Trysha Galloway's research while affiliated with The Learning Chameleon, Inc. and other places

Publications (54)

Article
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Team members co-regulate their activities and move together at the collective level of behavior while coordinating their actions toward shared goals. In parallel with team processes, team members need to resolve uncertainties arising from the changing task and environment. In this exploratory study we have measured the differential neurodynamics of...
Article
Uncertainty is a fundamental property of neural computation that becomes amplified when sensory information does not match a person’s expectations of the world. Uncertainty and hesitation are often early indicators of potential disruption, and the ability to rapidly measure uncertainty would have implications for future educational and training eff...
Article
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Neurodynamic organizations are information-based abstractions, expressed in bits, of the structure of long duration EEG amplitude levels. Neurodynamic information (NI, the variable of neurodynamic organization) is thought to continually accumulate as EEG amplitudes cycle through periods of persistent activation and deactivation in response to the a...
Article
One of the more intriguing questions about teamwork is how macro-scale behaviors arise from the micro-scale neural dynamics of each team member. In this paper we show that the low-level dynamics of EEG band power, which themselves link poorly with behavioral teamwork measures can be transformed into information-based units of neurodynamic organizat...
Chapter
Team neurodynamics is the study of the changing rhythms and organizations of teams from the perspective of neurophysiology. As a discipline, team neurodynamics is located at the intersection of collaborative learning, psychometrics, complexity theory, and neurobiology with the resulting principles and applications both drawing from and contributing...
Article
Every human decision has its origins in uncertainty. Despite its ubiquity, and theoretical understandings, there are few ways of dynamically tracking moment-by-moment uncertainties. Knowing when a team or one of its members was beginning to experience uncertainty would provide a basis for assessment-intervention loops enabling machines to better su...
Article
We describe efforts to make humans more transparent to machines by focusing on uncertainty, a concept with roots in neuronal populations that scales through social interactions. To be effective team partners, machines will need to learn why uncertainty happens, how it happens, how long it will last, and possible mitigations the machine can supply....
Article
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The initial models of team and team member dynamics using biometric data in healthcare will likely come from simulations. But how confident are we that the simulation-derived high-resolution dynamics will reflect those of teams working with live patients? We have developed neurodynamic models of a neurosurgery team while they performed a peroneal n...
Article
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Objective: A method for detecting real-time changes in team cognition in the form of significant communication reorganizations is described. We demonstrate the method in the context of scenario-based simulation training. Background: We present the dynamical view that individual- and team-level aspects of team cognition are temporally intertwined...
Article
This paper describes how meaning can be extracted from large-scale dynamical data to make inferences about teamwork that are useful in both the theoretical and practical sense. The dynamics of an anesthesiology team are viewed from the perspectives of: 1) changes in the team’s neurodynamic organizations with large and small changes in the task; 2)...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to use the same quantitative measure and scale to directly compare the neurodynamic information/organizations of individual team members with those of the team. Background: Team processes are difficult to separate from those of individual team members due to the lack of quantitative measures that can be appli...
Article
Objective To determine whether a dynamical analysis of neural and communication data streams provide fine-grained insights into healthcare team debriefings. Background Debriefing plays a key role in experiential learning activities such as healthcare simulation because it bolsters the transfer of experience into learning through a process of refle...
Article
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Real-time analysis of team communication data to detect anomalies and/or perturbations in the team environment is an ideal method to improve on teams’ interactions and responses to potential crises. In this paper, we demonstrate a method to detect anomalies through observing communication patterns of neurosurgery teams. We simulated the real-time p...
Article
The information within the neurodynamic data streams of teams engaged in naturalistic decision making was separated into information unique to each team member, the information shared by two or more team members, and team-specific information related to interactions with the task and team members. Most of the team information consisted of the infor...
Chapter
Purpose - In this chapter we highlight a neurodynamic approach that is showing promise as a quantitative measure of team performance. Methodology/approach - During teamwork the rapid electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations that emerge on the scalp were transformed into symbolic data streams which provided historical details at a second-bysecond...
Article
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When performing a task it is important for teams to optimize their strategies and actions to maximize value and avoid the cost of surprise. The decisions teams make sometimes have unintended consequences and they must then reorganize their thinking, roles and/or configuration into corrective structures more appropriate for the situation. In this st...
Chapter
We have investigated the correlations between the levels of team resilience as determined by expert raters and the degree of the teams’ neurodynamic organization determined by electroencephalography (EEG). Neurophysiologic models were created from submarine navigation teams that captured their dynamic responses to changing task environments during...
Article
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Research on the microscale neural dynamics of social interactions has yet to be translated into improvements in the assembly, training and evaluation of teams. This is partially due to the scale of neural involvements in team activities, spanning the millisecond oscillations in individual brains to the minutes/hours performance behaviors of the tea...
Article
We explored the possible linkages between expert observational ratings of team performance and the fluctuating neurodynamics of healthcare and submarine navigation teams while they conducted realistic training in natural settings. Second-by-second symbolic representations were created of team member’s electroencephalographic (EEG) power across the...
Article
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Three-person teams of fourth-year medical students or experienced operating room practitioners performed simulations around the construct of ventilation. Team member communications together with EEG-derived brainwaves were collected and classified each second and the changing neurodynamic as well as communication organizations of the team were mode...
Article
The goal of this study was to evaluate different neurodynamic representations for their ability to describe the interactions of team members with each other and with the changing task. Electroencephalography (EEG) data streams were collected from six crew members of a submarine piloting and navigation team while they performed a required training s...
Article
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Objective: We investigated cross-level effects, which are concurrent changes across neural and cognitive-behavioral levels of analysis as teams interact, between neurophysiology and team communication variables under variations in team training. Background: When people work together as a team, they develop neural, cognitive, and behavioral patte...
Conference Paper
Neurophysiologic models were created from US Navy navigation teams performing required simulations that captured their dynamic responses to the changing task environment. Their performances were simultaneously rated by two expert observers for team resilience using a team process rubric adopted by the US Navy Submarine Force. Symbolic neurodynamic...
Article
Across-brain neurodynamic organizations arise when teams perform coordinated tasks. We describe a symbolic electroencephalographic (EEG) approach that identifies when team neurodynamic organizations occur and demonstrate its utility with scientific problem solving and submarine navigation tasks. Each second, neurodynamic symbols (NS) were created s...
Article
Advances in the assessment of submarine piloting and navigation teams have created opportunities for linking behavioral observations of team performances with neurodynamic measures of team organization, synchrony and change. Submarine navigation teams (n=12) were fitted with EEG headsets and recorded while conducting required navigation simulations...
Conference Paper
Perturbations to the normal flow of teamwork arise externally through changes in the environment or internally as a result of the team’s processes / decisions. We used quantitative neurophysiologic models of the rhythms and organizations of teams to examine the effects of these two classes of perturbations on team neurodynamics. Electroencephalogra...
Article
The goal was to develop quantitative models of the neurodynamic organizations of teams that could be used for comparing performance within and across teams and sessions. A symbolic modeling system was developed, where raw electroencephalography (EEG) signals from dyads were first transformed into second-by-second estimates of the cognitive Workload...
Article
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The quality of a team depends on its ability to deliver information through a hierarchy of team members and negotiate processes spanning different time scales. That structure and the behavior that results from it pose problems for researchers because multiply-nested interactions are not easily separated. We explored the behavior of a six-person tea...
Article
The goal was to begin developing quantitative approaches for modeling the neurodynamic rhythms and organizations of teams. Raw EEG signals from team members were first transformed into es-timates of cognitive workload and transformed again into neurodynamics symbols showing the second-by-second workload of each individual as well as the team. Perio...
Conference Paper
We have modeled neurophysiologic indicators of Engagement and Workload to determine the influence the task has on the resulting neurodynamic rhythms and organizations of teams. The tasks included submarine piloting and navigation and anti-submarine warfare military simulations, map navigation tasks for high school students and business case discuss...
Conference Paper
A multi-level framework for analyzing team cognition based on team communication content and team neurophysiology is described. The semantic content of team communication in submarine training crews is quantified using Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), and their team neurophysiology is quantified using the previously described neurophysiologic synchr...
Conference Paper
A five-state Markov model is proposed for group and team operation and evolution that has a stronger basis in neurodynamics, greater descriptive accuracy and higher predictive value than many existing models. The derivation of this model from the symbolic analysis of normalized EEG activity during assigned team and group tasks is discussed, as are...
Article
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We have conducted studies with wireless headsets to explore the relationship of working cognitive load (EEG-WL), distraction (EEG-DT) and engagement (EEG-E) and problem solving efficiency and effectiveness on a series of qualitative chemistry, biology and mathematics simulations. As students gained experience by working multiple cases, the EEG-E le...
Article
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Our objective was to apply ideas from complexity theory to derive expanded neurodynamic models of Submarine Piloting and Navigation showing how teams cognitively organize around task changes. The cognitive metric highlighted was an electroencephalography-derived measure of engagement (termed neurophysiologic synchronies of engagement) that was mode...
Conference Paper
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The majority of tasks in complex organizations cannot be performed solely by individuals but require cooperative and interactive teamwork. In contexts such as military, teamwork is the foundation for executing missions and accomplishing goals. However, in most cases, effective teamwork cannot be achieved by bringing a collection of individuals toge...
Article
Full-text available
Our objective was to apply ideas from complexity theory to derive neurophysiologic models of Submarine Piloting and Navigation showing how teams cognitively organize around changes in the task and how this organization is altered with experience. The cognitive metric highlighted was an electroencephalography (EEG)- derived measure of engagement (te...
Article
Cognitive neurophysiologic synchronies (NS) are low-level data streams derived from electroencephalography (EEG) measurements that can be collected and analyzed in near real time and in realistic settings. The objective of this study was to relate the expression of NS for engagement to the frequency of conversation between team members during Subma...
Article
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This article explores the psychophysiological metrics during expert and novice performances in marksmanship, combat deadly force judgment and decision making (DFJDM), and interactions of teams. Electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) are used to characterize the psychophysiological profiles within all categories. Closed-loop biof...
Article
Full-text available
Our objective was to apply ideas from complexity theory to derive expanded models of Submarine Piloting and Navigation (SPAN) showing how teams cognitively respond to task changes and how this was altered with experience. The cognitive measure highlighted was an electroencephalography (EEG)-derived measure of engagement (EEG-E) that was modeled int...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cognitive Neurophysiologic synchronies (NS) are a low level data stream derived from EEG measurements that can be collected and analyzed in near real time and in realistic settings. We are using NS to develop systems that can rapidly determine the functional status of a team with the goals of being able to assess the quality of a teams’ performance...
Article
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Neurophysiologic synchronies (NS) are the second-by-second co-expression of the levels of cognitive measures by individual members of a team. Previously we showed that the NS obtained from EEG-derived measures of engagement (EEG-E) were not random across a variety of teamwork situations, but changed with changing task demands. In this study we hypo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Neurophysiologic synchronies (NS) are a low level data stream derived from EEG measurements that can be collected and analyzed in near real time and in realistic settings. The objective of this study was to compare the simultaneous expression of NS specific for Engagement (NS_E) and Workload (NS_WL) and to relate them to the frequency of conversati...
Article
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We have explored using neurophysiologic collaboration patterns as an approach for developing a deeper understanding of how teams collaborate when solving time-critical, complex real-world problems. Teams of three students solved substance abuse management simulations using IMMEX software while measures of mental workload (WL) and engagement (E) wer...
Conference Paper
We have explored using neurophysiologic patterns as an approach for developing a deeper understanding of how teams collaborate when solving time-critical, complex real-world problems. Fifteen students solved substance abuse management simulations individually, and then in teams of three while measures of mental workload (WL) and engagement (E) were...
Article
We have explored using neurophysiologic synchronies as an ap- proach for developing a deeper understanding of how teams collaborate when solving real-world problems. Five teams of three students solved medical simu- lations while measures of mental workload (WL) and engagement (E) were generated by electroencephalography (EEG). Levels of high and l...
Conference Paper
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We describe a process for collecting and combining neurophysiologic signals derived from individual members of a team to develop pattern categories showing the normalized expression of these signals at each second for the team as a whole. The expression of different neurophysiologic synchrony patterns is sensitive to changes in the behavior of team...
Conference Paper
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We have developed a neurophysiologic-based assessment of student's understanding of complex problem spaces that blends the population-based advantages of probabilistic performance modeling with the detection of neurophysiologic signals. It is designed to be rapid and effective in complex environments where assessment is often imprecise. Cohorts of...
Conference Paper
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We have begun to model changes in electroencephalography (EEG)-derived measures of cognitive workload, engagement and distraction as individuals developed and refined their problem solving skills in science. For the same problem solving scenario(s) there were significant differences in the levels and dynamics of these three metrics. As expected, wo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the U.S. facing a decline in science, math and engineering skills, there is a need for educators in these fields to team with engineers and cognitive scientists to pioneer novel approaches to science education. There is a strong need for the incorporation problem solving and emerging neuroscience technologies into mainstream classrooms, and fo...
Conference Paper
We have modeled changes in electroencephalography (EEG) - derived measures of cognitive workload, engagement, and distraction as individuals developed and refined their problem solving skills in science. Subjects performing a series of problem solving simulations showed decreases in the times needed to solve the problems; however, metrics of high...
Article
Full-text available
We have studied EEG-derived metrics of Workload (WL) and Engagement (E) as students developed and refined their problem solving approaches to determine the degree to which these are modulated as problem solving experience is gained. The problem solving tasks (IMMEX™) used for these studies were a series of science and mathematics online simulations...
Article
Full-text available
The objective is to combine simultaneous neurophysiologic signals from team members to develop pattern categories, called neurophysiologic synchronies (NS), that can be related to the second-by-second activities of teams. Neurophysiologic synchronies are a low level data stream that can be collected and analyzed in real time and in realistic settin...

Citations

... As expected from the changing complexities of the task and the environment, teams are different from the natural flow of most human activities by being constrained by time, resources, and ability. In these dynamic decision-making moments, the changing individual and collaborative elements contributing to the success or failure of teams are difficult to identify, challenging our ability to predict future dynamics either by humans or machines (Stevens and Galloway, 2021a). ...
... Such sequence entrainment/synchrony in real-world settings was shown to occur with submarine navigation teams , 2019, 2021b. The submarine navigation team consists of one group responsible for keeping the ship on course and they do so by checking and reporting the position every 3 min through a timed sequence of activities called Rounds. ...
... Moving beyond computer-mediated collaboration, Martinez-Maldonado and colleagues (2017) presented various analytics innovations applied to face-to-face group settings in which interaction was mediated by large shared displays and data was captured via depth cameras, eye-trackers, and audio recording devices. In fact, there is a growing interest in capturing traces of group multimodal interaction from physical learning spaces by combining sensor signals such as eye-trackers (Schneider, 2020;Vrzakova, Amon, Stewart, Duran, & D'Mello, 2020), computer vision systems (Spikol, Ruffaldi, Landolfi, & Cukurova, 2017b), indoor-positioning (Echeverria, Martinez-Moldonado, & Buckingham Shum, 2019), and electrodermal (Pijeira-Díaz, Drachsler, Järvelä, & Kirschner, 2016) and electroencephalographic (Stevens, Galloway, & Willemsen-Dunlap, 2020) sensors. In sum, the analysis of collaboration in both the CSCL and the learning analytics communities is widening, and multiple data collection, analysis, and interface design approaches are being explored. ...
... Researchers have applied multiple approaches that capture transitions in distinct ways. For instance, previous studies have deployed entropy-based methods (Likens et al., 2014;Stevens & Galloway, 2019;Wiltshire et al., 2018), which quantify the amount of disorder within a given system of interdependent variables at a specified time window (Shannon, 1948). ...
... This method can readily apply to nominal data, but additionally, to obtain discrete states from continuous measurements, each variable can be individually mapped to a value of either 'low', 'medium,' or 'high' at each time step (or some other discretization procedure). Each conjunction of low, medium, and high values in the variables in the system then becomes an element in a symbol set that characterizes the overall collective system state for a given observation, where for example, a symbol for a three-person team could be one that captures the high, high, low pattern and so on (Dias et al., 2019;Stevens et al., 2019). ...
... s the number and length of recurrent patternspresent using a state-space trajectory in a dynamical system (Fusaroli & Tylén, 2016;Russell et al., 2012;Strang et al., 2014;Marwan et al., 2007). Researchers have previously investigated team coordination in the context of HMTs by using RQA and its multivariate extensions (Demir, McNeese, et al., 2018aJ. C. Gorman et al., 2020;Nalepka et al., 2021). ...
... This will enable cognitively informed task designs and accelerate the rates of team and team-member learning by focusing on the cognitively relevant properties of performance. They will likely shape the evolution of existing theories of teamwork and the creation of new performance measures and teaching practices; these data will also increase the transparency of human states enabling effective machine-human collaborations (Stevens, Galloway, Willemsen-Dunlap, Gorman, & Halpin, 2018). ...
... Physiological synchrony in electroencephalograms (EEG) and electrocardiograms (ECG) between members of the same group have been shown to be predictive as to whether members are competing or cooperating as well as with consensus or success in team performance. This approach has been applied to a wide range of dyad and small group interactions including computer/VR gameplay, musical performance and other visualmotor exercises, dialogs between couples or student teams, and real-world applications including flight and submarine team simulations (Astolfi et al., 2011(Astolfi et al., , 2012Kawasaki et al., 2013;Toppi et al., 2016;Balconi et al., 2017;Berka and Stikic, 2017;Stevens et al., 2018;Czeszumski et al., 2020). ...
... In practice, these approaches complement one another to improve the efficiency of image recognition. Image recognition methods can be roughly divided into two groups: intrinsic and extrinsic [5]. ...
... One explanation for this is that critical situations, by definition, are unique, ambiguous, emergent situations (Stachowski et al., 2009). Our study has provided valuable insights into the adaptation of communication patterns but more research on the topic is warranted, particularly given the possibilities of providing real-time feedback on communication patterns to teams in training (e.g., Gorman et al., 2020;Grimm et al., 2017;Kiekel et al., 2002). ...