Timothy A. Pychyl's research while affiliated with Carleton University and other places

Publications (46)

Article
Full-text available
We summarize qualitative research conducted on the mattering construct and then describe a qualitative investigation focused on mattering as a key aspect of the relational factors which influence the learning and development of students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 professors recognized for their teaching excellence. Specifica...
Article
Although research demonstrates that procrastination is an instance of self-regulation failure with deleterious consequences, Chu and Choi (2005) have defined a new construct called active procrastination. Active procrastination is the deliberate deferral of tasks to the last minute resulting in positive outcomes despite the delay. The present study...
Article
Full-text available
Given that procrastination has been conceptualized as an emotion-regulation strategy for dealing with aversive tasks, we hypothesized that the trait of affect intensity would contribute to procrastination by intensifying the personal distress experienced when faced with an aversive task. Affect intensity is a stable individual difference in the cha...
Chapter
Procrastination is a common self-regulatory problem involving the unnecessary delay of important intended tasks. Procrastination can take a toll on mental and physical well-being. In this article, we summarize the correlates, causes, and consequences of procrastination, and present the latest theory and research that explains why people procrastina...
Article
This research examined how mental imagery practice can increase future self-continuity to reduce procrastination. A total of 193 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to a present-focused meditation or to a future self-focused mental imagery condition. Participants in both conditions were asked to listen to their respective audio recording...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive research indicates that procrastination is associated with many maladaptive outcomes including diminished performance and greater psychological distress, but the specific factors and mechanisms associated with the vulnerability of procrastinators still need to be identified. The current study examined the associations among procrastinatio...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the relationship between procrastination, delay, blameworthiness, and moral responsibility. Undergraduate students (N = 240) were provided two scenarios in which the reason for inaction (procrastination, delay), the target (self, other), and the outcome (positive, negative) were manipulated, and students were asked to rat...
Chapter
Numerous studies have demonstrated the association between procrastination and poor physical and mental health outcomes. In addition, it is clear that procrastination on wellness behaviors such as exercise as well as treatment delay plays an important role in this association. Despite the clear relation of procrastination and negative health outcom...
Book
Research on procrastination has grown exponentially in recent years. Studies have revealed that procrastination is an issue of self-regulation failure, and specifically misregulation of emotional states-not simply a time management problem as often presumed. This maladaptive coping strategy is a risk factor not only for poor mental health, but also...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the temporal discontinuities found in procrastination. We argue that procrastination is particularly self-defeating because individuals fail to consider the future self's well-being. As such, we explore why and how procrastinators disconnect from the future self and highlight the negative consequences of this disconnection f...
Chapter
In this chapter, we explore how procrastination functions as an emotion-regulation strategy that provides short-term mood repair. We begin by explaining the link between emotion regulation and procrastination, drawing on more general research on self-regulation that demonstrates how regulating moods and feeling states can lead to a failure of self-...
Chapter
In this final chapter of the edited volume, we look back through the chapters to identify the themes that unify the research to date on the consequences of procrastination for health and well-being. We highlight three central themes-failure to regulate behavior, emotion-regulation difficulties, and the temporal aspects of procrastination-and discus...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the relevance of the notion of committed action in the study of procrastination, this construct and theoretical approach has been largely absent in past research. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variable of committed action from the Psychological Flexibility (PF) model drawn from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy would...
Article
Procrastination is a self-defeating behavior that occurs when present self chooses to delay a task action in favor of future self taking on this task later. Given this dynamic between present and future self with procrastination, we hypothesized that higher levels of perceived self-continuity would be related to lower levels of self-reported procra...
Poster
Full-text available
Academic procrastination, the irrational tendency to delay the beginning or the completion of an academic task, is a pervasive problem for a significant number of college and university students. The prevalence of students who procrastinate is estimated to vary from 10% to 70%. Recently, a growing number of research studies have investigated the Ac...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to describe the Mentored-Teaching Program (MTP), an initiative in the development of graduate student teaching through discipline-based mentored-teaching practice. We begin with a brief overview of what is required to create a seminar in university teaching and the MTP from the departmental perspective. We then turn our...
Article
Although researchers have established that companion animals act as social catalysts by promoting interaction between people, they have not examined the possible beneficial effects for well-being arising from the social interactions that occur while dog walking. The present study examined the relations between dog walkers’ social interactions and t...
Article
Procrastination is a common and pervasive problem associated with a range of negative outcomes across a variety of life domains that often occurs when people are faced with tasks that are seen as aversive. In this paper, we argue that as a form of self-regulation failure, procrastination has a great deal to do with short-term mood repair and emotio...
Article
This study investigated the indirect and conditional relation between fear of failure and procrastination based on constructs from self-determination theory. Using structural equation modeling to analyze data from 300 university students, we found that the relation between fear of failure and procrastination was moderated by perceived competence. T...
Article
As a preface to the papers in this special issue on the role of procrastination in maladjustment, we provide an overview of the topics covered. To our knowledge, this is the first special issue that focuses specifically on the role of this form of self-regulatory failure in understanding maladjustment. We begin with a discussion of the complex arra...
Article
Affective correlates of procrastination were examined through experience-sampling. 45 undergraduate students carried electronic pagers for 5 days preceding an academic deadline. Students were paged 8 times daily. At each signal, the participants indicated what they were doing, extent of procrastination and affective state. Contrary to previous rese...
Article
Full-text available
The relations of academic procrastination with perceived social loafing and conscientiousness among undergraduate study-group partners were examined. Using 70 dyads (140 students: 87 women, 53 men), we found that when conscientiousness scores were controlled statistically from self-report data, partial correlates indicated that academic procrastina...
Article
While previous research suggests that individuals who humanize their companion animals may have insufficient human social support (Epley, Waytz, & Cacioppo, 2007), researchers have not examined the relation between companion-animal anthropomorphism and the health of animal guardians while taking into consideration their human social support levels....
Article
In the present study, we examined the association between forgiving the self for a specific instance of procrastination and procrastination on that same task in the future. A sample of 119 first-year University students (49 male, 70 female) completed measures of procrastination and self-forgiveness immediately before each of two midterm examination...
Article
While researchers have examined the relationship between pet ownership and psychological health among individuals in the general population, the few studies that have examined the possible psychological health benefits of pet ownership for individuals living alone have primarily been conducted among subgroups such as seniors. Using a community samp...
Article
Arousal procrastination was investigated to determine: (a) If the General Procrastination Scale (GP; Lay, 1986) measures procrastination motivated by arousal, and (b) whether sensation seeking (SS), extraversion (E), and the reducer index (R) account for variance in beliefs about the motivation for academic procrastination. Participants were 311 un...
Article
It was a pleasure to be invited to participate in the recent panel on procrastination at the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, particularly because I got to engage in a lively discussion, across disciplines, about my favourite topic. Procrastination has been my topic of research as a psychologist for over a decade. I’ve supervised man...
Article
Although it is well documented that pet ownership has a number of benefits, the psychological characteristics of the pet-owner relationship that may affect human subjective well-being are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations between owners' perceived social support from their dog, anthropomorphism, and...
Article
Identity has been positively related to agency. Agency theoretically confers the capacity for action required for timely task completion. Given this theoretical link between identity and procrastination, we hypothesized that level of ego identity development would be negatively related to procrastination. Participants (101 female, 38 male) complete...
Article
Two studies examined individual differences in indecision on performance speed, accuracy, and subsequent self-control. In Study 1, indecisives (n = 36) took longer yet maintained accuracy as decisives (n = 39) on a Stroop task anticipating feedback (no feedback, success, or failure). Indecisives in the no feedback condition depleted their self-regu...
Article
The purpose of this research was to explore the Personal Project Systems (e.g., Little, 1983) of state-oriented and action-oriented individuals. Eighty-four female and 57 male undergraduates enrolled in an introductory psychology class completed Little’s Personal Projects Analysis (e.g., 1983) and Kuhl’s Action Control Scale (Kuhl, 1994). The resul...
Article
Full-text available
A recent study on the negative health consequences of procrastination suggested that procrastination was associated with higher stress and poor health (Tice & Baumeister, 1997). The current investigation sought to clarify and extend these findings by examining the mediational role of stress and health behaviors in the procrastination–illness relati...
Article
The goal of this study was to explore the main effects and interactions between gender, maternal and paternal parenting style, and global self-worth in the prediction of procrastination in adolescence. A sample of 105 adolescents (60 females) between the ages of 13 and 15 years completed measures of parenting style, self-concept and trait procrasti...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to explore the extent to which time spent online was related to self reports of procrastination. A sample of 308 participants (Mean age = 29.4 years, SD = 12.0, 198 females) from various regions of North America completed a survey posted to the World Wide Web. Data collected included demographic information, attitudes toward...
Article
The role of stress, particularly economic hindrance,in the prediction of global life-satisfaction wascontrasted between typically younger (n = 109)and more mature (n = 66) undergraduate students. Participants completed a Personal Projects AnalysisAppraisal Matrix including six stress dimensions, aswell as a single-item measure of globallife-satisfa...
Article
The potential bias in time estimation known as the planning fallacy was examined for 32 undergraduate students in relation to exam preparation. Students provided estimates of their study plans for the 8 days prior to two midterm exams. These estimates were compared to their study logs for the same period using Ordinal Pattern Analysis. The results...
Article
The purpose of this research was to explore notions of task aversiveness across stages of personal projects. 95 female and 66 male undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology class completed Personal Projects Analysis (PPA; Little, 1983 [Personal projects: a rationale and method for investigation. Environment and Behaviour, 15, 27...
Article
We present the use of the World Wide Web (Web) to facilitate collaborative group work in 2 teaching environments: high school and graduate school. In the first case, high school students (N = 19) participating in a university minicourse worked in small groups for 25 hr conducting research and preparing a report on the Web. In the second case, psych...
Article
Research on personal goals in relation to subjective well-being (SWB) typically involves appraisals of these goals on a number of appraisal dimensions. In this study, we examined how dimensional specificity affects predictions of SWB. Two studies were conducted. In the first, 19 doctoral candidates were interviewed with respect to their personal pr...
Article
The purpose of this research was to examine the relation between state orientation, proneness to boredom and procrastination as proposed in Kuhl's theory of action (Kuhl, 1994a). The findings from two studies are reported. Based on data collected from 143 undergraduate students on the Action Control Scale (Kuhl, 1994b), study 1 revealed arousal, av...

Citations

... Evidence of this can be found in the success of numerous open-ended qualitative studies of the mattering construct (e.g. Marshall & Lambert, 2006;Palmer & Maramba, 2012;Pychyl et al., 2022;Schlossberg, 1989). These been conducted with diverse populations and have typically asked about mattering in a straightforward manner, using the term "mattering" directly or the language related to theorized components such as "reliance", "significance", and "dependence". ...
... In addition, some studies have found that self-efficacy for self-regulated learning is related to individual self-regulation ability and academic efficacy. Students with high self-efficacy for selfregulated learning tend to take positive coping methods when faced with heavy academic tasks [15]. In general, self-control and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, as important internal driving forces of individuals, may moderate the relationship between stress perception and academic procrastination in postgraduate students, thereby reducing the predictive effect of stress perception on academic procrastination. ...
... Те непрекъснато се опитват да изберат най-подходящия пазарен момент, вместо да инвестират част от спестяванията си достатъчно рано -съобразно своята възраст, рисков профил, средносрочна и дългосрочна инвестиционна цел. Чувството на тревожност, предизвикано от FoBO ефекта, е възможно да причини активиране на склонността към прокрастинация -психологическа склонност, която се асоциира с проблем при регулацията на емоциите ни (Sirois & Pychyl, 2016). Вследствие на вторичната активация на прокрастинацията ние можем хронично да прокрастинираме и да се стигне до многогодишно забавяне в инвестирането на нашите спестявания или изцяло да се откажем от тяхното инвестиране, унищожавайки възможността за достоен живот в периода след пенсиониране или пък възможността да оставим достойно наследство на нашите наследници. ...
... Isso pode ter ocorrido porque as intervenções eficazes que utilizam tais abordagens tiveram duração maior (mais de 8 sessões) em comparação com os estudos que não apresentaram resultados significativos, cujas intervenções duraram menos (de 20 minutos a 3 sessões).A análise dos artigos permitiu identificar variáveis que podem afetar os resultados obtidos.Com isso, para orientar a discussão, foram debatidos, em ordem, os seguintes aspectos: possíveis vieses no critério de inclusão, associação entre medidas de análise, presença de follow-up, detalhamento metodológico e tamanho de amostra. Posteriormente, debateu-se as categorias criadas (intervenções terapêuticas, instrucionais e manejo de contingências) destacando estudos considerando os aspectos mencionados.Inicialmente, percebe-se que alguns pesquisadores(Blouin-Hudon & Pychyl, 2016;Lukas & Berking, 2018) fornecem incentivos, como pontuação extra em componentes acadêmicos, aos sujeitos que participaram da intervenção, o que pode influenciar os achados, uma vez que não é pontuado se tal fato impactou nos resultados. Nesse sentido, é recomendável que os estudos acessem outras variáveis, como níveis de motivação, estresse e relacionamento com pares, atentando-se em como estas influenciam o resultado final(Eckert et al., 2018, Grunschel et al., 2018, Wang et al., 2017.Também é aconselhável aos estudos que adotem medidas quantitativas (escalas, inventários e questionários) e as associem a qualitativas (entrevistas), a fim de coletar o máximo de informações acerca da eficácia e possíveis fragilidades da intervenção (Van Eerde e Klingsieck, 2018). ...
... The importance of task-characteristics in instigating procrastination has been recognized (Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995). However, most research has treated procrastination as a stable and pervasive trait (Lay & Silverman, 1996), positively associated with traits like impulsivity, inability to delay gratification, and lack of future-time perspective (Chen & Kruger, 2017;Sirois & Pychyl, 2016a), high neuroticism (Gustavson et al., 2017;Gustavson, Miyake, Hewitt, & Friedman, 2014;Loehlin & Martin, 2014;Watson, 2001), reactance to externally imposed schedules (Malatincová, 2015) and low conscientiousness (Lay, 1997;Lay & Brokenshire, 1997;Lee, Kelly, & Edwards, 2006;Mann, 2016;Steel & Klingsieck, 2016). About 20-25% of people are estimated to be chronic procrastinators (Harriott & Ferrari, 1996). ...
... 8 See Dotson (2014), Fricker (2007, and Manne (2018) as representative recent examples of this framework. 9 See for instance: Cuddy et al. (2007), Feigenson (2016, Fiske et al. (2007), Nadler (2012, Nadler and Mcdonnell (2012), and Rahimi et al. (2016). 10 See, for instance: Buunk and Mussweiler (2001), Gerber et al. (2018), Suls and Wheeler (2000), and Suls et al. (2002). ...
... For example, negative perfectionists often set high standards for themselves. They must constantly adjust their state to respond to external stress events and internal self-criticism, causing them to experience chronic stress, leading to ego depletion [21]. This paper explores the mechanism between negative perfectionism and procrastination under the theoretical framework of ego depletion. ...
... This behavior can occur in different aspects of an individual's life. It often arises within a university context where it is expressed in postponing study-related tasks [42,43]. Procrastination is also prevalent when engaging in health-related behaviors, often resulting in negative consequences for the quality of the task and the person's well-being [42]. ...
... Recently, some scholars further propose that procrastination is not simply an outcome of a lack of self-regulation. Rather, procrastination itself is a maladaptive SRL strategy used by individuals to repair their temporal negative feeling state (Sirois & Pychyl, 2016;Tice & Bratslavsky, 2000) and can be viewed as mis-regulation (Baumeister, Heatherton, & Tice, 1994). That is, when dealing with aversive tasks, individuals' may resort to procrastination as a way to regulate their negative affective state despite the fact that it is a maladaptive and ineffective strategy for long-term goal-attainment (Sirois & Pychyl, 2013). ...
... Committed action is where the "rubber meets the road" of being able to move life in a valued direction. It has been studied with respect to a diverse set of different challenges that people may face and work through, including procrastination (Gagnon et al., 2016), persistence in the face of chronic pain (McCracken, 2013), and behavioral activation and depressive symptomatology (Trindade et al., 2018). A therapist working with an individual on committed action may employ strategies that emerged from a wide range of research in behavior change, including public sharing of goals, setting goals that are reachable and that represent doable incremental steps towards larger goals, gaining social support for commitments, creative values triggers (external cues to remind people of values commitments), activity scheduling, measuring progress, imagining the barriers and benefits to achieving a goal, and so on. ...