Ulf Sterner's research while affiliated with Uppsala University and other places

Publications (5)

Article
Thirty patients with phobia for blood, wounds and injuries were treated individually with applied tension (AT), exposure in vivo (E), or tension-only (T) for 5 sessions. They were assessed on self-report, behavioral and physiological measures before and after treatment, and at a 1 yr follow-up. All groups improved significantly, and the improvement...
Article
Thirty patients with phobia for blood, wounds and injuries were treated individually with applied tension, applied relaxation, or the combination of these two methods for 5, 9 and 10 sessions, respectively. They were assessed on self-report, behavioral and physiological measures before and after treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up. All groups imp...
Article
The rationale and practice of applied tension are described. The purpose of this treatment method, specially developed for blood phobia, is to teach the patient a coping skill which will enable him/her to reverse the fall in blood pressure, and thus prevent fainting. Treatment is short, only 5 sessions, and the preliminary outcome data are very pro...
Article
Eighteen patients with phobia for bloodt, wounds and injuries were treated with exposure in vivo or applied relaxation. They were assessed on different self-report, behavioral and physiological measures before and after treatment. The patients were treated individually for 9 sessions, 1 per week. The within-group comparisons showed that both groups...
Article
Eighteen patients with blood phobia were shown a film of thoracic operations containing large amounts of blood. Their heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured continuously before, during and after the watching of the film. The group data showed a diphasic response; an increase in HR and BP from baseline to the beginning of the film, an...

Citations

... Moreover, case reports have shown individuum-level success for approaches like selfexposure (67), individualization of therapy (72), cognitive restructuring (73), and applied tension (74). In addition to in vivo exposure, applied muscle tension, and breathing techniques are commonly employed to reduce vagal activation, anxietyrelated respiratory dysregulation, and thus fainting (23,27,45,66,(75)(76)(77). A recent study used a simulated blood draw paradigm and demonstrated that applied muscle tension resulted in significant elevation of cerebral oxygenation and end-tidal CO² partial pressure. ...
... Moreover, case reports have shown individuum-level success for approaches like selfexposure (67), individualization of therapy (72), cognitive restructuring (73), and applied tension (74). In addition to in vivo exposure, applied muscle tension, and breathing techniques are commonly employed to reduce vagal activation, anxietyrelated respiratory dysregulation, and thus fainting (23,27,45,66,(75)(76)(77). A recent study used a simulated blood draw paradigm and demonstrated that applied muscle tension resulted in significant elevation of cerebral oxygenation and end-tidal CO² partial pressure. ...
... Specifically, participants are taught a coping skill that reverses the second part of the biphasic response. Thus, participants learn to identify the earliest signs of drops in BP and to apply tension by tensing their gross body muscles, thus avoiding fainting (79). Of note, participants need to use the technique before encountering difficult situations (i.e., start when disinfectant is applied to their skin before a blood drawing procedure). ...
... AMT is a generic term encompassing many variations of muscle groups used, with or without counter pressures, over an equally variable number of cycles and duration [16]. It was first described for the management of postural hypotension or phobias that result in vasovagal syncope [21,22]. The most popular version described in the context of blood donation employed a five-second on-off cycle and was originally reported by Ditto [23]. ...
... This could be attributed to the facial grimace observed due to pain. Similar studies have shown a significant association between fear factors and others receiving vaccines [10,19]. In a study by Willershausen et al., 47% of the respondents reported panic at the sight of an injection needle prior to receiving medication [20]. ...