Trevor Chong's research while affiliated with St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne and other places

Publications (17)

Article
To determine whether slowed gait and weakened grip strength independently, or together, better identify risk of cognitive decline or dementia. Time to walk 3 meters and grip strength were measured in a randomized placebo‐controlled clinical trial involving community‐dwelling, initially cognitively healthy older adults (N = 19,114). Over a median 4....
Preprint
Selection bias in information-search contributes to the formation of polarized echo-chambers of beliefs. However, the role of valence in information source selection remains poorly understood. In Experiment 1, participants won financial rewards depending on the outcomes of a set of lotteries. They were not shown these outcomes, but instead could ch...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The inter-individual variability in cognitive changes may be early indicators of major health events. We aimed to determine whether late-life cognitive trajectories were associated with incident dementia, persistent physical disability and all-cause mortality.Methods Data came from a cohort of older community-dwelling individuals aged 70...
Article
Importance: Dual decline in gait speed and cognition has been found to be associated with increased dementia risk in previous studies. However, it is unclear if risks are conferred by a decline in domain-specific cognition and gait. Objective: To examine associations between dual decline in gait speed and cognition (ie, global, memory, processin...
Article
Full-text available
People with Methamphetamine Use Disorder (PwMUD) spend substantial time and resources on substance use, which hinders their ability to explore alternate reinforcers. Gold-standard behavioural treatments attempt to remedy this by encouraging action towards non-drug reinforcers, but substance use often persists. We aimed to unravel the mechanistic dr...
Article
Full-text available
Prolonging survival in good health is a fundamental societal goal. However, the leading determinants of disability-free survival in healthy older people have not been well established. Data from ASPREE, a bi-national placebo-controlled trial of aspirin with 4.7 years median follow-up, was analysed. At enrolment, participants were healthy and withou...
Article
Full-text available
Lower gait speed and grip strength are common in older adults. However, the results of lower motor function on cognitive outcomes have been mixed. We examined the longitudinal association between baseline slow gait speed and weak grip strength, alone and in combination, with risk of incident dementia or cognitive decline in a cohort of older adults...
Article
Full-text available
There is variability in cognitive aging between individuals. This study aimed to investigate cognitive aging trajectories, the associated modifiable factors, and the association of these trajectories with dementia. Community-dwelling older adults (n=19,114) without dementia or major cognitive impairment at inclusion were followed for up to 7 years,...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This study aimed to investigate cognitive aging trajectories, the associated sociodemographic characteristics, and the association of these trajectories with dementia. Methods: Generally healthy older adults (n = 19,114) were followed for up to 7 years, with regular cognitive assessments. Group-based trajectory modeling identified...
Article
Full-text available
Curiosity pervades all aspects of human behaviour and decision-making. Recent research indicates that the value of information is determined by its propensity to reduce uncertainty, and the hedonic value of the outcomes it predicts. Previous findings also indicate a preference for options that are freely chosen, compared to equivalently valued alte...
Article
Objective To determine the effect of low-dose aspirin vs placebo on incident all-cause dementia, incident Alzheimer disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitive decline in older individuals. Methods Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin. In the United Sta...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) provides a measure of verbal learning and memory. The aim of this study was to provide normative performance data on the HVLT-R for community-dwelling older individuals according to ethno-racial group, age, gender, and years of completed education, in Australia and the U.S. Method: The AS...
Article
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a heterogeneous area that is critical to reward-based decision-making. In particular, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial PFC and orbitofrontal cortex are frequently implicated in different aspects of choice behaviour. These regions receive projections from midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons and, in turn, p...
Article
Dopaminergic medication can induce severe addictive behaviours (e.g., pathological gambling) in susceptible Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It is still unknown which particular neurocognitive processes become exacerbated or dysfunctional in PD patients with addictive behaviours. We sought to systematically review the relevant literature to ident...
Article
Drug use is a choice with immediate positive outcomes, but long-term negative consequences. Thus, the repeated use of drugs in the face of negative consequences suggests dysfunction in the cognitive mechanisms underpinning decision-making. This cognitive dysfunction can be mapped into three stages: the formation of preferences involving valuation o...

Citations

... In contrast, some individuals sustain a high level of cognitive function even with advanced age (3). The diversity of late-life cognitive trajectories delineates a spectrum with multiple subgroups having heterogeneous patterns of cognitive aging including high cognitive function over time, average cognitive aging, and low cognitive performance (4,5). ...
... There has been some work on query formation in Library and Information Science (LIS) [70,96], much conceptual in nature. There is some empirical work asking participants to generate queries in response to a stated information need (e.g., [57]), the work is limited to artificial information needs, an approach that results in less user curiosity about the results and therefore likely changed behavior [54]. A handful of test collections were created that examine query variations [9,23], but that research has focused on the impact of the variation on search results, rather than a query's origin. ...
... Some animal and human cohort studies suggested a beneficial influence of a daily intake of specific NSAIDs in preventing development or progression of most common types of dementia via reducing distinct dementia pathology [136][137][138]. However, large randomized clinical-trials or meta-analyses did not provide strong evidence supporting their recommended use, with a special regard to the dangerous side effects of their daily intake, such as potential gastrointestinal bleeding [139][140][141][142][143][144][145][146]. ...
... Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and annually over follow-up, at up to six waves. The battery included 1) 3MS for global cognitive function (18), 2) single-letter (F) Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT-F) for verbal fluency (19), 3) Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised delayed recall task (HVLT-R) for episodic memory (20), and 4) Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) for psychomotor speed (21). In addition, an overall score was generated by adding up the z-scores of the four cognitive tests (6,22). ...
... This function of the PFC dates to the early beginnings of neuroscience [14,15]. Alongside these significant processes, one must emphasize the PFC's equally essential functions, such as memory [16,17], modeling outcomes [18], abstract thinking [19,20], emotion [21], cognitive control of internal goals [22,23], and language processing [24]. ...
... I mpulsive behaviours are a hallmark of numerous mental disorders, including addictions, personality disorders, bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 1-3 , as well as neurological disorders and related clinical presentations, such as frontotemporal dementia and medication-induced addictive behaviours in Parkinson's disease 4,5 . Impulsivity is also associated with a range of unhealthy and risk-related behaviours, such as binge drinking, overeating, reckless driving and risky sexual behaviours [6][7][8] . ...
... On the one hand, impulsivity is described as the failure of behavioral inhibition triggered by dysfunction of topdown executive control mediated by the prefrontal-parieto-striatal network [1,11,12]. On the other hand, atypical reward processing accounts for impulsive decision-making, manifested as greater delay discounting [13,14] and high risk taking [15,16]. Previous research has elucidated the cortico-basal ganglia circuits centered on the ventral striatum as the reward processing network [17]. ...