Trevor A. Foulk's research while affiliated with University of Maryland Global Campus and other places

Publications (29)

Article
Leader identity theory posits that, in addition to being positional, leadership is also a malleable state of mind. This means that even employees holding positions of authority within their organization may be nudged to identify more strongly with their leader role on some days versus others. The leadership literature, however, is silent about pred...
Article
Because trust is essential in the development and maintenance of well-functioning relationships, scholars across numerous scientific disciplines have sought to determine what causes people to trust others. Power dynamics are known to predict trust, but research on the relationship between power and trust is inconclusive, with mixed results and with...
Article
Building on perspectives highlighting the social nature of workplace creativity, we argue that being in a creative mindset will highlight the value that co-workers provide to the creative process. This heightened awareness of co-workers as being integral to the creative process increases social closeness with these co-workers, subsequently reducing...
Article
Due to its pervasive negative consequences, failing to understand the origins of paranoia can be costly for organizations. Prior research suggests that powerful employees are particularly likely to experience paranoia as others want to exploit the resources they control, implying that employees low in power should feel less paranoid. In contrast, w...
Article
In this work, we consider the complex and discordant effects that psychological power has on powerholders. To do so, we integrate the situated focus theory of power, which identifies perceptions of job demands as a key outcome of power, with new insights from the challenge-hindrance framework, which acknowledges that job demands may both help and h...
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In this paper we explore the effect of encounters with rudeness on the tendency to engage in anchoring, one of the most robust and widespread cognitive biases. Integrating the self-immersion framework with the selective accessibility model, we propose that rudeness-induced negative arousal will narrow individuals’ perspectives in a way that will ma...
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Social power research has been limited by theoretical and methodological traditions that prioritize static comparisons of high and low-power states. This is a crucial limitation given power’s inherently dynamic nature. Accordingly, Anicich and Hirsh (2017a) recently developed a theoretical framework related to the consequences of vertical code-swit...
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We investigate the psychological recovery process of full-time employees during the two-week period at the onset of the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Past research suggests that recovery processes start after stressors abate and can take months or years to unfold. In contrast, we build on autonomy restoration theory to suggest that recovery of i...
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Although powerlessness is a pervasive experience for employees, prior social power research has predominantly focused on consequences of powerfulness. This has led to contradictory predictions for how experienced powerlessness influences employees’ social perceptions and behaviors. To resolve this theoretical tension, we build on Social Distance Th...
Article
One of the most common conclusions in the power literature is that when people feel powerful, they behave in selfish and antisocial ways. While this conclusion tends to permeate the literature, research also recognizes that there are factors that can mitigate the corrupting nature of power, and that the experience of power may also lead to more pos...
Article
Background and objectives: Exposure to negative social interactions (such as rudeness) has robust adverse implications on medical team performance. However, little is known regarding the effects of positive social interactions. We hypothesized that expressions of gratitude, a prototype of positive social interaction, would enhance medical teams' e...
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Background: Little is known about the impact of social interactions on iatrogenesis and lapses in patient safety. Methods: This field-based experience-sampling study of primarily nurses in a general hospital explored the impact of rudeness on patient safety performance, state depletion (that is, exhaustion of mental energy for reflective behavior),...
Article
We extend the theory of purposeful work behavior (TPWB, Barrick, Mount, & Li, 2013) by conceptualizing three key motivational strivings (communion striving, accomplishment striving, and status striving) as dynamic constructs that have implications for how employees act and feel each day at work. Building on TPWB, we propose that morning communion s...
Article
The leader role is demanding and depleting, explaining why many leaders struggle to remain engaged while doing their job. In this study, we present theory and an intervention focused on improving leader energy. Integrating cognitive energetics theory (Kruglanski et al., 2012) with leader identity theory and expressive writing research, we develop a...
Article
Multiteam systems are large structures of interdependent teams that coordinate via planning before embarking on important projects. Although rarely studied, theory suggests that expression of convergent versus divergent goals and preferences during planning by leadership and component teams matters for multiteam system performance. Addressing this...
Article
Using an experimental experience sampling design, we investigate how witnessing morning rudeness influences workers' subsequent perceptions and behaviors throughout the workday. We posit that a single exposure to rudeness in the morning can contaminate employees' perceptions of subsequent social interactions leading them to perceive greater workpla...
Article
In recent years, a variety of disparate literatures have emerged to test interventions intended to increase individuals' psychological, cognitive, and physiological resources. Although many of these interventions were originally designed for individual or clinical use, a growing number of commentators have called for their adoption in organizations...
Article
Recognizing that powerholders operate in dynamic relational and interdependent work contexts, we posit that the effects of psychological power on powerholders are more complex than currently depicted in the literature. Although psychological power prompts behaviors and perceptions that harm the powerless, these reactions are not consequence-free fo...
Chapter
Given the increasing demands of work in the twenty-first century, a question of importance to both scholars and managers is how individuals and organizations can foster the positive psychological resources that optimize employee functioning. We review evidence from the existing literature on several interventions – mindfulness practices, work break...
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Full-text available
Objectives: Rudeness is routinely experienced by medical teams. We sought to explore the impact of rudeness on medical teams' performance and test interventions that might mitigate its negative consequences. Methods: Thirty-nine NICU teams participated in a training workshop including simulations of acute care of term and preterm newborns. In ea...
Article
Organizational newcomers are unfamiliar with many aspects of their workplace and look for information to help them reduce uncertainty and better understand their new environment. One aspect critical to newcomers is the disposition of their supervisor-the person who arguably can impact the newcomer's career the most. To form an impression of their n...
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Full-text available
Iatrogenesis often results from performance deficiencies among medical team members. Team-targeted rudeness may underlie such performance deficiencies, with individuals exposed to rude behavior being less helpful and cooperative. Our objective was to explore the impact of rudeness on the performance of medical teams. Twenty-four NICU teams particip...
Article
In this article we offer a new perspective to the study of negative behavioral contagion in organizations. In 3 studies, we investigate the contagion effect of rudeness and the cognitive mechanism that explains this effect. Study 1 results show that low-intensity negative behaviors like rudeness can be contagious, and that this contagion effect can...
Article
Full-text available
While incivility has been routinely shown to have destructive effects on individuals’ functioning, we have little knowledge about the impact of such behaviors on teams. In two studies we explore the effects of incivility enacted by external and internal actors on team processes and outcomes. Study 1, a field experiment conducted in Israeli neonatal...
Article
Incivility in the workplace is a costly problem for managers. Incivility has been found to have serious negative implications when it is experienced directly and even when it is simply witnessed. To date, there is no clear explanation for what causes this effect. Taking an interdisciplinary approach and combining theories from management, social ps...
Article
In three studies we found that incivility spreads from perpetrators through victims to uninvolved third parties. Study 1 showed that when elementary school teachers were uncivil, teachers in the school tended to also be uncivil, and as a result the students exhibited violent behavior. Study 2 replicates these results by showing that negotiating wit...

Citations

... In addition, the extent to which power inequality undermines trust may also depend on organizational culture. For example, individuals may perceive less of a conflict of interest in organizations that have a supportive and benevolent culture (e.g., Schaerer et al., 2021). There may be additional features of real-world and organizational interactions worth studying in the context of power and interpersonal trust, such as the presence of multiple hierarchies (e.g., Evans, 1975;Han & Pollock, 2021), changes in power over time (e.g., Anicich et al., 2020Anicich et al., , 2021, or whether social interactions occur face-to-face or virtually (e.g., Swaab et al., 2012; for an in-depth discussion of context effects in social hierarchy research, see Li et al., 2016;Schaerer, Lee, et al., 2018). ...
... Other studies have tried to investigate the cognitive processes that influence the anchoring effect. The mood has been found to greatly affect the magnitude of anchoring bias (Englich & Soder, 2009;Caputo, 2013;Cooper et al., 2022), and people who hold no expertise with the given situation or questions were found to be more susceptible to such heuristic (Kaustia, Alho, & Puttonen, 2008;Bystranowski, Janik, Próchnicki, & Skórska, 2021). ...
... For example, individuals may perceive less of a conflict of interest in organizations that have a supportive and benevolent culture (e.g., Schaerer et al., 2021). There may be additional features of real-world and organizational interactions worth studying in the context of power and interpersonal trust, such as the presence of multiple hierarchies (e.g., Evans, 1975;Han & Pollock, 2021), changes in power over time (e.g., Anicich et al., 2020Anicich et al., , 2021, or whether social interactions occur face-to-face or virtually (e.g., Swaab et al., 2012; for an in-depth discussion of context effects in social hierarchy research, see Li et al., 2016;Schaerer, Lee, et al., 2018). ...
... Depending on the activity, breaks can even add to that resource reserve during that time (Meijman & Mulder, 1998). Remote work offers even more choices in how to take breaks that are beneficial to the employee and their household than office work, but it is likely that some people may take better advantage of these opportunities than others (Anicich et al., 2020;Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Kaufman-Scarborough, 2006;Kossek et al., 2006). Charalampous et al. (2019) noted in their review that remote workers who took time to disconnect from their work achieved greater well-being. ...
... Conversely, we propose that when people in power engage in emotional labor, this practice may foster a more prosocial use of power, one that is considerate of others and that promotes or protects their welfare (Batson, 2012). We contribute to the literature on the psychology of power (e.g., Sassenberg et al., 2014;Sturm and Antonakis, 2015;Tost and Johnson, 2019;Foulk et al., 2020) by identifying emotional labor practices as an important antecedent to prosocial power use-one that can help explain why men and women in high-power roles may behave differently. ...
... This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. participants to different power roles in a legitimate way (e.g., Belmi & Pfeffer, 2016;Case et al., 2018;Foulk et al., 2020;Galinsky et al., 2003;Mooijman et al., 2019;Scholl & Sassenberg, 2015). In the questionnaire, participants reported demographic information (e.g., leadership positions, work experience) and responded to a series of personality questions. ...
... This area of critical care is gathering more evidencebased research to identify links to patient safety and medical error resulting from incivility, but more is required. 62 Our intention is to clarify and reject pejorative values that may be subconsciously at play; and rather promote an evolved model of FCC. Delineating stressors for all stakeholders within the PICU may assist other units and institutions to address this issue explicitly. ...
... Clinicians reported spending more time and communicating more often with parents who were engaged and inquisitive about their infants' care and appreciative of clinicians' efforts. These reflections are akin to simulated exercises that show maternal gratitude improves team performance, due to enhanced information sharing among the team [41]. Conversely, when clinicians perceived a family to be non-trusting or hostile, providers describe building trust taking time or care plans requiring extensive discussion and/or hesitation to change care plans. ...
... While enacted helping could arguably be reported by others, this is not without limitations as it requires that person be in a position to observe the focal employee regularly during the entire workday for the duration of the study (e.g., Chawla et al., 2020;Foulk et al., 2019). This is a difficult standard to achieve in workplaces wherein employees and coworkers are not in constant contact (which is the case for our sample). ...
... personal resources in regulating decision making, they eventually need to replenish their personal resources (Lanaj et al., 2019;Tice et al., 2007). However, this rejuvenation process requires time and necessitates that entrepreneurs temporarily disengage from venturing activities. ...