Tony Towell's research while affiliated with University of Westminster and other places

Publications (34)

Article
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Recent success stories in automated object or face recognition, partly fuelled by deep learning artificial neural network (ANN) architectures, have led to the advancement of biometric research platforms and, to some extent, the resurrection of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In line with this general trend, inter-disciplinary approaches have been tak...
Article
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The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) is a widely-used self-report instrument for the assessment of schizotypal personality traits. However, the factor structure of scores on English and non-English translations of the SPQ has been a matter of debate. With little previous factorial evaluation of the German version of the SPQ (SPQ-G), we r...
Conference Paper
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Background Belief in conspiracy theories (i.e., a subset of false narratives in which the ultimate cause of an event is believed to be due to a malevolent plot by multiple actors working together) is a widespread and stable aspect of contemporary public opinion. Given such findings, researchers have sought to understand the factors that make someon...
Article
This study sought to replicate previous work showing relationships between components of schizotypy and conspiracist beliefs, and extend it by examining the mediating role of cognitive processes. An international online sample of 411 women and men (mean age = 35.41 years) completed measures of the schizotypal facets of Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinki...
Article
Introduction. The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) is a widely-used self-report measurement instrument for the assessment of schizotypal personality traits. However, the factor structure of the SPQ has been a matter of some debate. As a contribution to this debate, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ in Malaysian adults. Method....
Article
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Mismatch negativity (MMN) has been characterised as a 'pre-attentive' component of an event-related potential (ERP) that is related to discrimination and error prediction processes. The aim of the current experiment was to establish whether visual MMN could be recorded to briefly presented, backward and forward masked visual stimuli, given both bel...
Article
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Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure...
Article
Previous studies have reported associations between conspiracist ideation and domain-level facets of schizotypy, but less is known about associations with lower-order facets. In the present study, 447 adults completed measures of conspiracist ideation and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), consisting of nine subscales grouped into fou...
Article
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In this study, we explored the lived experiences of children with beta-thalassemia major (β-TM). We considered children as experts on their experiences in contrast to the prevalent approach of asking parents or other adults about children's perspectives. The sample consisted of 12 children aged 8 to12 years. There were two stages to data collection...
Article
Scutellaria lateriflora, a traditional herbal remedy for stress and anxiety, was tested on human volunteers for its effects on mood. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, 43 healthy participants were randomised to a sequence of three times daily S. lateriflora (350 mg) or placebo, each over two weeks. In this relatively non-anxiou...
Article
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Existing literature on pet-human relationships reports mixed evidence indicating both positive and negative impacts of pet possession. Based on specific inclusion criteria, including only considering pet ownership in terms of cats and dogs, this paper reviewed 11 empirical studies published in eight journal articles to explore whether pet possessio...
Article
Traditional use of American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) for anxiety and related conditions is well documented. There is evidence of flavonoid instability in S. lateriflora and a high rate of substitution with other skullcap species or adulteration with potentially hepatotoxic germanders (Teucrium spp.). It is therefore essential for the iden...
Article
Despite uncertainty about the impact of changes in funding for higher education, there continues to be government support for widening participation and an emphasis on student retention. A number of studies have identified the first year of university as an important transition period but there is little in the way of evidence which identifies the...
Article
American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) is a popular herb in traditional medicine systems and western materia medica for the treatment of anxiety and related disorders. It is reported to be one of the most widely used medicinal herbs, with anecdotal evidence for minimal side-effects and with no known toxicity. This article summarises the result...
Article
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Anxiety is a common but potentially serious disorder as it can lead to somatic and social dysfunction. Orthodox anxiolytics are associated with unpleasant side-effects and dependency. American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) is a popular herb in traditional medicine systems and the western materia medica for anxiety and related disorders. Prelim...
Article
A passive three stimulus oddball paradigm was used to investigate Visual Mismatch Negativity (vMMN) a component of the Event Related Potential (ERP) believed to represent a central pre-attentive change mechanism. Responses to a change in orientation were recorded to monochrome stimuli presented to subjects on a computer screen. One of the infrequen...
Article
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Numerous studies have examined ethnic differences in body image, although the literature has tended to focus on a negative orientation toward one’s body. The present study examined whether there were differences in positive body image among 131 Caucasian, 122 South Asian, 67 African Caribbean, and 67 Hispanic female undergraduates in Britain. Parti...
Article
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All UK postgraduate qualifications in applied areas of psychology will soon be competence-based. This will improve the professional recognition and esteem of applied psychology, and make it easier to transfer qualifications between psychology and other disciplines and between psychology sub-disciplines. However, the changes pose considerable challe...
Article
Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been recorded in response to the offset of sensory stimulation in both the auditory and visual modalities. The present experiment employed vibratory stimulation to characterize somatosensory ERPs in response to different duration stimuli. In two separate experiments, we recorded attended and unattended somatosen...
Article
The incidence of prostate cancer has risen sharply in the last decade, yet knowledge about the psychological health of men with this disease is still limited. A study was therefore undertaken to identify (1) the prevalence of psychological distress in these males, and (2) factors predicting psychological distress. Retrospective cross-sectional surv...
Article
The role of perceived parental rearing style, parental background, self-esteem, mental health and demographic variables upon impostor phenomenon [IP; Psychotherapy: Theory Research and Practice, 15, (1978) 241–247] intensity was investigated using a cross-sectional survey design, with 107 subjects (78 females, 29 males). A regression analysis revea...
Article
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Objectives. To investigate the relationship between the physical, social and psychological health of students and their financial circumstances. Design. A survey design was used. Methods. An opportunity sample of 482 university students from two London universities (one old and one new) completed a questionnaire providing information on demographic...
Article
Osteoporosis in eating-disordered women is well established, but factors predictive of this condition have proved elusive. The roles of behavioral factors, weight, menstrual status, and the degree of bone mineral density change over the clinical course of the eating disorder were investigated A cohort of 56 eating-disordered women was subjected to...
Article
Three-hundred sixty British university students completed a questionnaire providing information on demographic characteristics, financial circumstances, smoking, and drug and alcohol use. A 14-item inventory of physical symptoms, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were used to assess their physica...
Article
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Between 1995 and 1998 a national sample of 58,501 (42,885 males, 15,616 females) Post Office employees (29%) completed and returned a postal questionnaire survey providing information on demographic characteristics, physical and psychological health, health and lifestyles and health screening behaviour. Response rates by occupational grade were as...
Article
The high levels of body dissatisfaction and abnormal eating attitudes currently prevalent in Western societies have been attributed by many authors to the promotion of an unrealistically thin ideal for women. We investigated the role of the visual media by examining the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and eating attitudes in visuall...
Article
Objective The high levels of body dissatisfaction and abnormal eating attitudes currently prevalent in Western societies have been attributed by many authors to the promotion of an unrealistically thin ideal for women. We investigated the role of the visual media by examining the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and eating attitudes...
Article
Full-text available
Examines the implications of financial hardship for the well-being of students in higher education, as well as the wider community. Studies are briefly discussed that find that students who considered abandoning their course of study for financial reasons had significantly poorer mental health, poorer perceived general health, lower vitality and po...

Citations

... It is expected that these systems can complete this process faster and more cost-effectively than human agents [1][2][3][4], with higher reliability and with at least comparable validity [5]. Although there is an ongoing discussion about AE-FEA systems' potentially intrinsic limitations-arising from estimating emotional content without taking into account the context in which the facial expression arises [6,7]-there is a rapidly growing interest in them. Beyond their use in academic research, there have been numerous attempts to utilize AEFEA technologies in applied fields, such as researching consumer behavior, user experience, and marketing [5,8] and in diagnostic technologies in psychiatry [6,9,10]. ...
... Our observation on the remarkable distribution of the two extremes e namely hyper-and aphantasia e is also unique in the literature. Most previous studies on aphantasia look at its role in different cognitive functions, and potential impairments or compensative internal processes, mainly only in adult samples (for recent examples, see: Jacobs et al., 2018;Keogh et al., 2021;Milton et al., 2021;Pounder et al., 2018;Wicken et al., 2021). However, to understand the phenomenon more comprehensively, it would be essential to examine the nature of lifelong prevalence as well. ...
... To correct for these potential confounds we chose to assess whether German-English bilinguals of German or Austrian nationality (i.e., the population we had been testing) would endorse more schizotypal traits on the SPQ-G than the SPQ. Previous research by Barron et al. (2018) had found that German speakers living in Germany or Austria gave similar SPQ-G scores to German speakers living in the UK, but it is not yet known whether differences would arise if the language of the questionnaire itself was translated and presented to the individuals from the same population. However, a practical difficulty of such a comparison is the issue of whether the meanings in the original SPQ translate effectively to the SPQ-G. ...
... El-Abbasy et al. developed an affective e-learning platform that changes the learning materials when the learner experiences a negative emotion. Emotions such as sadness and frustration were recognized using eye tracking and EEG [17]. In [18], Alhassan and his colleagues used data mining techniques to classify the learners in terms of two different learning styles, namely visual and verbal, by taking the participants' EEG and gaze data as input features. ...
... Previous findings (Barron et al., 2014(Barron et al., , 2018 indicate that some schizotypy symptoms, e.g. lack of close friends or odd speech, are less relevant to conspiracy beliefs than other symptoms (e.g., magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences). ...
... The AASSO developed by us and used in our study was found to be a reliable scale in terms of Cronbach's alpha value (0.936) (18). According to the factor analysis of the data, the model could explain 65.45% of the variance which indicated within acceptable range (19). ...
... The most eye-catching fonts are not necessarily the best logo fonts. With excellent logo fonts, traffic participants are no longer interested in the font itself, but you can pay attention to the contents of the text from scratch [20]. The degree of text recognition and understanding is inversely proportional to the specificity of the text font style. ...
... Con motivo de asegurar que el instrumento refleje con fidelidad la práctica, se elaboraron diversas viñetas clínicas que recrean situaciones similares a la práctica profesional y, para reducir la subjetividad en el proceso de corrección, se consensuaron de antemano respuestas modelo (Elander et al., 2007;Pitts et al., 2001;Smith y Tillema, 2003). En esta instancia, para obtener mayor grado de representatividad y heterogeneidad de respuestas, las claves de respuestas fueron elaboradas por participantes que pertenecían a diferentes modelos teóricos tradicionales según la clasificación de Fernández-Álvarez(1994). Al igual que otros instrumentos similares como la V-MAT (Gonsalvez et al., 2016), en la ECCBP se presentan escenarios uniformes para todos los evaluados. ...
... Although a number of cross-cultural studies have examined item performance and measurement invariance of the SPQ across ethnic and racial groups (British/Trinidadian sample, Barron et al., 2015;Spanish/ Swiss sample, Ortuno-Sierra et al., 2013;Mauritian sample, Reynolds et al., 2000), these studies did not specifically compare marginalized verses non-marginalized groups (i.e., groups that may systematically differ in their experiences of discrimination and inequality) within their respective cultural contexts. In the only known study to examine measurement invariance of the SPQ across racial groups that differ in marginalized vs. non-marginalized group affiliation within the United States, Cicero (2015) found scalar invariance in the Suspiciousness and Paranoid Ideation and Ideas of Reference domains between Whites (nonmarginalized group) and Asian Pacific Islanders (marginalized group) residing in Hawaii. ...
... SA immigrants expected asthma flare-ups if their children had physically cold foods or foods with a cold base (banana, yogurt, grapes, etc.), had a cold shower or were improperly dressed. Many of them held a misconception around activities as a trigger for asthma exacerbation which resulted in the imposition of restrictions on a child's activities (Lakhanpaul et al., 2017;Lakhanpaul et al., 2019;Mehrotra et al., 2014 (Croot et al., 2012;Daudji et al., 2011;Habib et al., 2017;Heer et al., 2012;Heer et al., 2015;Kelly & Kelly, 2013;Lakhanpaul et al., 2017;Lakhanpaul et al., 2019;Mehrotra et al., 2014;Mufti et al., 2015;Ravindran & Myers, 2013;Theara & Abbott, 2015;Zechella & Raval, 2016). ...