# Vikram V. Dwarkadas's research while affiliated with University of Chicago and other places

## Publications (183)

Article
Full-text available
Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are a rare class of stellar explosions with luminosities ∼ 10–100 times greater than ordinary core-collapse supernovae. One popular model to explain the enhanced optical output of hydrogen-poor (Type I) SLSNe invokes energy injection from a rapidly spinning magnetar. A prediction in this case is that high-energy gam...
Preprint
Full-text available
Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are a rare class of stellar explosions with luminosities ~10-100 times greater than ordinary core-collapse supernovae. One popular model to explain the enhanced optical output of hydrogen-poor (Type I) SLSNe invokes energy injection from a rapidly spinning magnetar. A prediction in this case is that high-energy gamm...
Article
We present broadband radio flux-density measurements supernova (SN) 1996cr, made with MeerKAT, ATCA and ALMA, and images made from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The spectral energy distribution of SN 1996cr in 2020, at age, t ∼8700 d, is a power-law, with flux density, S∝ν−0.588 ± 0.0...
Article
We report on Chandra X-ray observations of ASASSN-18tb/SN 2018fhw, a low luminosity Type Ia supernova that showed a H line in its optical spectrum. No X-ray emission was detected at the location of the SN. Upper limits to the luminosity of up to 3 × 1039 erg s−1 are calculated, depending on the assumed spectral model, temperature and column density...
Preprint
We report on Chandra X-ray observations of ASASSN-18tb/SN 2018fhw, a low luminosity Type Ia supernova that showed a H line in its optical spectrum. No X-ray emission was detected at the location of the SN. Upper limits to the luminosity of up to 3 $\times 10^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$ are calculated, depending on the assumed spectral model, temperature and...
Preprint
We present broadband radio flux-density measurements supernova (SN) 1996cr, made with MeerKAT, ATCA and ALMA, and images made from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The spectral energy distribution of SN 1996cr in 2020, at age, $t \sim$8700 d, is a power-law, with flux density, $S\propto... Preprint We probe the environmental properties of X-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) at various points along their evolutionary journey, especially the S-T phase, and their conformance with theoretically derived models of SNR evolution. The remnant size is used as a proxy for the age of the remnant. Our data set includes 34 Milky Way, 59 Large Magellanic Cloud... Article We probe the environmental properties of X-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) at various points along their evolutionary journey, especially the S-T phase, and their conformance with theoretically derived models of SNR evolution. The remnant size is used as a proxy for the age of the remnant. Our data set includes 34 Milky Way, 59 Large Magellanic Cloud... Article Full-text available SN 2014C was originally classified as a Type Ib supernova, but at phase ϕ = 127 days, post-explosion strong H α emission was observed. SN 2014C has since been observed in radio, infrared, optical and X-ray bands. Here we present new optical spectroscopic and photometric data spanning ϕ = 947–2494 days post-explosion. We address the evolution of the... Preprint Full-text available SN 2014C was originally classified as a Type Ib supernova, but at phase {\phi} = 127 d post-explosion strong H{\alpha} emission was observed. SN 2014C has since been observed in radio, infrared, optical and X-ray bands. Here we present new optical spectroscopic and photometric data spanning {\phi} = 947 - 2494 d post-explosion. We address the evolu... Preprint Using a code that employs a self-consistent method for computing the effects of photo-ionization on circumstellar gas dynamics, we model the formation of wind-driven nebulae around massive stars. We take into account changes in stellar properties and mass-loss over the star's evolution. Our simulations show how various properties, such as the densi... Article Full-text available Using a code that employs a self-consistent method for computing the effects of photo-ionization on circumstellar gas dynamics, we model the formation of wind-driven nebulae around massive stars. We take into account changes in stellar properties and mass-loss over the star’s evolution. Our simulations show how various properties, such as the densi... Article Type II-P supernovæ (SNe), the most common core-collapse SNe type, result from the explosions of red supergiant stars. Their detection in the radio domain testifies of the presence of relativistic electrons, and shows that they are potentially efficient energetic particle accelerators. If hadrons can also be accelerated, these energetic particles a... Preprint Type II-P supernov\ae~(SNe), the most common core-collapse SNe type, result from the explosions of red supergiant stars. Their detection in the radio domain testifies of the presence of relativistic electrons, and shows that they are potentially efficient energetic particle accelerators. If hadrons can also be accelerated, these energetic particles... Article Full-text available We perform empirical fits to the Chandraand XMM-Newton spectra of three ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891, monitoring the region over a 17-year time window. One of these sources was visible since the early 1990s with ROSAT and was observed multiple times with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Another was visible since 20... Preprint We perform empirical fits to the \emph{Chandra} and \emph{XMM-Newton} spectra of three ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891, monitoring the region over a seventeen year time window. One of these sources has been visible since the early 1990s with \emph{ROSAT} and has been observed multiple times with \emph{Chandra... Article The centroid energy of the Fe K α line has been used to identify the progenitors of supernova remnants (SNRs). These investigations generally considered the energy of the centroid derived from the spectrum of the entire remnant. Here we use XMM-Newton data to investigate the Fe K α centroid in 6 SNRs: 3C 397, N132D, W49B, DEM L71, 1E 0102.2-7219, a... Preprint The centroid energy of the Fe K$\alpha$line has been used to identify the progenitors of supernova remnants (SNRs). These investigations generally considered the energy of the centroid derived from the spectrum of the entire remnant. Here we use {\it XMM-Newton} data to investigate the Fe K$\alpha$centroid in 6 SNRs: 3C~397, N132D, W49B, DEM L71,... Preprint The transition from supernovae (SNe) to supernova remnants (SNRs) remains poorly understood, given the age gap between well-studied examples of the two. In order to bridge this gap, we analysed archival Chandra data for some of the oldest supernovae detected in X-rays, in order to extend their light curves out to late times. We fitted the spectra w... Article The transition from supernovae (SNe) to supernova remnants (SNRs) remains poorly understood, given the age gap between well-studied examples of the two. In order to bridge this gap, we analyzed archival Chandra data for some of the oldest supernovae detected in X-rays, in order to extend their light curves out to late times. We fitted the spectra w... Preprint Full-text available The discovery of gravitational waves, high-energy neutrinos or the very-high-energy counterpart of gamma-ray bursts has revolutionized the high-energy and transient astrophysics community. The development of new instruments and analysis techniques will allow the discovery and/or follow-up of new transient sources. We describe the prospects for the... Preprint Full-text available The physics of the non-thermal Universe provides information on the acceleration mechanisms in extreme environments, such as black holes and relativistic jets, neutron stars, supernovae or clusters of galaxies. In the presence of magnetic fields, particles can be accelerated towards relativistic energies. As a consequence, radiation along the entir... Article The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the new-generation ground-based observatory for γ astronomy, provides unique capabilities to address significant open questions in astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics. We study some of the salient areas of γ cosmology that can be explored as part of the Key Science Projects of CTA, through simulated... Article The Supernova X-Ray Database (SNaX) was established a few years ago to make X-ray data on supernovae (SNe) publicly available via an elegant searchable web interface. The database has recently been updated to PhP7, had security updates done, and moved to a new server, ensuring its long-term stability. We urge astronomers to continue to download the... Preprint The Supernova X-Ray Database (SNaX) was established a few years ago to make X-ray data on supernovae (SNe) publicly available via an elegant searchable web interface. The database has recently been updated to PhP7, had security updates done, and moved to a new server, ensuring its long-term stability. We urge astronomers to continue to download the... Preprint W49B is a supernova remnant (SNR) discovered over 60 years ago in early radio surveys. It has since been observed over the entire wavelength range, with the X-ray morphology resembling a centrally-filled SNR. The nature of its progenitor star is still debated. Applying Smoothed Particle Inference techniques to analyze the X-Ray emission from W49B,... Article Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) expand into a medium created by winds from the pre-SN progenitor. The SN explosion and resulting shock wave(s) heat up the surrounding plasma, giving rise to thermal X-ray emission, which depends on the density of the emitting material. Tracking the variation of the X-ray luminosity over long periods of time thus allo... Preprint Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) expand into a medium created by winds from the pre-SN progenitor. The SN explosion and resulting shock wave(s) heat up the surrounding plasma, giving rise to thermal X-ray emission, which depends on the density of the emitting material. Tracking the variation of the X-ray luminosity over long periods of time thus allo... Article The progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) are known to be red supergiants, but their properties are not well determined. We employ hydrodynamical modeling to investigate the explosion characteristics of eight Type IIP SNe and the properties of their progenitor stars. We create evolutionary models using the MESA stellar evolution code, explode th... Article Context. Tycho ’s supernova remnant (SNR) is associated with the historical supernova (SN) event SN 1572 of Type Ia. The explosion occurred in a relatively clean environment, and was visually observed, providing an age estimate. This SNR therefore represents an ideal astrophysical test-bed for the study of cosmic-ray acceleration and related phenom... Preprint Full-text available A number of studies suggest that shock acceleration with particle feedback and very efficient magnetic-field amplification combined with Alfv\'{e}nic drift are needed to explain the rather soft radio spectrum and the narrow rims observed for Tycho's SNR. We show that the broadband spectrum of Tycho's SNR can alternatively be well explained when acc... Article Some core-collapse supernovae are likely to be efficient cosmic ray accelerators up to the PeV range, and therefore, to potentially play an important role in the overall Galactic cosmic ray population. The TeV gamma-ray domain can be used to study particle acceleration in the multi-TeV and PeV range. This motivates the study of the detectability of... Preprint Full-text available Some core-collapse supernovae are likely to be efficient cosmic-ray accelerators up to the PeV range, and therefore, to potentially play an important role in the overall Galactic cosmic-ray population. The TeV gamma-ray domain can be used to study particle acceleration in the multi-TeV and PeV range. This motivates the study of the detectability of... Preprint Full-text available We present a study of$\gamma$-ray emission from the core-collapse supernova remnant Cas~A in the energy range from 0.1GeV to 10TeV. We used 65 hours of VERITAS data to cover 200 GeV - 10 TeV, and 10.8 years of \textit{Fermi}-LAT data to cover 0.1-500 GeV. The spectral analysis of \textit{Fermi}-LAT data shows a significant spectral curvature aroun... Article We analyze the X‐ray emission from the supernova remnant DEM L71 using the smoothed particle inference (SPI) technique. The high Fe abundance found appears to confirm the Type Ia origin. Our method allows the separation of the material ejected in the supernova explosion from the material swept up by the supernova shock wave. We are able to calculat... Preprint We analyze the X-Ray emission from the supernova remnant DEM L71 using the Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI) technique. The high Fe abundance found appears to confirm the Type Ia origin. Our method allows us to separate the material ejected in the supernova explosion from the material swept-up by the supernova shock wave. We are able to calculate t... Article We present X-ray spectra spanning 18 yr of evolution for SN 1996cr, one of the five nearest SNe detected in the modern era. Chandra HETG exposures in 2000, 2004, and 2009 allow us to resolve spectrally the velocity profiles of Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe emission lines and monitor their evolution as tracers of the ejecta-circumstellar medium interaction.... Preprint The interaction between the expanding supernova (SN) ejecta with the circumstellar material (CSM) that was expelled from the progenitor prior to explosion is a long-sought phenomenon, yet observational evidence is scarce. Here we confirm a new example: SN 2004dk, originally a hydrogen-poor, helium-rich Type Ib SN that reappeared as a strong H$\alph...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present X-ray spectra spanning 18 years of evolution for SN\,1996cr, one of the five nearest SNe detected in the modern era. {\it Chandra} HETG exposures in 2000, 2004, and 2009 allow us to resolve spectrally the velocity profiles of Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe emission lines and monitor their evolution as tracers of the ejecta-circumstellar medium (C...
Preprint
Full-text available
Core-collapse supernovae produce fast shocks which expand into the dense circumstellar medium (CSM) of the stellar progenitor. Cosmic rays (CRs) accelerated at these shocks can induce the growth of electromagnetic fluctuations in the pre-shock medium. Using a self-similar description for the shock evolution, we calculate the growth time-scales of C...
Article
The interaction between the expanding supernova (SN) ejecta with the circumstellar material (CSM) that was expelled from the progenitor prior to explosion is a long-sought phenomenon, yet observational evidence is scarce. Here we confirm a new example: SN 2004dk, originally a hydrogen-poor, helium-rich Type Ib SN that reappeared as a strong Hα-emit...
Preprint
Core-collapse supernovae exploding in dense winds are favorable sites for cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration to very high energies. We present our CR-radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the explosion of a red supergiant. We study the evolution of the shock wave during the first day following core collapse, and estimate the time at which CR acceleratio...
Article
The progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) are known to be red supergiants, but their properties are not well determined. We employ hydrodynamical modeling to investigate the explosion characteristics of eight Type IIP SNe and the properties of their progenitor stars. We create evolutionary models using the mesa stellar evolution code, explode th...
Preprint
The progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) are known to be red supergiants, but their properties are not well determined. We employ hydrodynamical modelling to investigate the explosion characteristics of eight Type IIP supernovae, and the properties of their progenitor stars. We create evolutionary models using the {\sc MESA} stellar evolution c...
Article
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are complex, three-dimensional objects; properly accounting for this complexity when modeling the resulting X-ray emission presents quite a challenge and makes it difficult to accurately characterize the properties of the full SNR volume. We apply for the first time a novel analysis method called smoothed particle inferenc...
Book
213 pages, including references and glossary. Version 2: credits and references updated, some figures updated, and author list updated
Preprint
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are complex, three-dimensional objects; properly accounting for this complexity when modeling the resulting X-ray emission presents quite a challenge and makes it difficult to accurately characterize the properties of the full SNR volume. We apply for the first time a novel analysis method, Smoothed Particle Inference, tha...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is now solid experimental evidence of at least one supernova explosion within 100 pc of Earth within the last few million years, from measurements of the short-lived isotope 60Fe in widespread deep-ocean samples, as well as in the lunar regolith and cosmic rays. This is the first established example of a specific dated astrophysical event out...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic photons in nature to address some of the most pressing puzzles in contemporary astrophysics. It encompasses a wide range of objects and phenomena: stars, supernovae, novae, neutron stars, stellar-mass black holes, nucleosynthesis, the interstellar medium, cosmic rays and relativistic-particle accelera...
Article
A constraint on Solar System formation is the high 26Al/27Al abundance ratio, 17 times higher than the average Galactic ratio, while the 60Fe/56Fe value was lower than the Galactic value. This challenges the assumption that a nearby supernova was responsible for the injection of these short-lived radionuclides into the early Solar System. We sugges...
Article
Massive stars lose a considerable amount of mass during their lifetime. When the star explodes as a supernova (SN), the resulting shock wave expands in the medium created by the stellar mass-loss. Thermal X-ray emission from the SN depends on the square of the density of the ambient medium, which in turn depends on the mass-loss rate (and velocity)...
Article
Full-text available
Core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) produce fast shocks which pervade the dense circum-stellar medium (CSM) of the stellar progenitor. Cosmic rays (CRs) if accelerated at these shocks can induce the growth of electromagnetic fluctuations in the foreshock medium. In this study, using a self-similar description of the shock evolution, we calculate the g...
Preprint
Full-text available
Core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) produce fast shocks which pervade the dense circum-stellar medium (CSM) of the stellar progenitor. Cosmic rays (CRs) if accelerated at these shocks can induce the growth of electromagnetic fluctuations in the foreshock medium. In this study, using a self-similar description of the shock evolution, we calculate the g...
Article
A range of astronomical data indicates that ancient supernovae created the galactic environment of the Sun and sculpted the physical properties of the interstellar medium near the heliosphere. In this paper we review the characteristics of the local interstellar medium that have been affected by supernovae. The kinematics, magnetic field, elemental...
Article
Full-text available
A critical constraint on solar system formation is the high /²⁷Al abundance ratio of at the time of formation, which was about 17 times higher than the average Galactic ratio, while the ⁶⁰Fe/⁵⁶Fe value was about , lower than the Galactic value. This challenges the assumption that a nearby supernova (SN) was responsible for the injection of these sh...
Article
X-ray emission is one of the signposts of circumstellar interaction in supernovae (SNe), but until now, it has been observed only in core-collapse SNe. The level of thermal X-ray emission is a direct measure of the density of the circumstellar medium (CSM), and the absence of X-ray emission from Type Ia SNe has been interpreted as a sign of a very...
Article
Full-text available
We perform simulations for future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observations of RX J1713.7-3946, a young supernova remnant (SNR) and one of the brightest sources ever discovered in very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. Special attention is paid to exploring possible spatial (anti)correlations of gamma rays with emission at other wavelengths, in part...
Article
Full-text available
We perform simulations for future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observations of RX J1713.7‑3946, a young supernova remnant (SNR) and one of the brightest sources ever discovered in very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. Special attention is paid to exploring possible spatial (anti)correlations of gamma rays with emission at other wavelengths, in part...
Article
We present the Supernova X-ray Database (SNaX), a compilation of the X-ray data from young supernovae (SNe). The database includes the X-ray flux and luminosity of young SNe, days to years after outburst. The original goal and intent were to present a database of Type IIn SNe. After having accomplished this we are slowly expanding it to include all...
Article
High-energy gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) has provided a unique perspective for studies of Galactic cosmic-ray acceleration. Tycho's SNR is a particularly good target because it is a young, type Ia SNR that has been well-studied over a wide range of energies and located in a relatively clean environment. Since the detection of g...
Article
Full-text available
High-energy gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) has provided a unique perspective for studies of Galactic cosmic-ray acceleration. Tycho's SNR is a particularly good target because it is a young, type Ia SNR that is well-studied over a wide range of energies and located in a relatively clean environment. Since the detection of gamma-r...
Article
We present calculations of the radio images and light curves from supernovae, based on high-resolution numerical simulations of the hydrodynamics and radiation transfer in a spherically symmetric medium. As a specific example we model the emission from SN1993J. This supernova does not appear to be expanding in a self-similar fashion, and cannot be...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Article
SN 2005kd is among the most luminous supernovae (SNe) to be discovered at X-ray wavelengths. We have re-analysed all good angular resolution (better than $20"$ FWHM PSF) archival X-ray data for SN 2005kd. The data reveal an X-ray light curve that decreases as t$^{-1.62 \pm 0.06}$. Our modelling of the data suggests that the early evolution is domin...
Chapter
A range of astronomical data indicates that ancient supernovae created the galactic environment of the Sun and sculpted the physical properties of the interstellar medium near the heliosphere. In this paper, we review the characteristics of the local interstellar medium that have been affected by supernovae. The kinematics, magnetic field, elementa...
Article
Full-text available
Massive stars shape their surroundings with mass loss from winds during their lifetimes. Fast ejecta from supernovae, from these massive stars, shocks this circumstellar medium. Emission generated by this interaction provides a window into the final stages of stellar evolution, by probing the history of mass loss from the progenitor. Here we use Ch...
Article
Full-text available
The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is a ground-based array located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona and is one of the world's most sensitive gamma-ray instruments at energies of 85 GeV to $>$30 TeV. VERITAS has a wide scientific reach that includes the study of extragalactic and Galacti...
Article
Full-text available
The formation of a core collapse supernovae (SNe) results in a fast (but non- or mildly-relativistic) shock wave expanding outwards into the surrounding medium. The medium itself is likely modified due to the stellar mass-loss from the massive star progenitor, which may be Wolf-Rayet stars (for Type Ib/c SNe), red supergiant stars (for type IIP and...
Article
Full-text available
List of contributions from the CTA Consortium presented at the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 30 July - 6 August 2015, The Hague, The Netherlands.
Article
Using a code that employs a self-consistent method for computing the effects of photoionization on circumstellar gas dynamics, we model the formation of wind-driven nebulae around massive Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our algorithm incorporates a simplified model of the photo-ionization source, computes the fractional ionization of hydrogen due to the ph...
Article
Red Supergiants (RSGs) have for decades been assumed to be the progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe). They are expected to have dense winds with mass-loss rates up to 10 ⁻⁴ M ⊙ yr ⁻¹ . We have created a database of available X-ray lightcurves of SNe. Type IIP SNe are found to have the lowest X-ray luminosities among all classes, which is surpris...
Article
We have aggregated together data available in the literature, or analysed by us, to compute the lightcurves of most young supernovae (SNe) that have been detected in X-rays. Currently the database contains about 60 SNe spanning all the various types, but it is expanding rapidly. We use this library of lightcurves and spectra to explore the diversit...
Article
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We present optical photometric and spectroscopic observations of supernova 2013ej. It is one of the brightest type II supernovae exploded in a nearby ($\sim 10$ Mpc) galaxy NGC 628. The light curve characteristics are similar to type II SNe, but with a relatively shorter ($\sim85$ day) and steeper ($\sim1.7$ mag (100 d)$^{-1}$ in V) plateau ph...
Article
Full-text available
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are among the most important targets for gamma-ray observatories. Being prominent non-thermal sources, they are very likely responsible for the acceleration of the bulk of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs). To firmly establish the SNR paradigm for the origin of cosmic rays, it should be confirmed that protons are indeed accelerat...
Article
Full-text available
RX J1713.7-3946 is the brightest shell-type Supernova remnant (SNR) of the TeV gamma-ray sky. Earlier Fermi-LAT results on low-energy gamma-ray emission suggested that, despite large uncertainties in the background determination, the spectrum is inconsistent with a hadronic origin. We update the GeV-band spectra using improved estimates for the dif...
Article
Context. RX J1713.7-3946 is the brightest shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) of the TeV gamma-ray sky. Earlier Fermi-LAT results on low energy gamma-ray emission suggested that, despite large uncertainties in the background determination, the spectrum is inconsistent with a hadronic origin. Aims. We update the GeV-band spectra using improved estima...
Article
Supernovae (SNe) are generally classified into Type I and Type II. Most SNe (~ 80%), including all the subtypes of Type II, and Type Ib/c, arise from the core-collapse of massive stars. During their lifetime, mass-loss from these stars considerably modifies the medium around the stars. When the stars explode as SNe, the resulting shock wave will ex...
Article
Full-text available
In this work the efficiency of particle acceleration at the forward shock right after the SN outburst for the particular case of the well-known SN 1993J is analyzed. Plasma instabilities driven by the energetic particles accelerated at the shock front grow over intraday timescales and drive a fast amplification of the magnetic field at the shock, t...
Article
Full-text available
We present very high energy (VHE) imaging of MGRO J2019+37 obtained with the VERITAS observatory. The bright extended (~2°) unidentified Milagro source is located toward the rich star formation region Cygnus-X. MGRO J2019+37 is resolved into two VERITAS sources. The faint, point-like source VER J2016+371 overlaps CTB 87, a filled-center remnant (SN...