Timothy A. Judge's research while affiliated with The Ohio State University and other places

Publications (237)

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Purpose –This paper aims to apply training evaluation to employability development, providing a systematic process to assess employability development programs’ effectiveness under the framework of employability capital resources (Peeters et al., 2019). Design/methodology/approach – The authors demonstrate the training evaluation process within an...
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Based on a two-week daily diary study of 31 leader–follower dyads, this article demonstrates that within-person variation in the leader’s level of state core self-evaluations is associated with within-person variation in the follower’s level of state core self-evaluations. Moreover, we provide tentative evidence that this crossover effect might be...
Chapter
Job satisfaction continues to be one of the most studied job attitudes in Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Judge et al., 2017). Academics and practitioners alike have recognized the worth of job satisfaction, given its usefulness in predicting vital organizational effectiveness outcomes (Judge & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012; Society for Human Re...
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This study examines situational antecedents of transformational leadership by (a) studying the effect of time pressure on the emergence of transformational leadership behaviours, and (b) examining the mediating role of leaders’ state core self-evaluations. Twice per day for 10 consecutive working days, 42 leaders reported on their state core self-e...
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Most, if not all, workplace phenomena are dynamic, meaning that they emerge, evolve, and dissolve over time. Yet, the role of time is commonly overlooked in OB literature. This special issue showcases how a temporal process-oriented lens can be used to study dynamics of workplace phenomena. In this editorial, we define the term dynamics, arguing th...
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Despite being based on the premise of a dynamic interpersonal process, studies on leader–member exchange theory often fail to acknowledge its dyadic and dynamic nature. We discuss how the interpersonal affect dynamics literature—and particularly its focus on the emergence of relationship patterns—may advance research on leader–follower interactions...
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Work psychologists have devoted considerable attention to studying how personality traits can best be conceptualized and assessed in ‘high-stakes’ contexts such as selection or hiring decisions. Lievens argued that two selection methods, Situational Judgement Tests and Assessment Centre exercises, by standardizing and contextualizing personality me...
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It has become common practice to refer to personality traits as being either bright or dark, and a wealth of research has provided support for the effects of both bright traits and dark traits in organizations. This research has largely focused on explaining the downside of dark traits and the upside of bright traits. However, a recent trend has em...
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The most popular definition of job satisfaction was supplied by Locke (1976), who defined it as “… a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences” (p. 1304). There are many possible influences on how favorably one appraises one's job, and numerous theories of job satisfaction have attempted to...
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to elaborate on two mechanisms of self-concordance theory (SCT; Sheldon and Elliot in Pers Soc Psychol 24(5):546, 1998)—goal-specific efficacy and perceived person–organization (PO) fit—as mediators of the relationships between autonomous and controlled goal motives and goal accomplishment and job satisfaction....
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Integrating the leader trait perspective with dominance complementarity theory, we propose team power distance as an important boundary condition for the indirect impact of leader extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness on team performance through a team’s potency beliefs and through relational identification with the leader. Using time-...
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Over the past 100 years, research on job attitudes has improved in the sophistication of methods and in the productive use of theory as a basis for fundamental research into questions of work psychology. Early research incorporated a diversity of methods for measuring potential predictors and outcomes of job attitudes. Over time, methods for statis...
Article
Derived from two theoretical concepts - situation strength and trait activation - we develop and test an interactionist model governing the degree to which five-factor model personality traits are related to job performance. One concept - situation strength - was hypothesized to predict the validities of all of the "Big Five" traits, while the effe...
Chapter
Employees who are satisfied with their jobs tend to perform better, withdraw less, and lead happier and healthier lives. Organizations whose employees are satisfied with their jobs are more likely to be productive and profitable. The single most effective way organizations can achieve a satisfied workforce is to provide their employees with mentall...
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Fundamental to the definition of abusive supervision is the notion that subordinates are often victims of a pattern of mistreatment (Tepper, 2000). However, little research has examined the processes through which such destructive relational patterns emerge. In this study, we draw from and extend the multimotive model of reactions to interpersonal...
Chapter
Defining something as abstract as personality has proven difficult, and the literature contains multiple definitions of the construct.
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As a departure from traditional situational perspectives, researchers have given increased attention to the dispositional basis of attitudes. Recently, Hepler and Albarracín (2013) introduced a construct that they called "dispositional attitude" and provided validity evidence for a new scale-the Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM). Although the DA...
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Introverted individuals may experience and evaluate their dyadic work relationships differently than extraverts. In two studies, we investigated the interaction effect of an individual's and observing peer's personality traits on performance evaluations and reward giving. Results from Study 1 showed that introverted (but not extraverted) peers cons...
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This research identifies four challenges in the field of person–environment fit (PE fit): the multidimensionality of PE fit, the integration of fit theories, the simultaneous effects of the multiple dimensions, and the function of the dimensions. To address those challenges, we develop a theory-driven and systematically validated multidimensional i...
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Research on the gender-wage gap shows equivocal evidence regarding its magnitude, which likely stems from the different wage-related variables researchers include in their calculations. To examine whether pay differentials solely based on gender exist, we focused on the earnings of top performing professionals within a specific occupation to rule o...
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Historically, organizational and personality psychologists have ignored within-individual variation in personality across situations or have treated it as measurement error. However, we conducted a 10-day experience sampling study consistent with whole trait theory (Fleeson, 2012), which conceptualizes personality as a system of stable tendencies a...
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Integrating 2 theoretical perspectives on predictor-criterion relationships, the present study developed and tested a hierarchical framework in which each five-factor model (FFM) personality trait comprises 2 DeYoung, Quilty, and Peterson (2007) facets, which in turn comprise 6 Costa and McCrae (1992) NEO facets. Both theoretical perspectives-the b...
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Extant theorizing concerning person–environment fit (PE fit) is culture bound in that it focuses predominantly on PE fit phenomena in the Western world. We enrich the PE fit literature by exploring the interpretations of PE fit in a prevailing Eastern context (Chinese) using a qualitative study. We interviewed 30 Chinese working adults with diverse...
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Over the years, much attention has been devoted to understanding counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and its related concepts. Less is known, however, about whether certain employees find themselves more than others to be the targets of CWB. To examine this issue, we tested a model that positioned CWB receipt as a function of employees' personali...
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Applied psychological research has been increasingly taking advantage of within people designs to study the dynamic effects of work events and experiences on various outcomes such as attitudes, feelings, and behaviors. Experience Sampling is a methodology that has been shown to be valuable in conducting such research in the field. In this chapter,...
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This 10-day diary study examined emotional exhaustion throughout the workday using conservation of resources and self-determination theories in the context of service work (nursing). Results revealed that the impact of prework emotional exhaustion on postwork emotional exhaustion was moderated by both personality and motivation. Neurotic individual...
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The trait theory of leadership suggests that personality traits influence leader emergence and effectiveness. While initial empirical evidence supports this perspective, the majority of studies have examined the relationship between personality and leadership using self ratings of personality. We believe that this research may underestimate the rel...
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Previous research indicates that core self-evaluations demonstrate incremental predictive validity after controlling for several well-established measures of individual differences. The authors extend this research by examining the incremental predictive validity of core self-evaluations relative to three self-focused individual difference construc...
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Despite conceptual overlap between the transformational–transactional model of leadership and the Ohio State two-factor model (i.e., Consideration and Initiating Structure), no systematic research examines correspondence among these behaviors or estimates their relative validities across a common set of outcomes. The current studies a) examine the...
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Ambition is a commonly mentioned but poorly understood concept in social science research. We sought to contribute to understanding of the concept by developing and testing a model in which ambition is a middle-level trait (Cantor, 1990)-predicted by more distal characteristics but, due to its teleological nature, more proximally situated to predic...
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Deliberation over and relative preference for general or specific (broad or narrow) constructs has long been an important issue in organizational behavior research. In this article, we provide a review of this general issue and some specific recommendations for researchers. We begin by discussing whether the general versus specific issue is an impo...
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In this study we investigated the mediated influence of core self-evaluations (CSE) on employee health problems via job satisfaction and work stress, and the degree to which genetic factors explain these mediated relationships. Based on data obtained from a sample of 594 Swedish twins (114 monozygotic twin pairs and 183 dizygotic twin pairs), conve...
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Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affectiv...
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Abstract Job satisfactions – multidimensional psychologicalre sponses to one’s job – have a long and rich tradition of research in psychology. Comparing and contrasting job attitudes with social attitudes, the present chapter presents various theoretical models of job attitudes. These theoretical approaches give rise to an integrative model which d...
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There is a need for individuals who have the confidence and assertiveness to adapt to and create positive change in contemporary organizations. The concept of core self-evaluations provides one way to conceptualize this requisite positive self-construal. This article begins by covering the concept of core self-evaluations, highlighting what has bee...
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Sex and agreeableness were hypothesized to affect income, such that women and agreeable individuals were hypothesized to earn less than men and less agreeable individuals. Because agreeable men disconfirm (and disagreeable men confirm) conventional gender roles, agreeableness was expected to be more negatively related to income for men (i.e., the p...
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Timothy A Judge and Daniel M Cable, ‘When it comes to pay, do the thin win? The effect of weight on pay for men and women‘, Journal of Applied Psychology 96, no. 1, 2011.
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The current study examines the relationship between an individual's history of changing jobs and future turnover (the so-called “hobo syndrome”). Relying on self-consistency theory, it was hypothesized that the relationship between job mobility history and turnover is moderated by job complexity. Using a sample of 393 employees from two healthcare...
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Cultivation theory suggests that society holds very different body standards for men versus women, and research indicates that the consequences of defying these social norms may not be linear. To test these notions in the employment context, we examined the relationship between weight and income and the degree to which the relationship varies by ge...
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There has been a tremendous growth in research related to happiness and well-being in recent years, and an influential stream of this research has concerned itself with international differences in happiness. Our goal here is to describe some of the reasons happiness research is important to organizational researchers for both theoretical and pract...
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Integrating theories from leadership, emotion management, affectivity, and customer service, this study examines how transformational leadership leads to favourable customer intentions via the mediation of service employees' emotion regulation, job satisfaction, and their service performance and via the moderation of employee negative affectivity....
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Focusing on interpersonal conflict as a work stressor, the authors used a within-subjects research design to examine the effect of conflict episodes on employees' negative affect on the job. The roles of agreeableness and social support in moderating the negative effects of conflict episodes were also examined. A two-week experience-sampling study...
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Abstract: In a daily diary study, the authors investigated the top-down influence of manager empathy on a process model of employee well-being. Sixty employees supervised by one of 13 managers completed a daily survey for 2weeks, producing a total of 436 observations. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that, at the daily level, employees...
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This study examined the mediating role of task complexity in the relationship between core self-evaluations (CSE) and satisfaction. In Study 1, eighty three undergraduate business students worked on a strategic decision-making simulation. The simulated environment enabled us to verify the temporal sequence of variables, use an objective measure of...
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Whereas the motivational aspects of pay are well-documented, the notion that high pay leads to high levels of satisfaction is not without debate. The current study used meta-analysis to estimate the population correlation between pay level and measures of pay and job satisfaction. Cumulating across 115 correlations from 92 independent samples, resu...
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The present study reports the results of a validation of a German version of the Core Self-Evaluations Scale (CSES) and its relationships with career success. Data were collected in three occupational samples to address various aspects of validation. Our results confirm the proposed one-factor structure of the scale as well as convergent, discrimin...
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Two multi-level studies were conducted to examine the effects of attitudes towards coworkers on daily well-being. Study 1 linked daily levels of coworker satisfaction to job satisfaction and life satisfaction and examined the extent to which job satisfaction mediated the relationship between coworker satisfaction and life satisfaction among 33 gove...
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This study tested a structural model explaining the effects of general mental ability on economic, physical, and subjective well-being. A model was proposed that linked general mental ability to well-being using education, unhealthy behaviors (smoking and excessive drinking), occupational prestige, and health as mediating variables. The sample cons...
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The present study linked general mental ability (GMA) to extrinsic career success using a multilevel framework that included time and 3 possible time-based mediators of the GMA-career success relationship. Results, based on a large national sample, revealed that over a 28-year period, GMA affected growth in 2 indicators of extrinsic career success...
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This paper focuses on explaining how individuals set goals on multiple performance episodes, in the context of performance feedback comparing their performance on each episode with their respective goal. The proposed model was tested through a longitudinal study of 493 university students’ actual goals and performance on business school exams. Resu...
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This paper focuses on explaining how individuals set goals on multiple performance episodes, in the context of performance feedback comparing their performance on each episode with their respective goal. The proposed model was tested through a longitudinal study of 493 university students' actual goals and performance on business school exams. Resu...
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The leader trait perspective is perhaps the most venerable intellectual tradition in leadership research. Despite its early prominence in leadership research, it quickly fell out of favor among leadership scholars. Thus, despite recent empirical support for the perspective, conceptual work in the area lags behind other theoretical perspectives. Acc...
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Using trait activation theory as a framework, the authors examined the moderating role of two situational variables-perceptions of organizational politics and perceptions of leader effectiveness-on the relationship between core self-evaluations and job performance. Results from two samples (N = 137 and N = 226) indicate that employee perceptions of...
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The authors combined affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and the transactional stress model (R. S. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) to build and test a model specifying the dynamic, emotion-based relationships among challenge and hindrance stressors and citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. The study employed an experience sampl...
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The authors investigated core self-evaluations and educational attainment as mediating mechanisms for the influence of appearance (physical attractiveness) and intelligence (general mental ability) on income and financial strain. The direct effects of core self-evaluations on financial strain, as well as the indirect effects through income, were al...
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In response to 2 areas for development in the emotional labor literature—(a) the contemporaneous associations between emotional labor and affective reactions, and (b) whether emotional labor might be more personally costly for some employees than others—this study tested a conceptual model explaining the differential effects of deep and surface act...
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Core self-evaluations (CSE) is a broad, integrative trait indicated by self-esteem, locus of control, generalized self-efficacy, and (low) neuroticism (high emotional stability). While only a decade old, research on CSE suggests that it explains much of the overlap among these trait measures, while also predicting many work and other applied outcom...
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In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether core self-evaluations (CSE) serve as an integrative framework for understanding individual differences in coping processes. A meta-analytic review demonstrated that CSEs were associated with fewer perceived stressors, lower strain, less avoidance coping, more problem-solving coping, and were not strong...
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In 2 studies, the authors investigated the popularity of employees at work. They tested a model that positioned personality in the form of core self-evaluations and situational position in the form of communication network centrality as antecedents of popularity and interpersonal citizenship and counterproductive work behaviors received from cowork...
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This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-ind...
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Skepticism regarding the importance of personality traits as predictors of organizational behavior criteria has given way to an appreciation of the broad array of work outcomes predicted by personality. This article considers the effects of the five-factor model (‘Big Five’) personality traits on the following work outcomes: (1) job performance; (2...
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This study related three personality taxonomies—positive affectivity and negative affectivity (PA and NA), the five-factor model (the “Big Five”), and core self-evaluations—to job satisfaction in an integrative test. In a longitudinal design with multi-source data, results indicated that the traits from all three taxonomies generally were significa...
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In this study, the authors linked core self-evaluations to job and work success. Utilizing a dynamic design from participants in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY79), core self-evaluations were hypothesized to predict individuals' intercepts (starting levels of success), and their growth trajectories (slope of individuals' success ov...
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We extend prior research on involvement in employee development activity by including prominent individual difference constructs that have been previously ignored in this area of research. These include two important personality characteristics (conscientiousness and openness to experience), mental ability and goal orientation constructs. We tested...
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Over the past 25 years, numerous researchers have studied the effects of mentoring on work outcomes. However, several reviewers have noted that many of the observed relationships between mentoring and its outcomes are potentially spurious. To summarize this widely dispersed literature, a quantitative research synthesis was conducted focused on esti...
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Based on self-efficacy theory, this field experiment provides a test of the effectiveness of a non-fictitious self-efficacy intervention on bolstering professionals' job attitudes (i.e. job satisfaction, commitment, and intention to quit) and reducing turnover. Seventy-one newcomer and recent insider financial accounting auditors were randomly assi...
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The current study examined interactions between leader – member exchange (LMX) and two dimensions of organizational justice—procedural and interpersonal. Results from a study of full-time employees (n = 283) in a diverse set of job types provide support for the notion that a high quality leader – member relationship (i.e., LMX) enhances the strengt...
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It has been proposed that one's self-esteem is both a cause and a consequence of one's extrinsic career success, but empirical research examining the direction of these effects is lacking. We tested a model which examines the relationships among self-esteem, education, occupational prestige, and income over a span of seven years during early career...
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The present study tested the effect of work-family conflict on emotions and the moderating effects of gender role orientation. On the basis of a multilevel design, the authors found that family-interfering-with- work was positively related to guilt, and gender role orientation interacted with both types of conflict (work-interfering-with-family and...
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Introduction Historically, the study of mood and emotions in organizational settings has not been well-received. Researchers trained in either behaviorism or the rational-actor tradition steered away from the more subjective, emotional side of human experience (Brief & Weiss, 2002; Härtel et al., 2005). Emotions at work were also ignored because th...
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Personality constructs have been demonstrated to be useful for explaining and predicting attitudes, behaviors, performance, and outcomes in organizational settings. Many professionally developed measures of personality constructs display useful levels of criterion-related validity for job performance and its facets. In this response to Morgeson et...
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The authors examined (a) whether core self-evaluations in adolescence and young adulthood predict income at midlife and (b) whether people with positive core self-evaluations are more likely to capitalize on advantages resulting from family socioeconomic status and academic achievement, resulting in even higher levels of income at midcareer. The sa...
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This study investigated the constellation of 2 Big 5 traits—Emotional Stability and Extraversion—in predicting job performance. Two forms of the constellation, one indirect (a statistical interaction) and the other direct (a measure of the intersection between the traits from the Big 5 circumplex), were used to predict job performance. Data were co...
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The current study examines fairness reactions to personnel selection methods and the role of core self-evaluations (CSE) in Greece using two samples of employees (N=158) and students (N=181). Interviews, résumés, and work samples were the best-rated and most favourably appraised methods across students and employees. Students demonstrated more posi...
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This study investigates the role that core self-evaluations (CSE) plays on the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and health functioning. The findings from a sample of 160 undergraduate students revealed that CSE explains incremental variance in physical and psychological health functioning, above and beyond the effect of SWB. The res...
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This article examines the influence of citation impact on scholarship. Citation analysis allows authors to determine how often their work has been cited by others. It has become a performance metric for scholars of the influence and relevance of their work. However, the authors contends there is very little research to understand citation rates. Th...