Travis Hirschi's research while affiliated with The University of Arizona and other places

Publications (55)

Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the self-control theory of crime and delinquency, including a critical review of research literature bearing on the validity of the theory. It discusses research on the origins of self control in the family and the relationships between levels of self control and delinquency and crime, school performance and mis...
Chapter
Research on self control from several disciplines demonstrates that relatively high levels of self control, emerging from childhood, create considerable personal advantages that accumulate throughout life. This chapter summarizes modern control theory and discusses directions for future development. It highlights the advantages of control theory, i...
Chapter
In this chapter, the general theory of crime depicted in self-control theory is taken as valid, and the implications for criminal justice are explored. The historical connections between classical theory and criminal sanctions are described, and the relations between classical deterrence theories and control theory are examined. The classical theor...
Chapter
Modern control theory doubts the effectiveness of criminal sanctions to affect the crime rate substantially. This view is contrasted with the expectations of the criminal career perspective, a leading view on the nature of crime and the role of the criminal justice system in controlling crime by deterrence and incapacitation. The contrast is illust...
Book
Modern Control Theory and the Limits of Criminal Justice updates and extends the authors’ classic general theory of crime (sometimes referred to as “self-control theory”). In Part I, contemporary evidence about the theory is summarized. Research from criminology, psychology, economics, education, and public health substantially supports the lifelon...
Chapter
Control theory is consistent with the notion of situational crime prevention and many of the ideas that support it. This chapter discusses several contemporary issues in control theory, including the connection between self-control theory and social control theory, the connection between morality and crime, and the role and conception of the opport...
Chapter
This chapter presents a review of the research and theorizing about age and crime as depicted in control theory. It critiques psychological and sociological studies of the meaning of the age–crime relationship. It also discusses testing general theory when age is a direct cause of crime, methods of accounting for the age–crime relationship in crimi...
Chapter
With regard to crime, stability does not imply once a crook always a crook, that levels of crime or problem behaviors remain at the same rate over time and do not fluctuate, or that crime is caused only by variation in self control. It does mean that some characteristic or characteristics of the person cause crime rate differences over large period...
Chapter
This chapter uses self-control theory to explain the generally low crime rates for immigrants in the United States. The benefits of control theory versus other common sociological theories of crime is demonstrated with contemporary and historical research on immigration and crime. The misinterpretation of the relationship historically in American c...
Chapter
Self control is a consistent, robust, and substantial cause of crime, and the foundational facts and other dimensions of the self-control theory of crime have found remarkable support in behavioral science. However, not all scholars view the evidence in the same way, and there have been several challenges to the expectations of the theory that meri...
Chapter
Creating concrete operational indicators for narrative depictions of complex concepts, identifying and recruiting appropriate samples, and identifying designs permitting informed causal judgments in a largely nonexperimental field are among the most challenging intellectual achievements in the behavioral sciences. This chapter discusses misuses of...
Article
Students of criminal careers seek distinct longitudinal sequences of offenses committed by individual offenders. Their approach is explicitly theory free: It assumes that meaningfully different careers may be identified by close examination of the criminal activity of individuals over extended periods of time. They first locate in justice system re...
Article
Explanations of juvenile delinquency require consideration of two sets of elements. These are, on the one hand, the driving forces, the reasons or motives behind the act and, on the other, the obstacles that stand in its way, the restraints that inhibit its occurrence. In principle, it is possible to construct an explanation of delinquency that giv...
Article
This paper begins with a conceptual analysis of the idea of white-collar crime. It considers data relevant to popular images of white-collar crime and outlines a general theory of crime explicitly applicable to both ordinary and white-collar crime. This theory is compared with traditional explanations of white-collar crime, and several explicit emp...
Article
The idea of selective incapacitation and the distinction between prevalence and incidence (participation and lambda) justify the search for a group of offenders whose criminality does not decline with age and who may be identified solely on the basis of legally relevant variables. This paper questions such research, arguing that the decline in age...
Article
Advocates of the concept of white-collar crime have failed to make the case for its scientific value. Steffensmeier's efforts to save the concept further support our view that it is flawed and misleading. His efforts support our contention that the correlates of white-collar crime are the same as the correlates of crime, that the age distribution o...
Article
In the 10 years since its publication in A General Theory of Crime, the authors' self-control theory has been the focus of considerable research and critical assessment. This article responds to questions about the theory that have attracted the most thoughtful attention in the serious literature of the field.
Article
Discusses the divergence between control theory and the life-course perspective with regard to correlates of criminal behavior. It appears that the basic findings about crime and delinquency produced by cross-sectional and longitudinal research are the same. These correlates include versatility, stability, and age. It has been argued that these aut...
Article
Crime is the product of the confluence of individuals low on self-control and appropriate opportunities. The likelihood of crime varies continuously with age, but the meaning of criminal acts does not depend on the age of the offender. Distinctions based on age are thus arbitrary, and probably cause more trouble than they are worth. Special treatme...
Article
offer a critique of traditional theories of aggression / argue that most measures of aggression in laboratory experiments are inversely related to aggressive behavior outside the laboratory and reflect compliance to legitimized demands of experimenters rather than aggression / question the adequacy of the notion of an aggressive personality / argue...
Article
Efforts to construct theories of crime consistent with a priori principles typically prove unsatisfactory. Awareness of this fact led the early positivists to reject choice theories in favor of discipline-specific theories tested by examination of correlations among directly measurable variables. Today, disciplinary theories of crime rely more on a...
Article
By articulating a general theory of crime and related behavior, the authors present a new and comprehensive statement of what the criminological enterprise should be about. They argue that prevalent academic criminology—whether sociological, psychological, biological, or economic—has been unable to provide believable explanations of criminal be...
Article
The career model reappears with some consistency in the history of criminology. It consistently fails, however, to organize the facts about crime in a meaningful way. As a consequence, we predict that criminology will once again abandon career models in favor of theories of crime.
Article
This paper argues that the increasing dominance in contemporary criminology of the longitudinal or cohort study is not justified on methodological grounds, that this research design has taken criminological theory in unproductive directions, has produced illusory substantive findings, and has promoted policy conclusions of doubtful utility. In addi...
Article
When we first read David F. Greenberg's attack on our article "Age and the Explanation of Crime," we were more than a little puzzled. Why were we confronted with a blunderbuss critique of our research that does not even attempt to advance a positive thesis? Why are we challenged by an elementary description of the advantages of longitudinal designs...
Article
One of the few facts agreed on in criminology is the age distribution of crime. This fact has been used to criticize social theories of crime causation, to provide the foundation for other theories, to justify recent emphases on career criminals, and to support claims of superiority for longitudinal designs in criminological research. In the presen...
Article
This title features eight articles that represent a variety of viewpoints on the causes of crime - from the social learning tradition to the multiple factor approach to sociobiology and the behaviourist approaches. The editors' introduction puts the research reported here into the context of the long-standing debate. 'SAGE Publications are to be co...

Citations

... Our results revealed self-control skills in childhood are a protective factor against self-or mother-reported peer victimization. This provides further support for the self-control theory, which suggests that low self-control skills put individuals at risk for victimization since those with low self-control skills may be less likely to consider later consequences than those who have high self-control skills (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990). Thus, having higher self-control skills is a protective factor in both VPT and FT born adolescents regarding emotional problems and peer victimization. ...
... Lastly, among demographic characteristics, only age achieved a significant influence on survival time. Respondents who were older at release had longer survival times, echoing the validity of the age-crime curve (Hirschi & Gottfredson, 2008;Sweeten et al., 2013). With the other covariates in the model, neither gender nor race were found to have significant predictor power on survival time. ...
... La principal medida utilizada por los investigadores (Gottfredson y Hirschi, 1990 Hirschi, , 2003) es el grado de autocontrol del individuo. Aclarése sin embargo que no se trata de afirmar que la existencia de rasgos de personalidad predispone de manera absoluta a la criminalidad (Gottfredson y Hirschi 1989 Hirschi , 1993). Las oportunidades son consideradas en el marco de esta teoría, como factores endógenos de motivación y esto por dos razones: la primera siendo un sesgo de selección, la segunda un sesgo de percepción. ...
... Several studies recognized the lack of different forms of social control as a risk factor for addiction to pornographic sites, but also other types of deviant behavior [21,25,37,40]. One of the risk factors for Internet sex addiction is a lack of religiosity [20,32,45,50]. ...
... This means that society and culture become dependent on the effectiveness of socialization, namely the extent to which the individual learns the values, attitudes, and behavior of the community and their families (Goode, 2020). Hirschi & Gottfredson (2017) stated that crime occurs when a person's ties to society are weakened or broken. The main idea behind the control theory is that deviance is the result of a lack of control or social control. ...
... Chapter 1 purports to put ADV in a developmental context, and chapter 4 notes that the risk for IPV peaks at ages 16-18 (p. 73), but the entire book ignores discussion of the age-crime curve in criminology (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 2001), suggesting that all crime peaks in adolescence. Placed in this context, the research finding is not so much noteworthy or interesting as epi-phenomenological. ...
... Apart from instrumental and expressive motives, researchers have noted various factors that can guide security-relevant behavior (Gottfredson 2017;Gottfredson and Hirschi 1990;Nagin and Paternoster 1993). MoCo theory. ...
... Young people have various capacities to avoid the temptations offered by such situations (Wikström, 2019). One capacity involves their level of self-control: those with low self-control are less likely than others to eschew these temptations and are thus more prone to illicit behaviors (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 2019). In general, then, the social amplification model proposes that misbehavior is most likely to occur among youth with low self-control who associate with deviant peers (Hirtenlehner et al., 2022). ...
... In this particular case, the main concern of the cyclists could be to avoid social criticism. As Hirschi and Gottfredson (1994) argued, in some cases, the sanctions of society (i.e., social criticism) are grater deterrents for normative people than are formal sanctions, especially for categories such as cyclists, which are not so strictly targeted by law enforcers. Furthermore, cyclists that are alone when approaching the intersection during the red-light phase, are less concerned with social criticism and, therefore, more likely to show risky behavior. ...
... Although a considerable amount of criticism and theoretical competition has been placed against low self-control, the theory continues to remain robust and relevant in research and policy discussions for identifying static risk-factors of criminal activity and *Address correspondence to this author at the California State University, Stanislaus, USA; E-mail: schintakrindi@csustan.edu deviance (Akers, 1991;Geis, 2000;Gottfredson & Hirschi, 2016). ...