V.H. Dam's research while affiliated with IT University of Copenhagen and other places

Publications (37)

Article
Full-text available
Cognitive disturbances in major depressive disorder (MDD) constitute a critical treatment target and hold promise as an early predictor of antidepressant treatment response; yet their clinical relevance is not fully established. Therefore, we here investigate if (1) cognitive performance improves over the course of antidepressant treatment and (2)...
Article
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Brain morphology has been suggested to be predictive of drug treatment outcome in major depressive disorders (MDD). The current study aims at evaluating the performance of pretreatment structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in predicting the outcome of a drug treatment of MDD in a large single-site cohort, and, importantly, to a...
Article
Full-text available
Concurrent anxiety is frequent in major depressive disorder and a shared pathophysiological mechanism between anxiety and other depressive symptoms is plausible. The serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) has been implicated in both depression and anxiety. This is the first study to investigate the association between the cerebral 5-HT4R binding and anxiety...
Article
Full-text available
Background Hormonal contraceptive (HC) use has been associated with an increased risk of developing a depressive episode. This might be related to HC’s effect on the serotonergic brain system as suggested by recent cross-sectional data from our group, which show that healthy oral contraceptive (OC) users relative to non-users have lower cerebral se...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Postpartum depression affects 10%–15% of women and has a recurrence rate of 40% in subsequent pregnancies. Women who develop postpartum depression are suspected to be more sensitive to the rapid and large fluctuations in sex steroid hormones, particularly estradiol, during pregnancy and postpartum. This trial aims to evaluate the preve...
Article
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Background Women who use oral contraceptives (OCs) may have a higher risk of developing a depression, which is associated with both vulnerability to stress and cognitive dysfunction. OCs disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis by suppressing endogenous sex steroid production including estradiol. The HPG axis and the hypothalamic-pitui...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although aggression is conceptualized as a dimensional construct with violent behavior representing the extreme end of a spectrum, studies on the involvement of personality traits in human aggression have typically only included data representing a restricted spectrum of aggressive behaviors. Methods In the current study, we therefore e...
Preprint
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first line pharmacological treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), but only about half of patients benefit from it. Cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding measured with positron emission tomography (PET) is inversely related to serotonin levels and can serve as a proxy for brain...
Article
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While several electroencephalogram (EEG)-based biomarkers have been proposed as diagnostic or predictive tools in major depressive disorder (MDD), there is a clear lack of replication studies in this field. Markers that link clinical features such as disturbed wakefulness regulation in MDD with neurophysiological patterns are particularly promising...
Article
Several electroencephalogram (EEG) biomarkers for prediction of drug response in major depressive disorder (MDD) have been proposed, but validations in larger independent datasets are missing. In the current study, we investigated the prognostic value of previously suggested EEG biomarkers. We gathered data that matched prior studies in terms of EE...
Article
Full-text available
Background Between 30 and 50% of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond sufficiently to antidepressant regimens. The conventional pharmacological treatments predominantly target serotonergic brain signaling but better tools to predict treatment response and identify relevant subgroups of MDD are needed to support individualize...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Sex steroid hormones potently shape brain functions, including those critical to maintain mental health such as serotonin signalling. Use of oral contraceptives (OCs) profoundly changes endogenous sex steroid hormone levels and dynamics. Recent register‐based studies show that starting an OC is associated with increased risk of developing...
Article
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We developed the Verbal Affective Memory Test-26 (VAMT-26), a computerized test to assess verbal memory, as an improvement of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). Here, we psychometrically evaluate the VAMT-26 in 182 healthy controls, examine 1-month test–retest stability in 48 healthy controls, and examine whether 87 antidepressant-free...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cognitive disturbances are common and disabling features of major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous studies provide limited insight into the co-occurrence of hot (emotion-dependent) and cold (emotion-independent) cognitive disturbances in MDD. Therefore, we here map both hot and cold cognition in depressed patients compared to healthy...
Article
Full-text available
Disruptions in hot cognition, i.e., the processing of emotionally salient information, are prevalent in most neuropsychiatric disorders and constitute a potential treatment target. EMOTICOM is the first comprehensive neuropsychological test battery developed specifically to assess hot cognition. The aim of the study was to validate and establish a...
Article
Background Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits, in particular low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness, and high Neuroticism, have previously been associated with increased aggression and antisocial behavior [1]. Interestingly, the same personality characteristics have also been consistently linked to mental distress [2] and increased risk o...
Article
The personality traits Neuroticism and Extraversion may be involved in the development of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). However, the impact of personality traits on SAD severity and whether such self-reported traits fluctuate with season is unknown. We investigated the association between Neuroticism, as acquired in a symptom-free phase and de...
Article
Full-text available
Serotonin (5-HT) brain architecture appears to be implicated in normal personality traits as supported by genetic associations and studies using molecular brain imaging. However, so far, no studies have addressed potential contributions to variation in normal personality traits from in vivo serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) brain availability, which ha...
Data
Review of studies investigating serotonin markers and normal personality. Review of PET studies investigating the association between serotonin (5-HT) markers and normal personality in healthy participants. Personality: EPQ = Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, KSP = Karolinska Scales of Personality, NEO PI-R = Revised NEO Personality Inventory, TCI...
Article
Serotonin has a well-established role in emotional processing and is a key neurotransmitter in impulsive aggression, presumably by facilitating response inhibition and regulating subcortical reactivity to aversive stimuli. In this study 44 men, of whom 19 were violent offenders and 25 were non-offender controls, completed an emotional Go/NoGo task...
Article
We find that individuals with high anterior cingulate 5-HT1B receptor binding show more failures to inhibit prepotent responses in the context of angry faces and exhibit high amygdala reactivity to angry plus fearful faces. Our data suggest that 5-HT1B receptors are involved in the neural mechanisms underlying inhibitory control and amygdala reacti...

Citations

... The protocol is a 12-week trial with a SSRI, escitalopram, which could be switched to a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, duloxetine at week 4 if there were unacceptable side effects or poor treatment response (i.e., less than 25% improvement in depressive symptoms). MRI scans were acquired at baseline in healthy participants and at baseline and week 8 in MDD [33][34][35][36][37][38][39]. ...
... Unfortunately, there is no information about the progestins used by all (Egan and Gleason, 2012;Song et al., 2020) or the majority of participants in these retrospective studies, as in many other studies that evaluated the effects of COCs on the brain structure,function and cognitive function of women (e.g., Beck et al., 2008;Chen et al., 2021;De Bondt et al., 2013, 2015Hamstra et al., 2014;Holloway et al., 2011;Kuhlmann and Wolf, 2005;McFadden, 2000;Miedl et al., 2018;Mihalik et al., 2009;Nielsen et al., 2011;Petersen et al., 2015b;Pletzer et al., 2010;Rosenberg and Park, 2002;Rumberg et al., 2010;Wen et al., 2021). Some studies provided information about the type of progestins but did not take this factor into consideration in data analyses (Gogos, 2013;Gravelsins et al., 2021;Hamstra et al., 2015;Høgsted et al., 2021;Kerschbaum et al., 2017;Kimmig et al., 2022;Lisofsky et al., 2016;Merz, 2017;Mordecai et al., 2008;Plamberger et al., 2021;Pletzer, 2019;Pletzer et al., 2014a;Sharma et al., 2020), and other studies combined data from participants using different types of HCs (COCs, minipills, IUDs, implants, vaginal rings, etc.) (e.g., Bernal et al., 2020;Nobile et al., 2021;Petersen et al., 2015a). Despite the fact that the influence of specific progestins cannot be evaluated from these studies, they provided a substantial amount of evidence that brain structure and function are affected by HC use. ...
... Interestingly, preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that the 5-HT 4 R may serve as an inverse biomarker of the cerebral serotonin tonus [22][23][24], which makes it a relevant candidate when studying conditions with a presumed serotonergic involvement. The implications of 5-HT 4 R in MDD have been recognized [25] and recently, we showed that antidepressant-free patients with MDD had lower 5-HT 4 R binding compared with healthy controls, especially those responding well to escitalopram [26]. ...
... One moderately rated study recorded vigilance as an index of central-nervous system arousal, and found decreased arousal in patients following 8-weeks of SSRIs, but not SNRI (Olbrich et al., 2016). Two low quality rated studies recorded vigilance following SSRIs, mirtazapine, SNRIs, or other medications (Schmidt et al., 2017;Ip et al., 2021). At baseline, responders had high vigilance in relaxed wakeful states and low vigilance in drowsy states, trends which were reversed after 4 weeks (Schmidt et al., 2017) and 8 weeks of treatment (Ip et al., 2021). ...
Reference: EbookTMS
... There are many theories explaining the genesis and mechanism of aggression in individuals, but the most common references to the theory of aggression are understood as instinct, frustration-libido, or as a result of social learning (Wojciszke, 2000). Throughout the study of human aggression, it has constituted a major societal burden with negative outcomes either for victims or perpetrators (Dam et al., 2021). According to research on aggression during adolescence, but also in early adulthood, aggressive behaviours progress from less to more severe forms (Loeber & Hay, 1997). ...
... The protocol is a 12-week trial with a SSRI, escitalopram, which could be switched to a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, duloxetine at week 4 if there were unacceptable side effects or poor treatment response (i.e., less than 25% improvement in depressive symptoms). MRI scans were acquired at baseline in healthy participants and at baseline and week 8 in MDD [33][34][35][36][37][38][39]. ...
... The protocol is a 12-week trial with a SSRI, escitalopram, which could be switched to a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, duloxetine at week 4 if there were unacceptable side effects or poor treatment response (i.e., less than 25% improvement in depressive symptoms). MRI scans were acquired at baseline in healthy participants and at baseline and week 8 in MDD [33][34][35][36][37][38][39]. ...
... Little is known of any such changes in human brains. However, Larsen et al. (2020) recently found that OC users have an approximately 10% lower global brain 5-HT4R binding potential compared to non-users, a fact that may afford a molecular bridge to the increased risk of depressive episodes reported amongst OC users. This type of research is in its infancy. ...
... Eleven primary cognitive outcomes were derived from seven neuropsychological tasks capturing both hot and cold cognitive functions with tasks from the hot cognitive domain being further subdivided into an emotion processing bias domain and a social cognitive domain. Emotion processing outcomes included affective bias in emotion recognition (hit rate) and misattribution (false alarm rate) from the Emotional Recognition Task (eyes version) [23]; affective bias in emotion detection threshold from the Emotional Intensity Morphing task [23]; and affective memory bias from the Affective Verbal Memory Task 26 (VAMT-26) [24]. Affective bias outcomes were constructed by subtracting negatively valenced scores (e.g., hit rate for sad faces) from positively valenced scores (e.g., hit rate for happy faces) with the exception of the Intensity Morphing Task where low scores reflect a better performance and here the affective bias was calculated by subtracting the happy condition from the sad condition: this was done to ensure that the interpretation of the bias scores were consistent across tasks such that a positive bias score reflects preferential processing of positive emotions over negative emotions. ...
... The protocol is a 12-week trial with a SSRI, escitalopram, which could be switched to a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, duloxetine at week 4 if there were unacceptable side effects or poor treatment response (i.e., less than 25% improvement in depressive symptoms). MRI scans were acquired at baseline in healthy participants and at baseline and week 8 in MDD [33][34][35][36][37][38][39]. ...