# Victor M. Yakovenko's research while affiliated with University of Maryland, College Park and other places

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## Publications (143)

We study how the energy dispersion of bosonic atoms loaded into an optical lattice becomes modified due to periodic circular stirring of the lattice to the second order in the strength of stirring. If the lattice breaks mirror symmetry, the bosonic atoms may acquire a nonzero group velocity at the center of the Brillouin zone and produce a nonzero...

We study an effect of circular shaking of a two-dimensional optical lattice loaded with bosonic atoms. We evaluate the renormalization of the energy dispersion perturbatively to second order in the strength of shaking. If the lattice breaks mirror symmetry, the renormalized energy dispersion has a finite slope at the center of the Brillouin zone. S...

The first part of this paper is a brief survey of the approaches to economic inequality based on ideas from statistical physics and kinetic theory. These include the Boltzmann kinetic equation, the time-reversal symmetry, the ergodicity hypothesis, entropy maximization and the Fokker–Planck equation. The origins of the exponential Boltzmann–Gibbs d...

Under suitable conditions, some twisted graphene multilayers and transition-metal dichalcogenides become Chern insulators, exhibiting the anomalous quantum Hall effect and orbital magnetization due to spontaneous valley polarization. We study the interaction of a Chern insulator with circularly polarized light. The interaction energy contains an an...

The first part of this paper is a brief survey of the approaches to economic inequality based on ideas from statistical physics and kinetic theory. These include the Boltzmann kinetic equation, the time-reversal symmetry, the ergodicity hypothesis, entropy maximization, and the Fokker-Planck equation. The origins of the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs...

Motivated by twisted graphene multilayers, we study interaction of a Chern insulator with circularly polarized light. We find that the interaction energy contains an antisymmetric term that couples to the helicity of incident light, $\mathbf h={\rm Im}{[\mathbf E(\omega)\times\mathbf E^*(\omega)]}$. For a two-band Chern insulator, this term is expr...

Ambitious scenarios of carbon emission redistribution for mitigating climate change in line with the Paris Agreement and reaching the sustainable development goal of eradicating poverty have been proposed recently. They imply a strong reduction in carbon footprint inequality by 2030 that effectively halves the Gini coefficient to about 0.25. This p...

Ambitious scenarios of carbon emission redistribution for mitigating climate change in line with the Paris Agreement and reaching the sustainable development goal of eradicating poverty have been proposed recently. They imply a strong reduction in carbon footprint inequality by 2030 that effectively halves the Gini coefficient to about 0.25. This p...

We study a tight-binding model on the honeycomb lattice of chiral d-wave superconductivity that breaks time-reversal symmetry. Because of its nontrivial sublattice structure, we show that it is possible to construct a gauge-invariant time-reversal-odd bilinear of the pairing potential. The existence of this bilinear reflects the sublattice polariza...

Economic competition between humans leads to income inequality, but, so far, there has been little understanding of underlying quantitative mechanisms governing such a collective behavior. We analyze datasets of household income from 67 countries, ranging from Europe to Latin America, North America and Asia. For all of the countries, we find a surp...

In 1928, Dirac proposed a wave equation to describe relativistic electrons¹. Shortly afterwards, Klein solved a simple potential step problem for the Dirac equation and encountered an apparent paradox: the potential barrier becomes transparent when its height is larger than the electron energy. For massless particles, backscattering is completely f...

In 1928, P. Dirac proposed a new wave equation to describe relativistic electrons. Shortly afterwards, O. Klein solved a simple potential step problem for the Dirac equation and stumbled upon an apparent paradox - the potential becomes transparent when the height is larger than the electron energy. For massless particles, backscattering is complete...

We study a tight-binding model of chiral d-wave superconductivity on the honeycomb lattice. The nearest-neighbor pairing ensures a nontrivial sublattice structure and nonunitarity of the superconducting pairing potential. We show that it generates persistent loop currents around each lattice site and opens a topological mass gap at the Dirac points...

We report anomalous enhancement of the critical current at low temperatures in gate-tunable Josephson junctions made from topological insulator BiSbTeSe$_2$ nanoribbons with superconducting Nb electrodes. In contrast to conventional junctions, as a function of the decreasing temperature $T$, the increasing critical current $I_c$ exhibits a sharp up...

We propose an explanation for the experiment by Schemm et al., Phys. Rev. B 91, 140506 (2015) where the polar Kerr effect (PKE), indicating time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking, was observed in the hidden-order (HO) phase of URu2Si2. The PKE signal on warmup was seen only if a training magnetic field was present on cool-down. Using a Ginzburg-Land...

Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Ch...

Superconductivity that spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry (TRS) has been found, so far, only in a handful of 3D crystals with bulk inversion symmetry. Here we report an observation of spontaneous TRS breaking in a 2D superconducting system without inversion symmetry: the epitaxial bilayer films of bismuth and nickel. The evidence comes fro...

This is an invited article for the Discussion and Debate special issue of The European Physical Journal Special Topics on the subject "Can Economics Be a Physical Science?" The first part of the paper traces the personal path of the author from theoretical physics to economics. It briefly summarizes applications of statistical physics to monetary t...

A mechanism is proposed for the tantalizing evidence of polar Kerr effect in
a class of high temperature superconductors--the signs of the Kerr angle from
two opposite faces of the same sample are identical and magnetic field training
is non-existent. The mechanism does not break global time reversal symmetry, as
in an antiferromagnet, and results...

We calculate the energy spectrum of a Dirac double layer, where each layer
has the Dirac electronic dispersion, in the presence of a tilted magnetic field
and small interlayer tunneling. We show that the energy splitting between the
Landau levels has an oscillatory dependence on the in-plane magnetic field and
vanishes at a series of special tilt a...

The paper briefly surveys theoretical models for the polar Kerr effect (PKE)
and time-reversal symmetry breaking in the pseudogap phase of cuprate
superconductors. By elimination, the most promising candidate is the tilted
loop-current model, obtained from the Simon-Varma model by tilting one
triangular loop up and another one down toward the apica...

We correct our claim made in Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 047005 (2013) that the
chiral texture of loop currents can explain the experimentally observed polar
Kerr effect in cuprates. Although our model does contain a bulk gyrotropic term
and produces a non-zero Faraday effect on transmission, the reflection matrix
of light is, nevertheless, symmetric and...

We study the global probability distribution of energy consumption per capita
around the world using data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration
(EIA) for 1980-2010. We find that the Lorenz curves have moved up during this
time period, and the Gini coefficient G has decreased from 0.66 in 1980 to 0.55
in 2010, indicating a decrease in ineq...

We propose a novel chiral order parameter to explain the unusual polar Kerr effect in underdoped cuprates. It is based on the loop-current model by Varma, which is characterized by the in-plane anapole moment N and exhibits the magnetoelectric effect. We propose a helical structure where the vector N^{(n)} in the layer n is twisted by the angle π/2...

We report an experimental study of the out-of-plane differential
conductivity dI/dV in graphite mesas as a function of applied
out-of-plane voltage V in the in-plane magnetic fields By up
to 55 T. The spectrum dI/dV vs V has a pronounced peak at the critical
voltage V0, which grows linearly with the magnetic field
V0By. The experimental results are...

Interlayer tunneling in graphite mesa-type structures is studied at a strong
in-plane magnetic field $H$ up to 55 T and low temperature $T=1.4$ K. The
tunneling spectrum $dI/dV$ vs. $V$ has a pronounced peak at a finite voltage
$V_0$. The peak position $V_0$ increases linearly with $H$. To explain the
experiment, we develop a theoretical model of g...

We calculate the tunneling conductance \sigma between the surface states on
the opposite sides of the ultra-thin film of a topological insulator in a
parallel magnetic field B_y. The parallel magnetic produces a relative shift of
the in-plane momenta of the two surfaces states. An overlap between the shifted
Fermi circles and their spin structure d...

This Chapter is written for the Festschrift celebrating the 70th birthday of
the distinguished economist Duncan Foley from the New School for Social
Research in New York. This Chapter reviews applications of statistical physics
methods, such as the principle of entropy maximization, to the probability
distributions of money, income, and global ener...

We show that the surface states in topological insulators can be understood
based on a well-known Shockley model, a one-dimensional tight-binding model
with two atoms per elementary cell, connected via alternating tunneling
amplitudes. We generalize the one-dimensional model to the three-dimensional
case corresponding to the sequence of layers conn...

In thin films of topological insulators, the surface states on the
opposite edges are coupled by a tunneling coupling t. We discuss the
energy spectrum and the transport properties of the system in a magnetic
field. When an electron tunnels between the edges, the Lorentz force due
to the in-plane magnetic field B =(0,By,0) changes the
in-plane elec...

Theoretical overview of the quantum Hall effect in quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) organic conductors (TMTSF)2X will be presented.1 The emphasis will be on the recent developments, such as the temperature evolution of the Hall effect2,3 and the chiral edge states.4 Time permitting, a theory of the nonchiral electron edge states in a Q1D triplet superco...

Non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems is derived within the Landau approach. We attribute this behavior to a phase transition associated with a rearrangement of the Landau state that leads to flattening of a portion of the single-particle spectrum ∊(p) in the vicinity of the Fermi surface. We demonstrate that the quasiparti...

Motivated by recent experiments in low-dimensional trapped fermionic
superfluids, we study a quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) superfluid with a
population imbalance between two hyperfine states using an exact mean-field
solution for the order parameter. When an effective "magnetic field" exceeds a
critical value, the superfluid order parameter deve...

This Chapter reviews statistical models for the probability distribution of money developed in the econophysics literature since the late 1990s. In these models, economic transactions are modeled as random transfers of money between the agents in payment for goods and services. Starting from the initially equal distribution of money, the system spo...

We briefly review statistical models for the probability distribution of money developed in the econophysics literature since the late 1990s. In these models, economic transactions are modeled as random transfers of money between the agents in payment for goods and services. We focus on conceptual foundations for this approach, on the issues of mon...

We study the orbital effect of a strong magnetic field parallel to the layers on the energy spectrum of the Bernal-stacked graphene bilayer and multilayers, including graphite. We consider the minimal model with the electron tunneling between the nearest sites in the plane and out of the plane. Using the semiclassical analytical approximation and e...

One of the canons of condensed matter physics is the Onsager Reciprocity principle in systems in which the Hamiltonian commutes with the time-reversal operator. Recent results of measurements of the Nernst coefficient in underdoped YBa_2Cu_30_{6+x}, together with the measurements of the anisotropy of conductivity and the inferred anisotropy of the...

Probability distributions of money, income, and energy consumption per capita are studied for ensembles of economic agents. The principle of entropy maximization for partitioning of a limited resource gives exponential distributions for the investigated variables. A non-equilibrium difference of money temperatures between different systems generate...

We propose a radically new design for photovoltaic energy conversion using surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in piezoelectric semiconductors. The periodically modulated electric field from SAW spatially separates photogenerated electrons and holes to the maxima and minima of SAW, thus preventing their recombination. The segregated electrons and holes a...

Applying the principle of entropy maximization, we argued that the distribution of money in a closed economic system should be exponential [1], see also recent review [2]. In this talk, we show that income distribution in USA is exponential for the majority of population (about 97%). However, the high-income tail follows a power law and is highly d...

Much attention was paid recently to the Landau levels in graphene mono- and multilayers for a magnetic field perpendicular to the layers. In contrast to the previous investigations, we study the Landau levels of graphene multilayers (graphite) in a parallel magnetic field. We use the tight-binding approximation with the nearest-neighbor intralayer...

First we review the progress in applications of statistical physics to probability distributions of money, income, and wealth in a society. Developing an analogy between the probability distributions of energy in physics and money in economics, we argue that the distribution of money should follow the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs law for certain cla...

This paper presents a novel principle for photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion
using surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in piezoelectric semiconductors. A SAW
produces a periodically modulated electric potential, which spatially
segregates photoexcited electrons and holes to the maxima and minima of the SAW
potential. The moving SAW collectively transpor...

We calculate frequency and temperature dependence of the anomalous ac Hall conductivity induced by impurity scattering in a chiral px+ipy superconductor, such as Sr2RuO4, with spontaneous time-reversal-symmetry breaking in the absence of an external magnetic field. We consider two models of disorder, Gaussian and non-Gaussian, characterized by the...

This Colloquium reviews statistical models for money, wealth, and income distributions developed in the econophysics literature since the late 1990s. By analogy with the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution of energy in physics, it is shown that the probability distribution of money is exponential for certain classes of models with interacting economic age...

We calculate frequency dependence of the intrinsic Hall conductivity induced by impurity scattering in a chiral px+ipy superconductor. We find that, at large frequencies compared to the superconducting gap (phidelta), the real part of the intrinsic Hall conductivity at zero temperature is proportional to delta/3ˆ(phi/2delta). Using our results for...

This is a review article for Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, to be published by Springer http://refworks.springer.com/complexity/. The paper reviews statistical models for money, wealth, and income distributions developed in the econophysics literature since late 1990s.

We show that the breakdown of time-reversal invariance, confirmed by the recent polar Kerr effect measurements in the cuprates, implies the existence of an anomalous Nernst effect in the pseudogap phase of underdoped cuprate superconductors. Modeling the time-reversal-breaking ordered state by the chiral d-density-wave state, we find that the magni...

We study the Andreev bound states in a Josephson junction between a singlet and a triplet superconductors. Because of the mismatch in the spin symmetries of pairing, the energies of the spin-up and -down quasiparticles are generally different. This results in imbalance of spin populations and net spin accumulation at the junction in equilibrium. Th...

It was proposed that the id(x(2)-y(2)) density-wave state (DDW) may be responsible for the pseudogap behavior in the underdoped cuprates. Here we show that the admixture of a small d(xy) component to the DDW state breaks the symmetry between the counterpropagating orbital currents of the DDW state and, thus, violates the macroscopic time-reversal s...

It has been recently demonstrated that time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken in the underdoped regime of the cuprate high temperature superconductor YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6+x}$. Here we show that the breakdown of time-reversal invariance and the resulting non-zero Berry curvature imply anomalous intrinsic Nernst effect in the underdoped cuprate...

Non-Fermi-liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems is derived within the Landau approach. We attribute this behavior to a phase transition associated with a rearrangement of the Landau state that leads to flattening of a portion of the single-particle spectrum in the vicinity of the Fermi surface. We demonstrate that the quasiparticle s...

We obtained an analytical stationary solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for a stochastic process that is a sum of the additive and multiplicative processes. The stationary probability distribution function smoothly interpolates between an exponential distribution at the low end and a power law at the high end. It may have different applications...

We present a gauge-invariant theory of the electromagnetic response of a chiral px+ipy superconductor in the clean limit. Due to the spontaneously broken time-reversal symmetry, the effective action of the system contains an anomalous term not present in conventional superconductors. As a result, the electromagnetic charge and current responses con...

The integer topological invariant, called Chern number, is calculated for a quasi-one-dimensional conductor in the magnetic-field-induced spin-density-wave state. Due to nonzero value of the Chern number the Hall conductivity per layer has the quantized value sigma-xy = 2Le2/h and the effective action of the system contains so-called Hopf term, whi...

The renormalization of the Wiedemann-Franz (WF) ratio in strongly correlated electron systems is analyzed within the Landau quasiparticle picture. We demonstrate that the WF law is violated: (i) at the quantum critical point, where the effective mass diverges, and (ii) beyond a point of fermion condensation, where the single-particle spectrum $\eps...

This is a review article for Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, to be published by Springer http://refworks.springer.com/complexity/. The paper reviews statistical models for money, wealth, and income distributions developed in the econophysics literature since late 1990s.

We present an empirical study of the subordination hypothesis for a stochastic time series of a stock price. The fluctuating rate of trading is identified with the stochastic variance of the stock price, as in the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) framework. The probability distribution of the stock price changes (log-returns) for a given number o...

Non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems is derived within the Landau approach. We attribute this behavior to a phase transition associated with a rearrangement of the Landau state that leads to flattening of a portion of the single-particle spectrum ε(p) in the vicinity of the Fermi surface. We demonstrate that the quasiparti...

The optical Hall conductivity and the polar Kerr angle are calculated as functions of temperature for a two-dimensional chiral p(x) + ip(y) superconductor, where the time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken. The theoretical estimate for the polar Kerr angle agrees by the order of magnitude with the recent experimental measurement in Sr2RuO4 b...

The optical Hall conductivity and the polar Kerr angle are calculated as functions of temperature for a two-dimensional chiral px+ipy superconductor, where the time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken. The theoretical estimate for the polar Kerr angle agrees by the order of magnitude with the recent experimental measurement in Sr2RuO4 by Xia...

We study the collective modes in the magnetic-field–induced
spin-density-wave (FISDW) phases experimentally observed in organic
conductors of the Bechgaard salts family. In phases that exhibit a sign
reversal of the quantum Hall effect (Ribault anomaly), the
coexistence of two spin-density waves gives rise to additional long-wavelength collective
m...

We analyze the data on personal income distribution from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. We compare fits of the data to the exponential, log-normal, and gamma distributions. The exponential function gives a good (albeit not perfect) description of 98% of the population in the lower part of the distribution. The log-normal and gamma functions d...

We study the effect of crystal superstructures, produced by orientational ordering of the ReO4 and ClO4 anions in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors (TMTSF)2ReO4 and (TMTSF)2ClO4, on the angular magnetoresistance oscillations (AMRO) observed in these materials. Folding of the Brillouin zone due to anion ordering generates effective tunnel...

Angular magnetoresistance oscillations (AMRO) were originally discovered in organic conductors and then found in many other layered metals. It should be possible to observe AMRO to semiconducting bilayers as well. Here we present an intuitive geometrical interpretation of AMRO as the Aharonov–Bohm interference effect, both in real and momentum spac...

The study of income distribution has a long history. A century ago, the Italian physicist and economist Pareto proposed that income distribution obeys a universal power law, valid for all time and countries. Subsequent studies proved that only the top 1-3% of the population follow a power law. For USA, the rest 97-99% of the population follow the e...

Different types of angular magnetoresistance oscillations in quasi-one-dimensional layered materials, such as organic conductors (TMTSF)2X, are explained in terms of Aharonov-Bohm interference in interlayer electron tunneling. A two-parameter pattern of oscillations for generic orientations of a magnetic field is visualized and compared to the expe...

We present a unified visual picture of magnetoresistance oscillations in Q1D conductors for a general orientation of a magnetic
field. We give an intuitive geometrical interpretation of the two-parameter pattern of oscillations as an Aharonov-Bohm interference
effect in the interlayer electron tunneling.

Low-temperature thermodynamic properties of strongly interacting Fermi liquids with a fermion condensate are investigated. We demonstrate that the spin susceptibility of these systems exhibits the Curie-Weiss law, and the entropy contains a temperature-independent term. The excessive entropy is released at the superconducting transition, enhancing...

We study the quantum critical behavior in an isotropic Fermi liquid in the vicinity of a zero-temperature density-wave transition at a finite wave vector qc. We show that, near the transition, the Landau damping of the soft bosonic mode yields a crossover in the fermionic self-energy from Sigma(k,omega) approximately Sigma(k) to Sigma(k,omega) appr...

Econophysics has emerged in the past 10 years as an important and active area of research for physicists and economistsl.
Within Europe, the USA and Australasia, there have been a number of important meetings dedicated to the area. We note for
example, the European Physical Society’s series of APFA meetings (Application of Physics to Financial Anal...

Personal income distribution in the USA has a well-defined two-class structure. The majority of population (97–99%) belongs
to the lower class characterized by the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs (“thermal”) distribution, whereas the upper class (1–3%
of population) has a Pareto power-law (“superthermal”) distribution. By analyzing income data for 1983...

We study the probability distribution of stock returns at mesoscopic time lags (return horizons) ranging from about an hour to about a month. While at shorter microscopic time lags the distribution has power-law tails, for mesoscopic times the bulk of the distribution (more than 99% of the probability) follows an exponential law. The slope of the e...

We show that the low-density strongly interacting electron liquid, interacting via the long-range Coulomb interaction, could develop a dispersion instability at a critical density associated with the approximate flattening of the quasiparticle energy dispersion. At the critical density the quasiparticle effective mass diverges at the Fermi surface,...

Personal income distribution in the USA has a well-defined two-class structure. The majority of population (97-99%) belongs to the lower class characterized by the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs ("thermal") distribution, whereas the upper class (1-3% of population) has a Pareto power-law ("superthermal") distribution. By analyzing income data for 1983...

For certain orientations of Josephson junctions between two p_x-wave or two d-wave superconductors, the subgap Andreev bound states produce a 4pi-periodic relation between the Josephson current I and the phase difference phi: I ~ sin(phi/2). Consequently, the ac Josephson current has the fractional frequency eV/h, where V is the dc voltage. In the...

We present a simple theoretical explanation for a transition from d-wave to another superconducting pairing observed in the electron-doped cuprates. The d_{x^2-y^2} pairing potential Delta, which has the maximal magnitude and opposite signs at the hot spots on the Fermi surface, becomes suppressed with the increase of electron doping, because the h...

Properties of superfluid states of two-dimensional electron systems with critical antiferromagnetic fluctuations are investigated.
These correlations are found to result in the emergence of rapid variation in the momentum space terms in all components of
the mass operator, including the gap function Δ(p). It is shown that the domain where these ter...

We discuss a number of experiments that could detect the electron edge states in the organic quasi-one-dimensional conductors (TMTSF)2X and the inorganic quasi-two-dimensional perovskites Sr2RuO4. We consider the chiral edges states in the magnetic-field-induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) phase of (TMTSF)2X and in the time-reversal-symmetry-breaking...

This article is written for the online newspaper "The Photon" published by the Department of Physics, University of Maryland. The article describes econophysics research done in the group of Victor Yakovenko. It briefly surveys the subjects "Statistical Mechanics of Money, Income, and Wealth" and "Probability Distribution of Stock-Market Fluctuatio...

For certain orientations of Josephson junctions between two px-wave or two d-wave superconductors, the subgap Andreev bound states produce a
4p4\pi
-periodic relation between the Josephson current I and the phase difference
f\phi
:
I µ sin(f/2)I\propto\sin(\phi/2)
. Consequently, the ac Josephson current has the fractional frequency
eV/(h/2p)eV...

We propose to use the radiofrequency single-electron transistor as an extremely sensitive probe to detect the time-periodic
ac signal generated by a sliding electron lattice in the insulating state of the two-dimensional electron gas. We also propose
to use the optically-pumped NMR technique to probe the electron spin structure of the insulating st...

We explore salient features of high-Tc superconductivity in two-dimensional electron liquid, that are triggered by critical fluctuations enhanced in the vicinity of an impending second order phase transition. A simple theoretical explanation for the transition from d-wave to another type of superconducting pairing that has recently observed in the...

We compare the probability distribution of returns for the three major stock-market indexes (Nasdaq, S&P500, and Dow-Jones) with an analytical formula recently derived by Drăgulescu and Yakovenko for the Heston model with stochastic variance. For the period of 1982–1999, we find a very good agreement between the theory and the data for a wide range...

In this short paper, we overview and extend the results of our papers cond-mat/0001432, cond-mat/0008305, and cond-mat/0103544, where we use an analogy with statistical physics to describe probability distributions of money, income, and wealth in society. By making a detailed quantitative comparison with the available statistical data, we show that...

We consider a one-dimensional superconducting wire where the total number of electrons can be controlled in the Coulomb blockade regime. We predict that a pi soliton (kink) will spontaneously form in the system when the number of electrons is odd, because this configuration has a lower energy. If the wire with an odd number of electrons is closed i...

We discuss a number of experiments that could detect the edge midgap states in the triplet p-wave superconducting phase of organic quasi-one-dimensional conductors (TMTSF)_2X. The detection of the midgap states will determine the pairing symmetry of (TMTSF)_2X since their existence is related to the sign change of the pairing potential. We show tha...

In a chiral superconductor, electric current of the edge states and the Meissner countercurrent generate a local magnetic field around the edge. Our quantitative estimates (cond-mat/0111071) show that this magnetic field can be realistically detected in Sr2 RuO4 using a low-temperature scanning SQUID microscope. Such an experiment would directly pr...

We calculate the energy dispersion of the surface Andreev states and their contribution to tunneling conductance for the order parameters with horizontal and vertical lines of nodes proposed for superconducting Sr2RuO4. For vertical lines, we find double peaks in tunneling spectra reflecting the van Hove singularities in the density of surface stat...

We study the Heston model, where the stock price dynamics is governed by a geometrical (multiplicative) Brownian motion with stochastic variance. We solve the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation exactly and, after integrating out the variance, find an analytic formula for the time-dependent probability distribution of stock price changes (returns)...

Using the bosonization technique, which separates charge and spin degrees of freedom, we study a possibility of formation of the holon edge states in a one-dimensional electron system with an energy gap in the charge sector. The results are applied to the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors (TMTTF)2X. The different roles of the bond and site d...

We present the data on wealth and income distributions in the United Kingdom, as well as on the income distributions in the individual states of the USA. In all of these data, we find that the great majority of population is described by an exponential distribution, whereas the high-end tail follows a power law. The distributions are characterized...

Using tax and census data, we demonstrate that the distribution of individual income in the USA is exponential. Our calculated
Lorenz curve without fitting parameters and Gini coefficient 1/2 agree well with the data. From the individual income distribution,
we derive the distribution function of income for families with two earners and show that i...

The temperature dependences of the Hall coefficient and electrical resistivity recently measured by Moser et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2674 (2000)] in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)2PF6 are quantitatively compared with our previous theoretical calculations [Synth. Met. 103, 2202 (1999); Eur. Phys. J. B 11, 385 (1999)]. We find...

We develop a microscopic picture of the electron states localized at the edges perpendicular to the chains in the Bechgaard salts in the quantum Hall regime. In a magnetic-field-induced spin-density-wave state characterized by an integer N, there exist N branches of chiral gapless edge excitations. Localization length is much longer and velocity mu...

We study the robustness of midgap surface states in uncoventional superconductors in the presence of different types of boundaries and/or electronic dispersion. We discuss the implication in cuprates and quasi-one-dimensional organic superconductors.

## Citations

... A second major objective of our work is to demonstrate that it is possible to have a finite DC rectified current when the frequency of radiation lies within the optical gap of a material in the clean limit of small carrier relaxation rates. While examples of in-gap rectification have been discussed recently [29][30][31][32], other studies [32][33][34][35][36] have advocated for the impossibility of in-gap rectification in the limit of small relax- ation rates. 1 Hence, our second major objective is basically to try to dismantle this fundamental misconception, namely, we will demonstrate that there can be a net rectified DC current when the frequency of the driving oscillating electric field lies within the optical gap of the electronic band structure in the ideal limit of zero temperature and vanishingly small relaxation rates and to second order in the driving electric fields. By using a microscopically explicit model of an electronic system coupled to a heat bath, we will show that this possible for metallic systems with a Fermi surface and we will also discuss why this is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. ...

... In recent years, a number of models has been proposed to account for the evolution of the distribution of wealth in a simple market economy. Among other approaches, kinetic market models are presently of particular interest, see e.g. the various contributions in the recent books [23, 18, 54, 55], or the introductory articles [42, 58]. The founding idea, dating back to the works of Mandelbrot [44], is that a trading market composed of a sufficiently large number of agents can be described using the laws of statistical mechanics, just like for a physical system composed of many interacting particles. ...

... As the time came to the end of the 20th century, it had been found that the income structure of market-economy countries around the world uniformly exhibited a twoclass pattern [16, [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]: the great majority of populations obeyed an exponential distribution and the remaining (richest) part followed a Pareto distribution. Empirical evidence had covered more than 66 countries [16], ranging from Europe to Latin America, North America, and Asia. ...

... That leads to additional contributions to the energy shift besides the conventional SBS shift. A systematic derivation of the energy band renormalization in solids to the second order in E(t) was recently done in Ref. [6]. The paper identified a term that couples the Berry curvature Ω(k) of the electrons in a crystal and the helicity h of circularly polarized light. ...

... Both [8,20] scenarios are associated with a reduction in income inequality. However, as reported recently by [21], potential policy measures and economic consequences have not been addressed. ...

... Here, we introduce the Pand T -odd bilinear products 28,33,63,64 , ...

... Whereas most experiments on SmB 6 have employed bulk crystals, it has recently become possible to grow high-quality epitaxial thin films of SmB 6 via sputtering [21,51,52], thereby avoiding the myriad extrinsic concerns with bulk crystals and circumventing issues [53] in comparing previous results achieved via the different bulk crystal growth methods. By forming thin-film heterostuctures of SmB 6 with the isostructural BCS superconductor YB 6 , perfect Andreev reflection has been observed at the surface of sufficiently thin SmB 6 overlayers via pointcontact Andreev reflection (PCAR) spectroscopy [51]. ...

... Exponential and power-law distributions have been observed in social systems [16,17,21,22,24,25]. Generally, the power laws originate from the "rich get richer" process, whereas exponential distributions arise from random exchange or reciprocity [19,24]. ...

... In addition, preventing the oxidization