-canonical cumulants of baryon number, assuming that particles are emitted from a fireball with uniform distribution of temperature and baryochemical potential, superimposed on a hydrodynamic flow velocity profile....

We point out that the variance of net-baryon distribution normalized by the Skellam distribution baseline, κ2[B−B¯]/〈B+B¯〉, is sensitive to the possible modification of (anti)baryon yields due to BB¯ annihilation in the hadronic phase. The corresponding measurements can thus place stringent limits on the magnitude of the BB¯ annihilation and its in...

We study fluctuations of particle number in the presence of critical point by utilizing molecular dynamics simulations of the classical Lennard-Jones fluid in a periodic box. The numerical solution of the $N$-body problem naturally incorporates all correlations, exact conservation laws, and finite size effects, allowing us to study the fluctuation...

We investigate the chemical freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions (HICs) and the impact of the hadronic spectrum on thermal model analyses. Detailed knowledge of the hadronic spectrum is still an open question, which has phenomenological consequences on the study of HICs. By varying the number of resonances included in Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) Model...

We present a dynamical description of (anti)proton number cumulants and correlation functions in central Au-Au collisions at sNN=7.7–200GeV by utilizing viscous hydrodynamics simulations. The cumulants of proton and baryon number are calculated in a given momentum acceptance analytically, via an appropriately extended Cooper-Frye procedure describi...

Utilizing viscous hydrodynamic simulations of heavy-ion collisions, we study the behavior of cumulants of (net-)(anti)proton number distributions at RHIC beam energy scan energies, incorporating non-critical contributions like baryon conservation and excluded volume. The experimental data on net-proton cumulants at √ S NN > 20 GeV are consistent wi...

We investigate the chemical freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions (HICs) and the impact of the hadronic spectrum on thermal model analyses [1, 2]. Detailed knowledge of the hadronic spectrum is still an open question, which has phenomenological consequences on the study of HICs. By varying the number of resonances included in Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG...

We simultaneously incorporate two common extensions of the hadron resonance gas model, namely the addition of extra, unconfirmed resonances to the particle list, and the excluded volume repulsive interactions. We emphasize the complementary nature of these two extensions and identify combinations of conserved charge susceptibilities that allow us t...

Cumulants of baryon number are given considerable attention in analyses of heavy-ion collision experiments as possible signatures of the QCD critical point. In this work, we show that the values of the lowest three cumulants can also be utilized to recover information about the isothermal speed of sound and its logarithmic derivative with respect t...

The Beam Energy Scan Theory (BEST) Collaboration was formed with the goal of providing a theoretical framework for analyzing data from the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The physics goal of the BES program is the search for a conjectured QCD critical point as well as f...

We develop a flexible, relativistically covariant parametrization of the dense nuclear matter equation of state suited for inclusion in computationally demanding hadronic transport simulations. Within an implementation in the hadronic transport code smash, we show that effects due to bulk thermodynamic behavior are reproduced in dynamic hadronic sy...

The Beam Energy Scan Theory (BEST) Collaboration was formed with the goal of providing a theoretical framework for analyzing data from the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The physics goal of the BES program is the search for a conjectured QCD critical point as well as f...

We present a method that may allow an estimate of the value of the speed of sound as well as its logarithmic derivative with respect to the baryon number density in matter created in heavy-ion collisions. To this end, we use well-known observables: cumulants of the baryon number distribution. In analyses aimed at uncovering the phase diagram of str...

We simultaneously incorporate two common extensions of the hadron resonance gas model, namely the addition of extra, unconfirmed resonances to the particle list and the excluded volume repulsive interactions. We emphasize the complementary nature of these two extensions and identify combinations of conserved charge susceptibilities that allow to co...

We present a dynamical description of (anti)proton number fluctuations cumulants and correlation functions in central Au-Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 7.7-200$ GeV by utilizing viscous hydrodynamics simulations. The cumulants of proton and baryon number are calculated in a given momentum acceptance analytically, via an appropriately extende...

We point out that the variance of net-baryon distribution normalized by the Skellam distribution baseline, $\kappa_2[B-\bar{B}]/\langle B+\bar{B}\rangle$, is sensitive to the possible modification of (anti)baryon yields due to $B\bar{B}$ annihilation in the hadronic phase. The corresponding measurements can thus place stringent limits on the magnit...

We revisit the problem of particlization of a QCD fluid into hadrons and resonances at the end of the fluid dynamical stage in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in a context of fluctuation measurements. The existing methods sample an ideal hadron resonance gas, and therefore, they do not capture the non-Poissonian nature of the grand-canonical fluc...

We study deuteron production using no-coalescence hydrodynamic + transport simulations of central AuAu collisions at sNN=7–200 GeV. Deuterons are sampled thermally at the transition from hydrodynamics to transport and interact in transport dominantly via πpn↔πd reactions. The measured proton, lambda, and deuteron transverse momentum spectra and yie...

We present a method that may allow an estimate of the value of the speed of sound as well as its logarithmic derivative with respect to the baryon number density in matter created in heavy-ion collisions. To this end, we utilize well-known observables: cumulants of the baryon number distribution. In analyses aimed at uncovering the phase diagram of...

In this note we discuss subtleties associated with the efficiency corrections for measurements of off-diagonal cumulants and factorial moments for a situation when one deals with overlapping sets of particles, such as correlations between numbers of protons and positively charged particles. In particular, we discuss the situation commonly encounter...

We report on recent progress concerning theoretical description of event-by-event fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions. Specifically we discuss a new Cooper-Frye particlization routine -- the subensemble sampler -- which is designed to incorporate effects of global conservation laws, thermal smearing and resonance decays on fluctuation measurements...

In this note we discuss subtleties associated with the efficiency corrections for measurements of off-diagonal cumulants and factorial moments for a situation when one deals with overlapping sets of particles, such as correlations between numbers of protons and positively charged particles. We present the efficiency correction formulas for the case...

The preliminary STAR data for proton cumulants for central collisions at s=7.7GeV component proton multiplicity distribution. We show that this two-component distribution is statistics friendly in that factorial cumulants of surprisingly high orders may be extracted with a relatively small number of events. As a consequence the two-component model...

Possible observables of baryon number clustering due to the instabilities occurring at a first order QCD phase transition are discussed. The dynamical formation of baryon clusters at a QCD phase transition can be described by numerical fluid dynamics, augmented with a gradient term and an equation of state with a mechanically unstable region. It is...

We report on recent progress concerning effects of global conservation laws on cumulants of conserved quantities. Specifically, we will relate for an arbitrary equation of state cumulants of a conserved charge measured in a subvolume of a thermal system with the corresponding grandcanonical susceptibilities, taking into account exact global conserv...

We report on recent progress concerning the theoretical description of event-by-event fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions. Specifically, we discuss a new Cooper–Frye particlization routine — the subensemble sampler — which is designed to incorporate effects of global conservation laws, thermal smearing and resonance decays on fluctuation measureme...

We revisit the problem of particlization of a QCD fluid into hadrons and resonances at the end of the fluid dynamical stage in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in a context of fluctuation measurements. The existing methods sample an ideal hadron resonance gas, therefore, they do not capture the non-Poissonian nature of the grand-canonical fluctuat...

We derive the relation between cumulants of a conserved charge measured in a subvolume of a thermal system and the corresponding grand-canonical susceptibilities, taking into account exact global conservation of that charge. The derivation is presented for an arbitrary equation of state, with the assumption that the subvolume is sufficiently large...

We develop a flexible, relativistically covariant parameterization of dense nuclear matter equation of state suited for inclusion in computationally demanding hadronic transport simulations. Within an implementation in the hadronic transport code SMASH, we show that effects due to bulk thermodynamic behavior are reproduced in dynamic hadronic syste...

We briefly overview the motivations of recent studies of light nucleiLight nuclei production in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisionsHeavy ion collisions: anti-nuclei in space, and search for the critical point of the strongly-interacting matter. Then we focus on a particular recent development—the possible solution of the “snowballs in hell” puz...

A bstract
We analyze the behavior of cumulants of conserved charges in a subvolume of a thermal system with exact global conservation laws by extending a recently developed subensemble acceptance method (SAM) [1] to multiple conserved charges. Explicit expressions for all diagonal and off-diagonal cumulants up to sixth order that relate them to the...

Many simulations of relativistic heavy-ion collisions involve the switching from relativistic hydrodynamics to kinetic particle transport. This switching entails the sampling of particles from the distribution of energy, momentum, and conserved currents provided by hydrodynamics. Usually, this sampling ensures the conservation of these quantities o...

We study deuteron production using no-coalescence hydrodynamic + transport simulations of central AuAu collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7 - 200$ GeV. Deuterons are sampled thermally at the transition from hydrodynamics to transport, and interact in transport dominantly via $\pi p n \leftrightarrow \pi d$ reactions. The measured proton, Lambda, and de...

This report summarizes the presentations and discussions during the Rapid Reaction Task Force “Dynamics of critical fluctuations: Theory – phenomenology – heavy-ion collisions”, which was organized by the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and held at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany in April 2019. We address the current understanding of the dynamics of critical...

We analyze the behavior of cumulants of conserved charges in a subvolume of a thermal system with exact global conservation laws by extending a recently developed subensemble acceptance method (SAM) [V. Vovchenko et al., arXiv:2003.13905] to multiple conserved charges. Explicit expressions for all diagonal and off-diagonal cumulants up to sixth ord...

We derive the relation between cumulants of a conserved charge measured in a subvolume of a thermal system and the corresponding grand-canonical susceptibilities, taking into account exact global conservation of that charge. The derivation is presented for an arbitrary equation of state, with the assumption that the subvolume is sufficiently large...

We review the present status of the search for a phase transition and critical point as well as anomalous transport phenomena in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), with an emphasis on the Beam Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We present the conceptual framework and discuss the observables deem...

The preliminary STAR data for proton cumulants for central collisions at \sqrt{s}=7.7 GeV are consistent with a two-component proton multiplicity distribution. We show that this two-component distribution is statistics friendly in that factorial cumulants of surprisingly high orders may be extracted with a relatively small number of events. As a co...

This report summarizes the presentations and discussions during the Rapid Reaction Task Force "Dynamics of critical fluctuations: Theory -- phenomenology -- heavy-ion collisions", which was organized by the ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and held at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany in April 2019. We address the current understanding of the dynamics of critic...

The QCD baryon number density can formally be expanded into a Laurent series in fugacity, which is a relativistic generalization of Mayer’s cluster expansion. We determine properties of the cluster expansion in a model with a phase transition and a critical point at finite baryon density, in which the Fourier coefficients of the expansion can be de...

Many simulations of relativistic heavy ion collisions involve the switching from relativistic hydrodynamics to kinetic particle transport. This switching entails the sampling of particles from the distribution of energy, momentum and conserved currents provided by hydrodynamics. Usually this sampling ensures the conservation of these quantities onl...

A bstract
The coordinate and momentum space configurations of the net baryon number in heavy ion collisions that undergo spinodal decomposition, due to a first-order phase transition, are investigated using state-of-the-art machine-learning methods. Coordinate space clumping, which appears in the spinodal decomposition, leaves strong characteristic...

We demonstrate that the multiplicity distribution of a system located in the vicinity of a first-order phase transition can be successfully measured in terms of its factorial cumulants with a surprisingly small number of events. This finding has direct implications for the experimental search of a QCD phase transition conjectured to be located in t...

We present a sampling method for the transition from relativistic hydrodynamics to particle transport, commonly referred to as particlization, which preserves the local conservation of energy, momentum, baryon number, strangeness, and electric charge microcanonically, i.e., in every sample. The proposed method is essential for studying fluctuations...

Correlations and fluctuations of physical quantities are known to play an important role in phase transitions and critical phenomena. In recent years some experimental attempts were made in the scope of the Beam Energy Scan program to locate a possible critical point in the QCD phase diagram. In this work we use the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model to inve...

The QCD baryon number density can formally be expanded into a Laurent series in fugacity, which is a relativistic generalization of Mayer's cluster expansion. We determine properties of the cluster expansion in a model with a phase transition and a critical point at finite baryon density, in which the Fourier coefficients of the expansion can be de...

The coordinate and momentum space configurations of the net baryon number in heavy ion collisions that undergo spinodal decomposition, due to a first-order phase transition, are investigated using state-of-the-art machine-learning methods. Coordinate space clumping, which appears in the spinodal decomposition, leaves strong characteristic imprints...

We review the present status of the search for a phase transition and critical point as well as anomalous transport phenomena in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), with an emphasis on the Beam Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We present the conceptual framework and discuss the observables deem...

The deuteron yield in Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=2.76TeV is consistent with thermal production at a freeze out temperature of T=155MeV. The existence of deuterons with binding energy of 2.2 MeV at this temperature was described as “snowballs in hell” [P. Braun-Münzinger, B. Dönigus, and N. Löher, CERN Courier, August 2015]. We provide a microscopic ex...

The deuteron binding energy is only 2.2 MeV. At the same time, its yield in Pb+Pb collisionsatpsNN = 2.76 TeV corresponds to a thermal yield at the temperature around 155 MeV, which is toohot to keep deuterons bound. This puzzle is not completely resolved yet. In general, the mechanism oflight nuclei production in ultra-high energy heavy ion collis...

This document reflects thoughts on opportunities from high-energy nuclear collisions in the 2020s.

We determine a net-baryon multiplicity distribution which reproduces all cumulants measured so far by lattice QCD. We present the dependence on the volume and temperature of this distribution. We find that for temperatures and volumes encountered in heavy-ion reactions, the multiplicity distribution is very close to the Skellam distribution, making...

We present a sampling method for the transition from relativistic hydrodynamics to particle transport, commonly referred to as particlization, which preserves the local event-by-event conservation of energy, momentum, baryon number, strangeness, and electric charge. The proposed method is essential for studying fluctuations and correlations by mean...

The deuteron binding energy is only 2.2 MeV. At the same time, its yield in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = $2.76 TeV corresponds to a thermal yield at the temperature around 155 MeV, which is too hot to keep deuterons bound. This puzzle is not completely resolved yet. In general, the mechanism of light nuclei production in ultra-high energy h...

We demonstrate that certain (proton) multiplicity distributions, possibly present close to the QCD first order phase transition (or the QCD critical point), can be successfully measured in terms of the factorial cumulants of surprisingly high orders with relatively small number of events.

We determine the net-baryon multiplicity distribution which reproduces all cumulants measured so far by lattice QCD. We present the dependence on the volume and temperature of this distribution. We find that for temperatures and volumes encountered in heavy ion reactions, the multiplicity distribution is very close to the Skellam distribution, maki...

The deuteron yield in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV is consistent with thermal production at a freeze-out temperature of $T = 155$ MeV. The existence of deuterons with binding energy of 2.2 MeV at this temperature was described as "snowballs in hell". We provide a microscopic explanation of this phenomenon, utilizing relativistic h...

Correlations and fluctuations of physical quantities are known to play an important role in phase transitions and critical phenomena. In recent years some experimental attempts were made in the scope of the Beam Energy Scan program to locate a possible critical point in the QCD phase diagram. In this work we use the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model to inv...

We construct a multiplicity distribution characterized by large factorial cumulants (integrated genuine correlation functions) from a simple combination of two {\it ordinary} multiplicity distributions characterized by small factorial cumulants. We find that such a model, which could be interpreted as representing two event classes, reproduces the...

The longitudinal proton-proton femtoscopy (HBT) correlation function, based on the idea that in a heavy ion collision at $\sqrt{s} \lesssim 20$ GeV stopped protons are likely to be separated in configuration space, is evaluated. It shows a characteristic oscillation which appears sufficiently pronounced to be accessible in experiment. The proposed...

We discuss the relation between particle number cumulants and genuine correlation functions. It is argued that measuring multi-particle correlation functions could provide cleaner information on possible non-trivial dynamics in heavy-ion collisions.

The dependence of multi-proton correlation functions and cumulants on the acceptance in rapidity and transverse momentum is studied. We find that the preliminary data of various cumulant ratios is consistent, within errors, with rapidity and transverse momentum independent correlation functions. However, rapidity correlations which moderately incre...

In this review, we examine the current theoretical and experimental status of the chiral magnetic effect. We discuss possible future strategies for resolving uncertainties in interpretation including recommendations for theoretical work, recommendations for measurements based on data collected in the past five years, and recommendations for beam us...

The effects of finite particle number sampling on the net baryon number cumulants, extracted from fluid dynamical simulations, are studied. The commonly used finite particle number sampling procedure introduces an additional Poissonian (or multinomial if global baryon number conservation is enforced) contribution which increases the extracted momen...

We present a generalization of the blast-wave model by incorporating viscous effects in the fluid velocity profile as well as in the Cooper-Frye freeze-out. We apply this model to study the identified particles spectra and anisotropic flow at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We show that this improved viscous blast-wave model leads to good descript...

In this article we extend previous work on efficiency corrections for cumulant measurements [Bzdak and Koch, Phys. Rev. C 86, 044904 (2012)PRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.86.044904; Phys. Rev. C 91, 027901 (2015)PRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.91.027901]. We will discuss the limitations of the methods presented in these papers. Specifically we will...

We investigate possible effects of correlations between stopped nucleons on higher order proton cumulants at low energy heavy-ion collisions. We find that fluctuations of the number of wounded nucleons $N_{\mathrm{part}}$ lead to rather nontrivial dependence of the correlations on the centrality; however, this effect is too small to explain the lar...

In this note, using the colour string model, we study the configuration space distribution of stopped nucleons in heavy-ion collisions. We find that the stopped nucleons from the target and the projectile end up separated from each other by the distance increasing with the collision energy. In consequence, for the center of mass energies larger tha...

In this report, we briefly examine the current status of the study of the chiral magnetic effect including theory and experimental progress. We recommend future strategies for resolving uncertainties in interpretation including recommendations for theoretical work, recommendations for measurements based on data collected in the past five years, and...