Victor R. Preedy's research while affiliated with Kingston College United Kingdom and other places

Publications (583)

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Year on year millions of people receive anesthesia for a variety of reasons. The vast majority of patients are apparently unharmed by the anesthetic agents. However, around the beginning of the 21st Century it was suggested that the exposure to general anesthetics could be neurotoxic. Animal and epidemiological data suggest that exposure to several...
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Every year millions of complex surgical procedures are performed worldwide. Anesthetic agents and analgesics are required to ensure that patients having surgery do not experience pain and have no recollection of the procedure. Since Morton demonstrated the utility of diethyl-ether 170 years ago, anesthesia has progressed significantly. A broad rang...
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Spinal cord injuries (SCI) cause permanent, life-changing, and devastating disabilities. Thus, this cohort is often faced with significant therapeutic nihilism. This is inappropriate as their survival to discharge home is very good and recent technological advances have significantly improved the quality of life of these patients. The inability of...
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Features and Assessments of Pain, Anaesthesia and Analgesia examines the syndromes of pain and how they interlink with anesthesia and analgesics. The book covers assessments, screening and resources, and provides applications to related areas of medicine. It explores how the perception of pain results from a multifaceted interaction between illness...
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Zika virus is a member of the family Flaviviridae and was first identified in the 1940s. In 2007, the first outbreak of Zika virus disease was reported and this was followed by substantial outbreaks of the viral infection from 2013. In 2015, a large outbreak was reported in Brazil. Concomitant associations with Guillain-Barre syndrome and microceph...
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Description Zika Virus Impact, Diagnosis, Control, and Models: Volume Two: The Neuroscience of Zika examines diagnosis, vaccines, and potential therapy methods for Zika virus syndrome. The book also details the neuroscience of Guillain-Barré syndrome, its effects and neuromuscular rehabilitation. It is designed to help readers better understand det...
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Full-text available
The effects of abnormal neurological development can have drastic consequences for the individual and also for the family unit. In the United States, about 10% of hospitalized children have a neurological diagnosis. In children, neurological conditions may include cerebral palsy, genetic abnormalities (e.g., Down syndrome), epilepsy and seizures, n...
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This book discusses the mechanisms underlying neurological aging and provides readers with a detailed introduction to the aging of neural connections and complexities in biological circuitries, as well as the interactions between genetics, epigenetics and other micro-environmental processes. It also examines pharmacological and non-pharmacological...
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Full-text available
The effects of abnormal neurological development can have drastic consequences for the individual and also for the family unit. In the United States, about 10% of hospitalized children have a neurological diagnosis. In children, neurological conditions may include cerebral palsy, genetic abnormalities (e.g., Down syndrome), epilepsy and seizures, n...
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Full-text available
There are currently dramatic changes in global demographics. The proportion of the aging population is increasing. In the United States, the current population of over 65 years old, approximately 45 million, will double in 30 years to between 80 and 90 million. Humankind is living longer due to reductions in communicable disease and advances in med...
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Full-text available
There are currently dramatic changes in global demographics. The proportion of the aging population is increasing. In the United States, the current population of over 65 years old, approximately 45 million, will double in 30 years to between 80 and 90 million. Humankind is living longer due to reductions in communicable disease and advances in med...
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Full-text available
The Neuroscience of Depression is a comprehensive reference to the diagnosis and treatment of depression. This book provides readers with the mechanisms of depression reflecting on the interplay between depression and the biological and psychosocial processes. A detailed introduction to various episodes of depression, from PTSD to post-partum depre...
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Full-text available
The Neuroscience of Depression: Features, Diagnosis and Treatment, is a comprehensive reference to the diagnosis and treatment of depression. This book provides readers with the mechanisms of depression reflecting on the interplay between depression and the biological and psychosocial processes. A detailed introduction to various episodes of depres...
Article
Full-text available
Teenage binge drinking is a major health issue; however, there is a paucity of data on liver injury. Herein, we investigated how acute ethanol affects juvenile hepatic cells through changes in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and liver function, as well as the ability of betaine, which can replen-ish the antioxidant glutathione and mitigate oxidative i...
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Hippocrates used “mania” and “melancholia” to describe depression around 400 BC. So, clinicians, researchers, and philosophers have been challenged by depression for over a 1000 years. Yet, while diagnostic criteria for depression are available, there is still an ongoing debate about this definition. However, the true enigma of depression lies not...
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Falling birth rates and increased longevity both contribute to the inexorable aging of the global population. Aging is associated with loss of organ function. As individuals age, information processing speed, working memory, and long-term memory become less efficient. So, aging is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases including mild cogni...
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Scientists have been fascinated by the nervous system since ancient times. Alkmaion (circa 450 BCE) was the first scientist to dissect and study the anatomy of the brain and peripheral nerves. The paradigm shift that occurred when he ascribed a specific function to a defined region of the brain was fundamental to the birth of neuroscience. However,...
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Any substance, even an essential nutrient or medication, may harm a living organism and thus be toxic. The first description of this paradox is credited to Paracelsus, the “father of toxicology.” One potential mechanism for dose-related toxicity is through the generation of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the system...
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are produced during normal cellular metabolism can damage a variety of structures and macromolecules including nucleic acids. As a result, disruption of cellular homeostasis occurs. Oxidative damage to DNA is implicated in carcinogenesis. However, ROS also modulate intracellular signal transduction. Indeed, malig...
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The Zika virus, a flavivirus is related to viruses that cause dengue and yellow fever and is spread by Aedes mosquitoes. The virus was first isolated in 1947, during studies conducted in the Zika Forest of Uganda. During the first 60 years of Zika’s discovery (i.e., until 2007), epidemic infections were unheard of. Less than 20 cases of confirmed h...
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Whilst oxygen dependent metabolism generates the energy that sustains life on Earth; this process also releases toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). These oxidants initiate toxic chain reactions (e.g. lipid peroxidation) that damage deoxyribonucleic acid and proteins. This damage is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer and a range of diseases (e....
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Whilst oxygen dependent metabolism generates the energy that sustains life on Earth; this process also releases toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). These oxidants initiate toxic chain reactions (e.g. lipid peroxidation) that damage deoxyribonucleic acid and proteins. This damage is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer and a range of diseases (e....
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Vitamins are essentials for life for their highly specific roles in the human body. Currently, 13 vitamins are identified. Among them, vitamins A, E, and C possess roles as exogenous biological nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the human body, unstable and highly reactive free radicals are continuously produced from normal metabolic process and from ex...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a term encompassing any disease of the heart and/or blood vessels, ranging from stroke to heart failure. Annually, CVD causes ~ 1.9 million deaths across Europe, with an estimated annual cost of €196 billion in healthcare and productivity losses. Age is a major risk factor for CVD, with smoking, diabetes, and poor di...
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Although dementia is not inevitable, mental decay does occur with aging, so the prevalence of dementia has risen as the lifespan of humans has increased. The global prevalence of dementia is now at pandemic proportions. In 2015, it was estimated that there were nearly 50 million people living with dementia, worldwide. This was projected to double e...
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Neurological diseases impose substantial socioeconomic burden on the society. These diseases are characterized by damage to specific populations of cells within specific areas of the nervous system. The extremely high metabolic demands of neuronal tissue result in high oxygen consumption and energy production. Neurological tissue is particularly hi...
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The United Nations has reported that “virtually every country in the world is experiencing growth in the number and proportion of older persons in their population.” By 2050 one in six people will be over 65 globally. This contrasts with Europe and North America where one in four will be over 65 by 2050. Reactive oxygen species initiate toxic chain...
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Nicotine is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs. It is contained in tobacco plant products which can be either chewed, sucked or smoked. More recently vaping has become popular whereby nicotine is obtained via a liquid in an electronic cigarette. Regardless of the mode by which tobacco or its products are used, there is considerable ev...
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Ethanol, or alcohol, is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs. On a global basis, alcohol misuse causes the deaths of 3 million people each year (WHO, 2014). This is about 1 in 17 deaths. Alcohol misuse also causes many neurological pathologies. In terms of the global burden of disease, neuropsychiatric disorders contribute to about 25%...
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This book addresses the causes and effects of nutrient deficiencies along the cell-to-communities continuum. The book is primarily concerned with a lack or deficiency of one or more micro- or macronutrients in connection with malnutrition, under nutrition, and starvation. Embedded within the deficiency states is acute restriction whereby food is wi...
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This multivolume reference work addresses the fact that the well being of humankind is predicated not only on individuals receiving adequate nutrition but also on their genetic makeup. The work includes more than 100 chapters organized in the following major sections: Introduction and Overview; Epigenetics of Organs and Diseases in Relation to Diet...
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There is no greater major threat to public health worldwide than nutrient deprivation. Presently nutrient deficiency affects around 800 million people worldwide. Since time immemorial nutrient deprivation or overt starvation has caused organ dysfunction or death. Nutrient deficiency is not only the consequence of drought, famines, or civil upheaval...
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Epigenetics studies inheritable changes in gene expression and function that occur in the absence of modification in the DNA sequence. In other words, this represents stable phenotypic changes which occur without genomic changes. Epigenetics is still developing as a science. It was only in 2008 that an operational definition of an epigenetics was d...
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Each year approximately 700,000 women give birth in England and Wales. Up to 5% of these pregnancies are afflicted by maternal diabetes. Some of those with maternal diabetes have pre-existing diabetes. However, the vast majority (87.5%) have gestational diabetes. However, prevalence rates vary on a global basis and some countries show increasing ra...
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This comprehensive volume covers all aspects of nutrition in different scenarios of maternal diabetes, including the Type 1 or Type 2 diabetic mother, gestational diabetes, and postpartum diabetes. The volumes offer a comprehensive, yet thorough, overview of the subject, from the prevalence, risk factors, and insulin requirements of the mother; to...
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Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is currently a major public health threat worldwide. This epidemic was first identified in 1981 when unusual clusters of Pneumocystis pneumonia were reported in Los Angeles. Since then the pace of the developments in this field has been phenomenal. The diagnosis and treatment of HIV and acquired...
Article
Non-alcoholic compounds in beer have protective effects in Caco-2 cells by increasing the expression of genes in the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway - Volume 76 Issue OCE4 - R. Watts, H. Lu, M. Arno, V.R. Preedy, P.A. Sharp
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HIV/AIDS: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants provides comprehensive coverage of oxidative stress in HIV/AIDS, focusing on both the pathological process around molecular and cellular metabolism and the complications that can arise due to nutritional imbalance. It provides a pathway for researchers and clinicians to gain an in-depth understand...
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Nutritional or other physiological imbalances in utero will subject the fetus to a variety of impositions leading to a spectrum of effects such as smaller birth weights and developmental disorders. These impact adversely on the infant and adult, and there are increased risks of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome, i...
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Nutrients in Dairy and Their Implications for Health and Disease addresses various dairy products and their impact on health. This comprehensive book is divided into three sections and presents a balanced overview of the health benefits of milk and milk products. Summaries capture the most salient points of each chapter, and the importance of milk...
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This volume offers the most comprehensive coverage on fetal programming. Chapters are written by authors of international and national standing, leaders in the field and trendsetters. The clinical relevance of the current research is emphasized in each chapter, which also contains key points, key words, and concise summaries for ease of learning. F...
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This text presents the application of current nutritional knowledge by physicians and dietitians and incorporates emerging fields of science and important discoveries. It contains seven major sections. Section 1: Basic Processes at the Cellular Levels, Section 2: Arginine Metabolism and Functions, Section 3: Arginine Status in Cells Related to Orga...
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Dairy in Human Health and Disease across the Lifespan addresses the contribution of milk to the human diet and health throughout the life span. This comprehensive book is divided into three sections and presents a balanced overview of dairy's impact on nutrition from infancy to adulthood. Summaries capture the most salient points of each chapter, a...
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There is an epidemic of obesity, and patients having bariatric surgery are a major subgroup of the morbidly obese. Despite the significant comorbidities in this cohort (see below), the 30-day mortality rate after elective bariatric surgery is low (0.3%). Most obese patients without medical comorbidities who have an uncomplicated course after bariat...
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There are a variety of diseases that affect the liver ranging from those induced by toxins such as drugs and alcohol to those caused by viruses, poor diets, and the adverse impact of lifestyle factors. In the USA, for example, the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is about 20%, corresponding to about 30 million people. In China there a...
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There is a global pandemic of obesity. Bariatric surgery patients are a major subgroup of the morbidly obese. However, despite the significant comorbidities in this cohort, the 30-day mortality rate after elective bariatric surgery is low (0.3%). An estimation of individual patient risk of postoperative complications is made by the patient’s anesth...
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There is an ongoing epidemic of obesity. Weight loss in this cohort is associated with significant reduction in morbidity and mortality. The focus on developing and refining surgical techniques for bariatric surgery has driven down perioperative morbidity and mortality. This perceived safety of bariatric surgery has led to a massive increase in upt...
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The introduction of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) in 1993 transformed the management of chronic obesity. Over 20 years of clinical experience with this day-case surgical procedure has demonstrated that it is effective and safe even in the superobese, adolescents, and older patients. The perioperative mortality is 0–0.1% and excess...
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There are a variety of conditions affecting the bone including osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, osteosarcoma, osteogenesis imperfecta, and fractures, to name just a few. In the USA, about 10% of the adult population have osteoporosis, for example. Biomarkers are of significant value in most skeletal conditions. They are used in risk stratification, di...
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Ethanol is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs worldwide, and “drinking” is synonymous with the consumption of beverages containing ethanol. Alcohol can damage almost every organ in the body and is responsible for 4% of the global burden of disease. On a geographical level, the burden of disease attributable to alcohol may be greater t...
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Pathophysiology of Bariatric Surgery: Metabolism, Nutrition, Procedures, Outcomes and Adverse Effects uses a metabolic and nutritional theme to explain the complex interrelationships between obesity and metabolic profiles before and after bariatric surgery. The book is sectioned into seven distinct areas, Features of Obesity, Surgical Procedures, N...
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Pathophysiology of Bariatric Surgery: Metabolism, Nutrition, Procedures, Outcomes and Adverse Effects uses a metabolic and nutritional theme to explain the complex interrelationships between obesity and metabolic profiles before and after bariatric surgery. The book is sectioned into seven distinct areas, Features of Obesity, Surgical Procedures, N...
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Fruits, Vegetables, and Herbs: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion brings together experts from around the world working on the cutting edge of research on fruit, vegetables, and herbs in health promotion. Offering a timely, concise, scientific appraisal of the efficacy of key foods to prevent disease and improve the quality of life, Fruits, Vegeta...
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Acetaldehyde (ethanal) is an aldehyde that is highly reactive and toxic. Acetaldehyde causes damage at the cellular and genomic levels. The sheer number of enzymes involved in the metabolism and detoxication of acetaldehyde and other aldehyde species is a testament to the impact of its reactivity. Metabolic or autoxidation pathways lead to the form...
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Cardiovascular disease biomarkers are substances that indicate the presence of cardiovascular disease. They may be released from the heart or result from a specific response to the cardiovascular disease. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for the diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology of cardiovascular dis...
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Biomarkers of kidney disease are substances that identify damage to the renal tract and may reflect renal function. They may be released from the kidney or result from a specific response to damage to the renal tract or changes in renal function. Serum creatinine is currently the most widely used marker of kidney disease and renal function in clini...
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There are a variety of conditions affecting the bone including osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, osteosarcoma, osteogenesis imperfecta, and fractures, to name just a few. In the USA, about 10% of the adult population have osteoporosis, for example. Biomarkers are of significant value in most skeletal conditions. They are used in risk stratification, di...
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Cardiovascular disease biomarkers are substances that indicate the presence of cardiovascular disease. They may be released from the heart or result from a specific response to the cardiovascular disease. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for the diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology of cardiovascular dis...
Chapter
There are a variety of diseases that affect the liver ranging from those induced by toxins such as drugs and alcohol to those caused by viruses, poor diets, and the adverse impact of lifestyle factors. In the USA, for example, the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is about 20%, corresponding to about 30 million people. In China there a...
Chapter
Biomarkers of kidney disease are substances that identify damage to the renal tract and may reflect renal function. They may be released from the kidney or result from a specific response to damage to the renal tract or changes in renal function. Serum creatinine is currently the most widely used marker of kidney disease and renal function in clini...
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Validated tests are important assessment tools for the detection and monitoring of an individual's level of cognitive functioning. While the psychometric properties of these tests are reliable, sensitive, and specific, the proper conduct of the assessment and interpretation of the results are crucial to the usefulness and applicability of the findi...
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Coffee consumption has been suggested to protect against several chronic diseases in which low-grade inflammation has been implicated. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a good marker of low-grade inflammation, and data regarding the influence of coffee consumption on this biomarker remain inconsistent. This chapter reviews the epidemiological and clinica...
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It is generally believed that tea ingestion improves psychological performance. The long-term cognitive benefit of tea drinking has been studied only recently. Data from several cross-sectional studies have consistently shown that consumption of tea is linearly associated with better cognitive function measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination...
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China is encountering formidable healthcare challenges brought about by the problem of aging. By 2050, there will be 400 million Chinese citizens aged 65+, 150 million of whom will be 80+. The undesirable consequences of the one-child policy, rural-to-urban migration, and expansion of the population of 'empty nest' elders are eroding the traditiona...
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Full-text available
Medical practice is not exempted from complications. This is particularly relevant in the critical care setting. Decisions bearing on patient’s lives have to be taken amidst tensions dictated by windows of opportunity, progression of the disease, and availability of technological equipment and staff. In spite of all of these factors, medical errors...
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Genetically Modified Organisms in Food focuses on scientific evaluation of published research relating to GMO food products to assert their safety as well as potential health risks. This book is a solid reference for researchers and professionals needing information on the safety of GMO and non-GMO food production, the economic benefits of both GMO...
Book
Full-text available
Finding all the information necessary to treat or meet the nutritional requirements of patients who are severely ill or establish new protocols has historically been problematic. This is addressed in Diet and Nutrition in Critical Care. This major reference work encapsulates the latest treatments and procedures to meet the dietary and nutritional n...
Book
In the past decade there has been a major sea change in the way disease is diagnosed and investigated due to the advent of high throughput technologies, such as microarrays, lab on a chip, proteomics, genomics, lipomics, metabolomics etc. These advances have enabled the discovery of new and novel markers of disease relating to autoimmune disorders,...
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Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion reviews and presents new hypotheses and conclusions on the effects of different bioactive components of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics to prevent disease and improve the health of various populations. Experts define and support the actions of bacteria; bacteria modi...
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Biomarkers are characteristics that are objectively measured and evaluated as indicators of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention or other health care intervention (Atkinson et al. 2001). They have significant scientific and clinical value in modern medicine. This chapter contain...
Book
The combination of growing populations moving into large cities in high risk zones increase the risk of natural disasters with a substantial public health consequence. A high population density and rapid air travel increase the spread and effects of plagues and diseases. People in countries with limited resources are more vulnerable to death and ot...
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A cancer biomarker is a substance that indicates the presence of cancer. It could be secreted by a tumor or result from a specific response to the cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology. This chapter outlines the sources of the most up-to-date informatio...
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The critical care ward manages the needs of the highest dependency patients, the majority of whom are malnourished. Malnutrition could have been preexistent and compounded by critical illness or may have arisen due to acute disease effects. The appropriate identification and management of malnutrition in the critical care unit will have a major inf...
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that may develop after a traumatizing event. The many possible presenting symptoms include recurrent flashbacks or numbing of memories of the event that persist for more than 1 month after the precipitant. The Comprehensive Guide to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders documents many personal,...
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Nutrition screening tools are rapid, simple, and accurate methods of determining patient nutritional status. They are usually used at first contact with a dietician or another healthcare professional such as a nurse or doctor. A full clinical assessment is not complete without nutritional screening. The use of a nutritional screening tool is usuall...
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The malfunction of the finely tuned homeostatic systems that maintain oxidative balance is part of the pathology of almost every known human disease. There are scores of individual components and pathways which maintain oxidative balance. One or more of these maybe altered in disease, though it is difficult to determine what the triggering pathway...
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Vitamin D has a role in preventing diseases of human aging, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Age-related macular degeneration is the principal cause of registered legal blindness among those aged over 65 in the USA, Western Europe, and Asia. The etiology and pathogenesis of AMD are still unknown. However, studies have suggested tha...