Vishnu Chaturvedi's research while affiliated with Wadsworth Center, NYS Department of Health and other places

Publications (290)

Article
Candida auris is a nosocomial fungal pathogen of prime importance due to its global emergence and rapid spread in healthcare facilities worldwide. One important concern is that routine, conventional methods fail to identify C. auris. While molecular and protein-based assays accurately detect/identify C. auris, these methods are time-consuming, expe...
Article
Full-text available
Combination antifungal therapy is widely used but not well understood. We analyzed the spectrophotometric readings from a multicenter study conducted by the New York State Department of Health to further characterize the in vitro interactions of the major classes of antifungal agents against Candida spp. Loewe additivity-based fractional inhibitory...
Article
Full-text available
Candida auris is an urgent antimicrobial resistance threat due to its global emergence, high mortality, and persistent transmissions. Nearly half of C. auris clinical and surveillance cases in the United States are from the New York and New Jersey Metropolitan area. We performed genome, and drug-resistance analysis of C. auris isolates from a patie...
Article
About 55% of U.S. Candida auris clinical cases were reported from New York and New Jersey from 2016 through 2020. Nearly all New York-New Jersey clinical isolates (99.8%) were fluconazole resistant, and 50% were amphotericin B resistant. Echinocandin resistance increased from 0% to 4% and pan-resistance increased from 0 to <1% for New York C. auris...
Article
Ongoing healthcare-associated outbreaks of multidrug-resistant yeast Candida auris have prompted the development of several rapid DNA-based molecular diagnostic tests. These tests do not distinguish between live and dead C. auris cells, limiting their use for environmental surveillance and containment efforts. We addressed this critical gap by deve...
Article
Full-text available
The recognition of a new yeast, Candida auris, in 2009 in East Asia, and its rapid global spread, was a reminder of the threats posed by multidrug-resistant fungal pathogens. C. auris had likely remained unrecognized for a long time as accurate tests were not available. The laboratory community responded to the C. auris challenge by publishing 35 n...
Article
Full-text available
Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) is a pulmonary and systemic fungal disease with increasing incidence and expanding endemic areas. The differentiation of etiologic agents Coccidioides immitis and C . posadasii remains problematic in the clinical laboratories as conventional PCR and satellite typing schemes are not facile. Therefore, we developed C...
Article
Full-text available
Recent publications have argued that there are potentially serious consequences for researchers in recognising distinct genera in the terminal fusarioid clade of the family Nectriaceae. Thus, an alternate hypothesis, namely a very broad concept of the genus Fusarium was proposed. In doing so, however, a significant body of data that supports distin...
Article
Full-text available
The unambiguous application of fungal names is important to communicate scientific findings. Names are critical for (clinical) diagnostics, legal compliance, and regulatory controls, such as biosafety, food security, quarantine regulations, and industrial applications. Consequently, the stability of the taxonomic system and the traceability of nome...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) is a pulmonary and systemic fungal disease with increasing incidence and expanding endemic areas. The differentiation of etiologic agents Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii remains problematic in the clinical laboratories as conventional PCR and satellite typing schemes are not facile. Therefore, we developed Cy...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ongoing healthcare-associated outbreaks of multidrug-resistant yeast Candida auris have prompted development of several rapid DNA-based molecular diagnostic tests. These tests do not distinguish between live and dead C. auris cells, limiting their use for environmental surveillance and containment efforts. We addressed this critical gap by developi...
Article
The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on the publishing landscape. The 'pre-peer-review' publication model is likely to become common as a lag in publishing is not acceptable in a pandemic or other time! Mycopathologia is well placed to adopt such changes with its improved editorial processes, article formats, author engagements, and pub...
Book
This book provides a comprehensive overview on the most recent knowledge in dermatophytic infection biology. Topics covered range from taxonomy, biology and genetics of most common skin disease causing fungi over immunology of dermatophytosis to diagnosis and treatment approaches. Furthermore epidemiology of skin diseases caused by pathogenic fungi...
Article
Full-text available
Background An ongoing Candida auris outbreak in the New York metropolitan area is the largest recorded to date in North America. NY C. auris isolates demonstrate resistance to fluconazole and variable resistance to other antifungals. Thus, there is an urgent need for new drugs with a novel mechanism of action to combat the resistance challenge. Man...
Article
Blastomycosis due to Blastomyces dermatitidis and B. gilchristii is a significant cause of respiratory mycoses in North America with occasionally reported outbreaks. We developed a highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible Taqman duplex real-time PCR assay for the differentiation of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii . The new assay permitted re...
Article
Candida auris, a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen, is responsible for the recent global outbreaks in hospitalized and long-term care patients with significant mortality. A new study by Bruno et al. delineates innate host immune responses against C. auris and identifies critical roles for fungal mannans and mannoproteins.
Article
Full-text available
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen reported worldwide. Infections due to C. auris are usually nosocomial and associated with high rates of fluconazole resistance and mortality. Echinocandins are utilized as the first-line treatment. However, echinocandins are only available intravenously and are associated with increas...
Article
An ongoing Candida auris outbreak in the New York metropolitan area is the largest recorded to date in North America. Laboratory surveillance revealed NY C. auris isolates are resistant to fluconazole, with variable resistance to other currently used broad-spectrum antifungal drugs, and that several isolates are pan-resistant. Thus, there is an urg...
Article
Full-text available
The psychrophilic (cold-loving) fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans was discovered more than a decade ago to be the pathogen responsible for white-nose syndrome, an emerging disease of North American bats causing unprecedented population declines. The same species of fungus is found in Europe but without associated mortality in bats. We found P. de...
Preprint
Blastomycosis due to Blastomyces dermatitidis and B. gilchristii is a notable cause of respiratory mycoses in North America with recurrent outbreaks. We developed a highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible Taqman duplex real-time PCR assay for the differentiation of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii. The new assay permitted retrospective analy...
Preprint
Four pan-resistant Candia auris strains from New York outbreak were 100% inhibited in vitro by combinations of two antifungal drugs using fixed concentrations achievable in vivo . Pan-resistant C. auris strains have mutations in eleven gene targets associated with major antifungal drugs, and constituted a distinct sub-cluster among NY strains.
Preprint
An ongoing Candida auris outbreak in the New York metropolitan area is the largest recorded to date in North America. Laboratory surveillance revealed NY C. auris isolates are resistant to fluconazole, with variable resistance to other currently used broad-spectrum antifungal drugs, and that several isolates are pan-resistant. Thus, there is an urg...
Article
The emerging, multidrug-resistant yeast pathogen Candida auris is responsible for healthcare-associated outbreaks across the globe with high mortality. The rapid spread of C. auris is linked to its successful colonization of human skin, followed by bloodstream infections. We compared glycomics and proteomics of C. auris to closely and distantly rel...
Preprint
Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast that presents global health threat for the hospitalized patients. Early diagnostic of C. auris is crucial in control, prevention, and treatment. Candida auris is difficult to identify with standard laboratory methods and often can be misidentified leading to inappropriate management. A newly-devised real...
Article
Since 2016, New York hospitals and healthcare facilities have faced an unprecedented outbreak of the pathogenic yeast Candida auris . We tested over one thousand C. auris isolates from affected facilities and found high-resistance to fluconazole (MIC > 256 mg/L), and variable resistance to other antifungal drugs. Therefore, we tested if two-drug co...
Article
Candida auris is a globally emerging yeast that causes outbreaks in health care settings and is often resistant to one or more classes of antifungal medications (1). Cases of C. auris with resistance to all three classes of commonly prescribed antifungal drugs (pan-resistance) have been reported in multiple countries (1). C. auris has been identifi...
Article
Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast which has emerged in health care facilities worldwide; however, little is known about identification methods, patient colonization, environmental survival, spread, and drug resistance. Colonization on both biotic (patients) and abiotic (health care objects) surfaces, along with travel, appear to be the m...
Article
Full-text available
Talaromycosis (penicilliosis) is a major fungal disease endemic across a narrow band of tropical countries of South and Southeast Asia. The etiologic agent is a thermally dimorphic fungus Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei, which was first isolated from a bamboo rat in Vietnam in 1956, but no formal description was published. In 1959, Professor Ga...
Article
Full-text available
Background Candida auris outbreak continues unabated in New York with the current case counts exceeding 300 patients. We used a modification of standard CLSI broth microdilution method (BMD) if two-drug combinations are efficacious against C. auris isolates with high-resistance to fluconazole (FZ, MIC50 >256 mg/L), and variable resistance to other...
Preprint
We report low MIC 50 of Ibrexafungerp (SCY-078) for 102 Candida auris clinical and surveillance isolates from outbreak in New York. The group included C. auris with a variable resistance to antifungal drugs. Five pan-resistant C. auris isolates were susceptible to Ibrexafungerp with low MIC50 range of 0.12-1 μ/ml.
Preprint
Full-text available
Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast which has emerged in healthcare facilities worldwide, however little is known about identification methods, patient colonization, spread, environmental survival, and drug resistance. Colonization on both biotic and abiotic surfaces, along with travel, appear to be the major factors for the spread of this...
Article
The wider availability of information on genomes has become essential for future advances in fungal biology, pathogenesis and epidemiology, and for the discovery of new drugs and diagnostics. MycopathologiaGENOMES is designed for the rapid publication of new genomes of human and animal pathogenic fungi using a checklist-based, standardized format.
Article
Full-text available
The multidrug-resistant yeast pathogen Candida auris continues to cause outbreaks and clusters of clinical cases worldwide. Previously, we developed a real-time PCR assay for the detection of C. auris from surveillance samples (Leach et al. JCM. 2018: 56, e01223-17). The assay played a crucial role in the ongoing investigations of C. auris outbreak...
Preprint
Full-text available
The multidrug-resistant yeast pathogen Candida auris continues to cause outbreaks and clusters of clinical cases worldwide. Previously, we developed a real-time PCR test for the detection of C. auris from surveillance samples (Leach et al. JCM. 2018: 56, e01223-17); the test played a crucial role in the ongoing investigations of C. auris outbreak i...
Preprint
Since 2016, New York hospitals and healthcare facilities have faced an unprecedented outbreak of pathogenic yeast Candida auris . We tested over one thousand C. auris isolates from affected facilities and found high-resistance to fluconazole (FLC, MIC 50 >256 mg/L), and variable resistance to other antifungal drugs. Therefore, we evaluated if two-d...
Preprint
A new fungal species, Chrysosporium morrisgordonii sp. nov., is described from bat white-nose syndrome afflicted Graphite mine in Warren county, New York. This taxon is characterized by its ability to grow at low temperature spectra from 6°C to 25°C and by the presence of tuberculate and thick-walled arthroconidia and aleurioconidia, spherical or b...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory investigations of the pathogenesis of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungal causal agent of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS), presents unique challenges due to its growth requirements (4°-15°C) and a lack of infectivity in the current disease models. Pseudogymnoascus pannorum is the nearest fungal relative of P. destructans with wider ps...
Article
Case reports describe the unusual occurrence and complications of diseases, diagnostic challenges, and notable therapeutic successes. Some journals have discontinued the case reports, while new case report journals have appeared in recent years. During the eightieth anniversary of Mycopathologia, it is fitting to examine the relevance of the case r...
Article
Full-text available
Mycopathologia was founded in 1938 to ‘diffuse the understanding of fungal diseases in man and animals among mycologists.’ This was an important mission considering that pathogenic fungi for humans and animals represent a tiny minority of the estimated 1.5–5 million fungal inhabitants on Earth. These pathogens have diverged from the usual saprotrop...
Article
Full-text available
Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) is the etiologic agent of bat White-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the unprecedented reduction in the hibernating bat populations across eastern North America. The Pd pathogenesis appears to be a complex adaptation of fungus in its abiotic (caves and mines) and biotic (bats) environments. There is a gener...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the causative fungal agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), has led to the deaths of millions of hibernating bats in the United States of America (USA) and Canada. Efficient strategies are needed to decontaminate Pd from the bat hibernacula to interrupt the disease transmission cycle without affecting the...
Article
Full-text available
Background:Pseudogymnoascusdestructans , a psychrophile, causes bat white-nose syndrome (WNS). Pseudogymnoascus pannorum , a closely related fungus, causes human and canine diseases rarely. Both pathogens were reported from the same mines and caves in the United States, but only P. destructans caused WNS. Earlier genome comparisons revealed that P....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pseudogymnoascusdestructans, a psychrophile, causes bat white-nose syndrome (WNS). Pseudogymnoascus pannorum, a closely related fungus, causes human and canine diseases rarely. Both pathogens were reported from the same mines and caves in the United States, but only P. destructans caused WNS. Earlier genome comparisons revealed that P....
Article
Full-text available
Dermatophyte research has renewed interest because of changing human floras with changing socioeconomic conditions, and because of severe chronic infections in patients with congenital immune disorders. Main taxonomic traits at the generic level have changed considerably, and now fine-tuning at the species level with state-of-the-art technology has...
Article
Full-text available
Cryptococcosis is a major fungal disease caused by members of the Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans species complexes. After more than 15 years of molecular genetic and phenotypic studies and much debate, a proposal for a taxonomic revision was made. The two varieties within C. neoformans were raised to species level, and the same was...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bat White-nose Syndrome (WNS) fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans had caused mass mortality in the North American bats. A single clone of the pathogen (Hap_1) was likely introduced in the United States while Eurasian population comprised of several haplotypes. The origin and spread of P. destructans remain enigmatic due in part to a lack of precise...
Article
Full-text available
Background: ME1111 is a novel small molecule antifungal agent under development for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. Standardization of the susceptibility testing method for this candidate antifungal is needed. Towards this end, 8 independent laboratories determined the interlaboratory reproducibility of ME1111 susceptibility testing. In ad...
Article
Full-text available
White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of hibernating bats, has rapidly spread across eastern North America killing millions of bats. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the sole etiologic agent of WNS, is widespread and persistent in bat hibernacula. Control of Pd in the affected sites is urgently needed to break the transmission cycle whil...
Article
The mechanisms of cold adaptation by fungi remain unknown. This topic is of high interest due to the emergence of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a skin infection of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Recent studies indicated that apart from Pd, there is an abundance of other Pseudogymnoascus species in the hibernacula soil. W...
Article
Full-text available
Four laboratories tested three isolates of Candida species and two isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus using 96-well plates containing combinations of amphotericin B, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. The majority of summation fractional inhibitory concentration indices (ΣFICI) based on...
Article
Full-text available
Cryptococcus gattii is unique among human pathogenic fungi with specialized ecological niche on trees. Since leaves concentrate CO2, we investigated the role of this gaseous molecule in C. gattii biology and virulence. We focused on the genetic analyses of β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) encoded by C. gattii CAN1 and CAN2 as later is critical for CO2 s...
Article
Full-text available
Coccidioidomycosis ('Valley Fever'), caused by the inhalation of the fungus Coccidioides, remains a recalcitrant health problem in large parts of California. The incidence and severity of the disease continues to rise in many parts of the state. In this manuscript, we highlight unanswered questions about the disease. Specifically, the extent of dis...
Article
Full-text available
Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important moulds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability.
Data
The TaqMan real-time PCR assay was developed from the Blastomyces dermatitidis BAD1 gene promoter. The assay identified all haplotypes of B. dermatitidis and five of six positive paraffin-embedded tissues. The assay sensitivity threshold was 1 pg genomic DNA of the mold form and 2 CFU of the yeast form of B. dermatitidis. No cross-reactivity was ob...