Tuukka Petäjä's research while affiliated with University of Helsinki and other places

Publications (504)

Article
Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations are observed to increase with temperature in urban and rural locations. We investigated the apparent temperature dependency of daytime ozone concentration in the Finnish boreal forest in summertime based on long-term measurements. We used statistical mixed effects models to separate the direct effects of tempe...
Article
The transformation from low-volatility gaseous precursors to new particles affects aerosol number concentration, cloud formation, and hence the climate. The clustering of acid and base molecules is a major mechanism driving fast nucleation and initial growth of new particles in the atmosphere. However, the measured acid-base cluster composition usi...
Article
Full-text available
Tick-borne diseases are among the challenges associated with warming climate. Many studies predict, and already note, expansion of ticks’ habitats to the north, bringing previously non-endemic diseases, such as borreliosis and encephalitis, to the new areas. In addition, higher temperatures accelerate phases of ticks’ development in areas where tic...
Article
Atmospheric observations in remote locations offer a possibility of exploring trace gas and particle concentrations in pristine environments. However, data from remote areas are often contaminated by pollution from local sources. Detecting this contamination is thus a central and frequently encountered issue. Consequently, many different methods ex...
Article
With the growing evidence that high particle number concentrations may impact health, modelling their emissions and understanding formation processes is necessary, especially in cities where many people are exposed. As emission inventories of particle numbers and size distribution over cities are usually not available, a methodology is defined to e...
Article
At SMEAR II research station in Hyytiälä, located in the Finnish boreal forest, the process of new particle formation and the role of ions has been investigated for almost 20 years near the ground and at canopy level. However, above SMEAR II, the vertical distribution and diurnal variation of these different atmospheric ions are poorly characterize...
Article
Full-text available
To convey the severity of ambient air pollution level to the public, air quality index (AQI) is used as a communication tool to reflect the concentrations of individual pollutants on a common scale. However, due to the enhanced air pollution control in recent years, air quality has improved, and the roles of some air pollutant species included in t...
Preprint
The concentration of atmospheric ions affects the total aerosol particle number concentrations in the atmosphere as well as atmospheric new particle formation via ion-induced nucleation, ion-ion recombination, and effects on condensational growth. In this study, we investigate the concentrations and long-term trends of atmospheric ions in a boreal...
Article
Atmospheric new particle formation significantly affects global climate and air quality after newly formed particles grow above ∼50 nm. In polluted urban atmospheres with 1-3 orders of magnitude higher new particle formation rates than those in clean atmospheres, particle growth rates are comparable or even lower for reasons that were previously un...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) events detected in a coastal agricultural site, at Qvidja, in Southwestern Finland, was investigated using the data measured with a nitrate ion-based chemical-ionization atmospheric-pressure-interface time-of-flight (CI-APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. The binned positive matrix factorization method (binPMF...
Preprint
We present here the concept of the SMEARcore data infrastructure framework: a collection of modular programs and processing workflows intended for measurement stations and campaigns as a real-time data analysis and management platform. SMEARcore allows various new SMEAR stations (Station for Measuring Earth Surface – Atmosphere Relations) to be bui...
Article
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) has been observed to take place in practice all around the world. In continental locations, typically about 10–40% of the days are so-called NPF event days characterized by a clear particle formation and growth that continue for several hours, occurring mostly during daytime. The other days are either non-ev...
Article
Integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments (iCUPE) project developed 24 novel datasets utilizing in-situ observational capacities within the Arctic or remote sensing observations from ground or from space. The datasets covered atmospheric, cryospheric, marine, and terrestrial domains. This paper connects the iCUPE datasets to...
Article
Full-text available
New particle formation in the upper free troposphere is a major global source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) 1–4 . However, the precursor vapours that drive the process are not well understood. With experiments performed under upper tropospheric conditions in the CERN CLOUD chamber, we show that nitric acid, sulfuric acid and ammonia form parti...
Article
We evaluate monoterpene-derived peroxy radical (MT-RO2) unimolecular autoxidation and self- and cross-reactions with other RO2 species in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. The formation of associated highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) and accretion products are tracked in competition with other bimolecular reactions. Autoxidati...
Preprint
The occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) events detected in a coastal agricultural site, at Qvidja, in Southwestern Finland, was investigated using the data measured with a nitrate ion-based chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF). The binned positive matrix factorization method (binPMF) was applied to the measured spectra. It resu...
Article
Full-text available
Aerosols and their interaction with clouds constitute the largest uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing affecting the climate system. Secondary aerosol formation is responsible for a large fraction of the cloud condensation nuclei in the global atmosphere. Wetlands are important to the budgets of methane and carbon dioxide, but the potent...
Preprint
Boreal forests cover vast areas of land in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere, which are under amplified climate warming. The interaction between the forests and the atmosphere are known to generate a complex set of feedback processes. One feedback process, potentially producing a cooling effect, is associated with an increased reflectan...
Article
Full-text available
The formation of ice particles in Earth's atmosphere strongly influences the dynamics and optical properties of clouds and their impacts on the climate system. Ice formation in clouds is often triggered heterogeneously by ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that represent a very low number of particles in the atmosphere. To date, many sources of INPs,...
Article
Full-text available
Optical properties of surface aerosols at Dome C, Antarctica, in 2007–2013 and their potential source areas are presented. Scattering coefficients (σsp) were calculated from measured particle number size distributions with a Mie code and from filter samples using mass scattering efficiencies. Absorption coefficients (σap) were determined with a thr...
Article
Full-text available
Relatively high concentrations of preexisting particles, acting as a condensation sink (CS) of gaseous precursors, have been thought to suppress the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) in urban environments, yet NPF still occurs frequently. Here, we aim to understand the factors promoting and inhibiting NPF events in urban Beijing by combini...
Article
Full-text available
As evidence of adverse health effects due to air pollution continues to increase, the World Health Organization (WHO) recently published its latest edition of the global air quality guidelines (World Health Organization, 2021). Although not legally binding, the guidelines aim to provide a framework in which policymakers can combat air pollution by...
Article
Intense new particle formation events are regularly observed under highly polluted conditions, despite the high loss rates of nucleated clusters. Higher than expected cluster survival probability implies either ineffective scavenging by pre-existing particles or missing growth mechanisms. Here we present experiments performed in the CLOUD chamber a...
Article
Full-text available
The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) Science Plan, released in 2015, addressed a need for a holistic system understanding and outlined the most urgent research needs for the rapidly changing Arctic-boreal region. Air quality in China, together with the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants, was also indicated as one of the most crucial topic...
Article
Full-text available
Secondary organic aerosol contributes a significant fraction to aerosol mass and toxicity. Low-volatility organic vapours are critical intermediates connecting the oxidation of volatile organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation. However, the direct measurement of intermediate vapours poses a great challenge. Here we present coordinat...
Article
Full-text available
This review presents how the boreal and the tropical forests affect the atmosphere, its chemical composition, its function, and further how that affects the climate and, in return, the ecosystems through feedback processes. Observations from key tower sites standing out due to their long-term comprehensive observations: The Amazon Tall Tower Observ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Atmospheric aerosol particle concentrations are strongly affected by various wet processes, including wet scavenging (below and in-cloud) and aqueous phase oxidation in-cloud. This study employs airmass history analysis and observational data to investigate how wet scavenging and cloud processes affect particle concentrations and composition during...
Preprint
Despite a large number of studies, the effect of aerosols has the largest uncertainty in global climate model radiative forcing estimates. There have been studies of aerosol optical properties in climate models, but the effects of particle number size distribution need a more thorough inspection. We investigated the trends and seasonality of partic...
Article
We investigated the contribution of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and subsequent growth of the newly formed particles, characterized by high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). In addition to having adverse effects on visibility and human health, these haze particles may act as cloud condensation nuclei, having potentially...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is warming two to three times faster than the global average, and the role of aerosols is not well constrained. Aerosol number concentrations can be very low in remote environments, rendering local cloud radiative properties highly sensitive to available aerosol. The composition and sources of the climate-relevant aerosols, affecting Arc...
Article
Full-text available
Aerosols play an important yet uncertain role in modulating the radiation balance of the sensitive Arctic atmosphere. Organic aerosol is one of the most abundant, yet least understood, fractions of the Arctic aerosol mass. Here we use data from eight observatories that represent the entire Arctic to reveal the annual cycles in anthropogenic and bio...
Preprint
Atmospheric observations in remote locations offer a possibility to explore trace gas and particle concentrations in pristine environments. However, data from remote areas are often contaminated by pollution from local sources. Detecting this pollution is thus a central and frequently encountered issue. Consequently, many different methods exist to...
Preprint
Biomass burning is one of the biggest sources of black carbon concentrations which negatively impacts human health and contribute to climate forcing. In this work we explore horizontal and vertical variability of black carbon concentrations over Ukraine during a wildfire episode in August 2010. Using Enviro-HIRLAM modelling framework the black carb...
Article
Full-text available
Aerosol particles form in the atmosphere via the clustering of certain atmospheric vapors. After growing into larger particles by the condensation of low-volatility gases, they can affect the Earth's climate by scattering light and acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Observations of low-volatility aerosol precursor gases have been reported a...
Article
Air quality low-cost sensors are affordable and can be deployed in massive scale in order to enable high-resolution spatio-temporal air pollution information. However, they often suffer from sensing accuracy, in particular when they are used for capturing extreme events. We propose an intelligent sensors calibration method that facilitates correcti...
Article
Full-text available
Lung-deposited surface area (LDSA) has been considered to be a better metric to explain nanoparticle toxicity instead of the commonly used particulate mass concentration. LDSA concentrations can be obtained either by direct measurements or by calculation based on the empirical lung deposition model and measurements of particle size distribution. Ho...
Article
Full-text available
With the Arctic rapidly changing, the needs to observe, understand, and model the changes are essential. To support these needs, an annual cycle of observations of atmospheric properties, processes, and interactions were made while drifting with the sea ice across the central Arctic during the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic observing and data systems have been widely recognized as critical infrastructures to support decision making and understanding across sectors in the Arctic and globally. Yet due to broad and persistent issues related to coordination, deployment infrastructure and technology gaps, the Arctic remains among the most poorly observed regions on...
Article
The oxidation state of organic aerosol (OA) substantially influences the optical and hygroscopic properties, toxicity, and atmospheric lifetime of OA. Comprehensive field measurements have been carried out in Beijing to understand the possible mechanism relevant to the evolution of OA oxidation state in the ambient atmosphere. We found that OA was...
Preprint
During the COVID-19 lockdown, the dramatic reduction of anthropogenic emissions provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of reduced anthropogenic activity and primary emissions on atmospheric chemical processes and the consequent formation of secondary pollutants. Here, we utilize comprehensive observations to examine the response o...
Article
Full-text available
The Mediterranean region is an important area for air pollution as it is the crossroads between three continents; therefore, the concentrations of atmospheric aerosol particles are influenced by emissions from Africa, Asia, and Europe. Here we concentrate on an eleven-month time series of the ambient concentration of organic carbon (OC) and element...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is an important source of climate-relevant aerosol particles which has been observed at many locations globally. To study this phenomenon, the first step is to identify whether an NPF event occurs or not on a given day. In practice, NPF event identification is performed visually by classifying the NPF event...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the growing evidence that high particle number concentrations may impact health, modelling their emissions and understanding formation processes is necessary, especially in cities where many people are exposed. As emission inventories of particle numbers and size distribution over cities are usually not available, a methodology is defined to e...
Article
Full-text available
The rate at which freshly formed secondary aerosol particles grow is an important factor in determining their climate impacts. The growth rate of atmospheric nanoparticles may be affected by particle-phase oligomerization and decomposition of condensing organic molecules. We used the Model for Oligomerization and Decomposition in Nanoparticle Growt...
Article
Full-text available
We present first eddy covariance flux measurements with the PTR3-TOF-MS, a novel proton transfer time of flight reaction mass spectrometer. During 3 weeks in spring 2016, the instrument recorded 10 Hz data of biogenic volatile organic compounds above a boreal forest, on top of a measurement tower at the SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem –Atmos...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) events have attracted increasing attention for their contribution to the global aerosol number budget and therefore their effects on climate, air quality and human health. NPF events are regarded as a regional phenomenon, occurring over a large area. Most observations of NPF events in Beijing and its vicinit...
Preprint
Full-text available
At SMEAR II research station in Hyytiälä, located in the Finnish boreal forest, the process of new particle formation and the role of ions has been investigated for almost 20 years near the ground and at canopy level. However, above SMEAR II, the vertical distribution and diurnal variation of these different atmospheric ions are poorly characterize...
Article
Full-text available
Air pollution is a contributor to approximately one in every nine deaths annually. Air quality monitoring is being carried out extensively in urban environments. Currently, however, city air quality stations are expensive to maintain resulting in sparse coverage and data is not readily available to citizens. This can be resolved by city-wide partic...
Article
Full-text available
The metallurgical industry in the Kola Peninsula, north-west Russia, form, after Norilsk, Siberia, the second largest source of air pollution in the Arctic and subarctic domain. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from the ore smelters are transported to wide areas, including Finnish Lapland. We performed investigations on concentrations of SO2, aerosol...
Article
This research presents a pilot project developed within the framework of the COST Action 15,211 in which atmospheric nanoparticles were measured in July 2018, in a maritime environment in the city of Santander in Northern Spain. ELPI® + (Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor) was used to measure nanoparticle properties (electric charge, number, size dis...
Article
Full-text available
This global study, which has been coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO/GAW) programme, aims to understand the behaviour of key air pollutant species during the COVID-19 pandemic period of exceptionally low emissions across the globe. We investigated the effects of the differences in both emissions and r...
Article
Carbonaceous aerosol is one of the main components of atmospheric particulate matter, which is of great significance due to its role in climate change, earth's radiation balance, visibility, and human health. In this work, carbonaceous aerosols were measured in Shijiazhuang and Beijing using the OC/EC analyzer from December 1, 2019 to March 15, 202...
Article
Full-text available
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system which influence climate directly by interacting with solar radiation, and indirectly by contributing to cloud formation. The variety of their sources, as well as the multiple transformations they may undergo during their transport (including wet and dry deposition), result in signi...
Preprint
Full-text available
We evaluate monoterpene-derived peroxy radical (MT-RO2) unimolecular autoxidation and self and cross reactions with other RO2 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Formation of associated highly oxygenated organic molecule (HOM) and accretion products are tracked in competition with other bimolecular reactions. Autoxidation is the domin...
Article
Full-text available
Low clouds play a key role in the Earth-atmosphere energy balance and influence agricultural production and solar-power generation. Smoke aloft has been found to enhance marine stratocumulus through aerosol-cloud interactions, but its role in regions with strong human activities and complex monsoon circulation remains unclear. Here we show that bio...
Preprint
Full-text available
As the evidence for the adverse health effects of air pollution continues to increase, World Health Organization (WHO) recently published its latest edition of the Global Air Quality Guidelines. Although not legally binding, the guidelines aim to provide a framework in which policymakers can combat air pollution by formulating evidence-based air qu...
Preprint
The formation of ice particles in Earth’s atmosphere strongly influences the dynamics and optical properties of clouds and their impacts on the climate system. Ice formation in clouds is often triggered heterogeneously by ice nucleating particles (INPs) that represent a very low number of particles in the atmosphere. To date, many sources of INPs,...
Article
Full-text available
Formation of ice particles in clouds at temperatures of −10 ∘C or warmer was documented by using ground-based radar observations. At these temperatures, the number concentration of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) is not only expected to be small, but this number is also highly uncertain. In addition, there are a number of studies reporting that the...