Tiffany A. Ito's research while affiliated with University of Colorado Boulder and other places

Publications (72)

Article
Objective: The relationship between marijuana and alcohol use among late adolescents was examined as whether marijuana use was related to quantity of alcohol consumed that day, and whether changes in marijuana and alcohol use frequency over 3 years were related. Method: College students (n = 375) reported marijuana and alcohol use for 28 days over...
Article
Anxiety is characterized by sensitivity to negative external and internal information, apparent both in symptoms (e.g., hypervigilance and worry) and neural performance monitoring measures (i.e., feedback- and error-related negativity (FRN and ERN)). Here we examine whether anxiety is associated with persistent neural sensitivity to negative perfor...
Article
John Cacioppo passed away in 2018, leaving a legacy of profound methodological, theoretical, and inferential contributions to social neuroscience. This paper serves as an introduction to the nine articles that comprise this special issue in honor of John Cacioppo’s work in social neuroscience. Although he made many contributions to psychology, here...
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The benefits of belonging for academic performance and persistence have been examined primarily in terms of subjective perceptions of social belonging, but feeling ability belonging, or fit with one’s peers intellectually, is likely also important for academic success. This may particularly be the case in male-dominated fields, where inherent geniu...
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In his many writings, John Cacioppo stressed how neural and physiological events could reveal psychological phenomena. Far from merely “physiologizing” psychology, John advocated social neuroscience in service of theory development and causal inference. These themes can be seen in his ERP work, which he began in the early 1990s to answer basic ques...
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The transition from high school to college is an important choice point for the pursuit of physical science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (pSTEM) career paths, with students in the United States switching from course selection that is proscribed by state graduation requirements in high school to choosing classes and paths of study more...
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Self-to-prototype matching is a strategy of mental comparisons between the self-concept and the typical or “representative” member of a group to make some judgment. Such a process might contribute to interest in pursuing a science career and, relatedly, women’s underrepresentation in physical science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (pSTEM...
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EEG data, and specifically the ERP, provide psychologists with the power to examine quickly occurring cognitive processes at the native temporal resolution at which they occur. Despite the advantages conferred by ERPs to examine processes at different points in time, ERP researchers commonly ignore the trial-to-trial temporal dimension by collapsin...
Article
We tested whether affiliating beer brands with universities enhances the incentive salience of those brands for underage drinkers. In Study 1, 128 undergraduates viewed beer cues while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Results showed that beer cues paired with in-group backgrounds (logos for students’ universities) evoked an enhanced P...
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Social science researchers have increasingly focused on understanding the precursors to gender disparities favoring men in the physical sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics (pSTEM). In the current work, we hypothesized that the core social need to belong explains persistence in pSTEM for women more so than for men. We conducted three...
Article
The present studies tested a model outlining the effects of group gender composition on self- and others' perceptions of women's math ability in a truly interactive setting with groups composed entirely of naïve participants (N = 158 4-person groups across 3 studies). One woman in each group was designated to be the "expert" by having her complete...
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Social categorization has been viewed as necessarily resulting in stereotyping, yet extant research suggests the two processes are differentially sensitive to task manipulations. Here we simultaneously test the degree to which race perception and stereotyping are conditionally automatic. Participants performed a sequential priming task while either...
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Diverse perspectives in science promote innovation and creativity, and represent the needs of a diverse populace. However, many science fields lack gender diversity. Although fewer women than men pursue careers in physical science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (pSTEM), more women than men pursue careers in behavioral science. The curren...
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A number of cultural, social, environmental, and biological factors have been suggested to explain women’s relatively lower representation in physics and other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Given its persistence, the causes of gender disparities are likely to be complex and multiply determined. In this review paper, we d...
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Perceivers rapidly process social category information and form stereotypic impressions of unfamiliar others. However, a goal to individuate a target or to accurately predict their behavior can result in individuated impressions. It is unknown how the combination of both accuracy and individuation goals affects perceptual category processing. To ex...
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The current study examined blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal underlying racial differences in threat detection. During fMRI, participants determined whether pictures of Black or White individuals held weapons. They were instructed to make shoot responses when the picture showed armed individuals but don't shoot responses to unarmed individ...
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Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest...
Article
Opinions about marijuana use in the United States are becoming increasingly favorable, making it important to understand how psychosocial influences impact individuals' use in this context. Here, we used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of initial attitudes, norms, and efficacy to resist use on initial intentions and then to...
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Although performance on laboratory-based implicit bias tasks often is interpreted strictly in terms of the strength of automatic associations, recent evidence suggests that such tasks are influenced by higher-order cognitive control processes, so-called executive functions (EFs). However, extant work in this area has been limited by failure to acco...
Article
Emotional expressions can signal intentions and so possess the power to moderate social inferences. Here, we test whether stereotypes implicitly elicited by a stigmatized racial outgroup member are moderated by facial expression. Participants classified pictures of guns and tools that were primed with pictures of Black and White male faces posing a...
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Reactions to individuals who possess features associated with multiple racial groups may be particularly susceptible to external contextual influences, leading to meaningfully different racial perceptions and judgments in different situations. In the present study, we found that an extrinsic race-label cue not only changed evaluative associations a...
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Two studies examined whether social identity processes, i.e. group identification and social identity threat, amplify the degree to which people attend to social category information in early perception [assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs)]. Participants were presented with faces of Muslims and non-Muslims in an evaluative priming t...
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Event-related potential (ERP) approaches to social cognitive and affective neuroscience (SCAN) are not as widely used as other neuroimaging techniques, yet they offer several unique advantages. In particular, the high temporal resolution of ERP measures of neural activity make them ideally suited for studying the dynamic interplay of rapidly unfold...
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Substance cue reactivity is theorized as playing a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and cr...
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In social neuroscience research, startle eyeblink modification can serve as a marker of emotion, but it is less clear whether it can also serve as a marker of prejudice. In Experiment 1, 30 White students viewed photographs of White and Black targets while the startle eyeblink reflex and facial EMG from the brow and cheek regions were recorded. Pre...
Article
Race is powerful social signal, imbued with a great deal of meaning and capable of affecting a wide range of behaviours and judgements. This review focuses on the use of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to better understand the process and implications of race perception. Research to date repeatedly demonstrates the speed and automaticity with...
Article
A great deal of research indicates that feeling a secure sense of belonging in academic settings is critical to students' achievement. In the current work, we present data collected over multiple semesters of a calculus-based introductory physics class indicating that women feel a lower sense of belonging than men in physics. This finding is import...
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The N170 event-related potential (ERP) component differentiates faces from non-faces, but studies aimed at investigating whether the processing indexed by this component is also sensitive to racial differences among faces have garnered conflicting results. Here, we explore how task affects the influence of race on the N170 among White participants....
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We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compa...
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Evaluative processes have their roots in early evolutionary history, as survival is dependent on an organism’s ability to identify and respond appropriately to positive, rewarding or otherwise salubrious stimuli as well as to negative, noxious, or injurious stimuli. Consequently, evaluative processes are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom and are rep...
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Three studies examined the implicit evaluative associations activated by racially-ambiguous Black-White faces. In the context of both Black and White faces, Study 1 revealed a graded pattern of bias against racially-ambiguous faces that was weaker than the bias to Black faces but stronger than that to White faces. Study 2 showed that significant bi...
Article
To explore the theory that some men experience antigay bias because of a defensive reaction to uncertainties surrounding their own sexuality (cf. Herek, 1987), we conducted a study (n = 132 men) in which we physiologically measured the affective underpinnings of antigay bias while individuals with different levels of self-reported bias viewed sexua...
Chapter
The human ability to perceive faces is particularly impressive when considered in the context of the many different social inferences we perform, as well as the high degree of accuracy and relatively little effort with which they are typically made. Even very brief glimpses at a person's face may allow us to gain information relevant to determining...
Article
Social Neuroscience is a useful tool for elucidating both the psychological and neural mechanisms underlying social behavior. The promise of new theoretical insights was one of the most exciting potential benefits of in-tegrating social and biological approaches. Now that social neuroscience research has progressed, evidence of this promise can now...
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In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, women are outperformed by men in test scores, jeopardizing their success in science-oriented courses and careers. The current study tested the effectiveness of a psychological intervention, called values affirmation, in reducing the gender achievement gap in a college-level intr...
Article
The aim of this study was to explore how attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional medicine influence CAM use in a healthy population, and how health locus of control and exercise further affect CAM use. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of 65 healthy graduate students. Since previou...
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Acupressure is a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment using fingertips to stimulate acupoints on the skin. Although suggested to improve cognitive function, acupressure has not been previously investigated with a controlled design in traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors, who could particularly benefit from a non-pharmacological...
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Prior work at CU-Boulder has shown that a gender gap (difference in male and female performance) exists in both the pre- and post-course conceptual surveys, despite the use of interactive engagement techniques [Kost, et al., PRST-PER 5, 010101]. A potential explanation for this persistent gap is that stereotype threat, the fear of confirming a ster...
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Behavioral analyses are a natural choice for understanding the wide-ranging behavioral consequences of racial stereotyping and prejudice. However, studies using neuroimaging and electrophysiological research have recently considered the neural mechanisms that underlie racial categorization and the activation and application of racial stereotypes an...
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Past research on racial perception has often focused on responses from White participants, making it difficult to determine the role of perceiver race in the perception of others. Similarly, studies examining perceptions of individuals whose racial category membership is unclear have not systematically examined responses from non-Whites. This was a...
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the time course of race and expression processing to determine how these cues influence early perceptual as well as explicit categorization judgments. Despite their importance in social perception, little research has examined how social category information and emotional expression are processed over...
Article
Two studies examined early perceptual processing and explicit racial categorization of racially ambiguous faces. Participants viewed racially ambiguous faces as well as faces of Whites, Asians, and Blacks while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Initial perceptual processes, indexed by ERP components occurring within 200 ms of sti...
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Two studies were conducted to examine whether facial feedback can modulate implicit racial bias as assessed by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants were surreptitiously induced to smile through holding a pencil in their mouth while viewing photographs of unfamiliar Black or White males or performed no somatic configuration while viewin...
Article
Participants played a videogame in which they were required to make speeded shoot/don’t-shoot decisions in response to armed and unarmed targets, half of whom were Black, half of whom were White. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), recorded during the game, assessed attentional processes related to target race and object type. Early ERP componen...
Article
The extent to which foods differ in their likelihood of eliciting ambivalent attitudes and the effect of dietary restraint on these attitudes was investigated. Positive and negative attitudes toward 5 categories of food were collected from 82 female undergraduates. Two measures of restrained eating, the Restraint Scale and the Drive for Thinness su...
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In two experiments, event-related potentials were used to examine the effects of attentional focus on the processing of race and gender cues from faces. When faces were still the focal stimuli, the processing of the faces at a level deeper than the social category by requiring a personality judgment resulted in early attention to race and gender, w...
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The positivity offset refers to a tendency for the positive motivational system to respond more than the negative motivation system at low levels of evaluative input. The negativity bias refers to a tendency for the negative motivational system to respond more intensely than the positive motivational system when evaluative input increases. While th...
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Event-related potentials were used to track social perception processes associated with viewing faces of racial ingroup and outgroup members. Activity associated with three distinct processes was detected. First, peaking at approximately 170 ms, faces were distinguished from nonface stimuli. Second, peaking at approximately 250 ms, ingroup members...
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The degree to which perceivers automatically attend to and encode social category information was investigated. Event-related brain potentials were used to assess attentional and working-memory processes on-line as participants were presented with pictures of Black and White males and females. The authors found that attention was preferentially dir...
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Previous studies of the effects of attention on prepulse inhibition (PPI) have not accounted for the effects of attention on control (i.e. pulse alone) trials. In addition, there have been no studies of the effects of alcohol on the attentional modulation of PPI, even though alcohol putatively influences attentional mechanisms. The objective of the...
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This paper provides an overview of recent research on alcohol and aggression. We examine major experimental laboratory paradigms used in research on the social factors and psychological processes that elicit aggression among healthy persons under conditions of acute alcohol intoxication and sobriety. Issues concerning the validity of such experimen...
Article
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which provide on-line measures of categorization processes, were used to assess the implicit and explicit categorization of stimuli along evaluative (positive and negative) and nonevaluative (people and no-people) dimensions. Participants were exposed to stimuli that simultaneously varied along both dimensions...
Article
Recent studies have shown that the late positive component of the event-related-potential (ERP) is enhanced for emotional pictures, presented in an oddball paradigm, evaluated as distant from an established affective context. In other research, with context-free, random presentation, affectively intense pictures (pleasant and unpleasant) prompted s...
Article
Recent studies have shown that the late positive component of the event-related-potential (ERP) is enhanced for emotional pictures, presented in an oddball paradigm, evaluated as distant from an established affective context. In other research, with context-free, random presentation, affectively intense pictures (pleasant and unpleasant) prompted s...
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Negative information tends to influence evaluations more strongly than comparably extreme positive information. To test whether this negativity bias operates at the evaluative categorization stage, the authors recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which are more sensitive to the evaluative categorization than the response output stage, as...
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Most bipolar models of affective processing in social psychology assume that positive and negative valent processes are represented along a single continuum that rangesfrom very positive to very negative. Recent research has raised the possibility, however, that the motivational systems for positive/approach and negative/defensive valent processing...
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Facial muscle activity and self-reports were examined for racial bias in 3 studies. In the first 2 experiments, While participants imagined cooperating with a Black or White partner. Experiment 1 manipulated reward structure in the context of cooperating with a deficient partner. Experiment 2 manipulated partner deficiency and willingness to expend...
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The authors conducted a meta-analysis of 49 studies to investigate 2 explanations of how alcohol increases aggression by decreasing sensitivity to cues that inhibit it. Both the level of anxiety and inhibition conflict moderated the difference between the aggressive behavior of sober and intoxicated participants, but neither level adequately accoun...
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The psychophysiological evidence on utility has several implications. The spatial topography of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) suggests that the computation of utility is performed by neural sources that are at least partially independent of those underlying discriminative appraisals. ERP and cortical asymmetry data suggest distinctive curre...
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The study of implicit attitudes by social psychologists has relied heavily on the behavioral methods of social cognition, including response competition (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), semantic (Wittenbrink, Judd, & Park, 1997) and evaluative (Fazio, Jackson, Dunton, & Williams, 1995) priming, and topographical learning (Crawford & Cacioppo,...

Citations

... 45 For same-day co-use, several papers found that more alcohol was consumed on days marijuana was also used relative to days that only alcohol was used. [46][47][48] Between-person findings in these papers provided some evidence that greater average alcohol intake was associated with more frequent SAM use 32 and less frequent same-day co-use. 46,47 Regarding daily associations between SAM use and intoxication, one paper found that young adults reported greater subjective intoxication on SAM use days as compared to both alcohol-only and marijuana-only use days, 49 whereas another found no differences in level of subjective intoxication on SAM use days as compared to both alcohol-only and marijuana-only use days. ...
... G eneralized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders in adolescents (Beesdo et al. 2009;Merikangas et al. 2010) and is characterized by uncontrollable, diffuse anxiety and numerous somatic (Crawley et al. 2014) and cognitive symptoms, as well as related functional impairment (Ramsawh et al. 2010). The cognitive symptoms of GAD include executive functioning deficits such as working memory, monitoring, attention bias, planning, and task-switching difficulties (Moran 2016;Sylvester et al. 2016;Castagna et al. 2019;Tobias and Ito 2021). These broad-ranging impairments are likely linked to educational underachievement (Woodward and Fergusson 2001) and strained peer and family relationships common in anxious youth (Tonge et al. 2020). ...
... Within research in the past decades, alcohol intoxication has increased the likelihood of eliciting aggressive attitudes and perceiving aggression in others, as well as increasing the perceived severity of aggressive behavior (e.g., Bushman & Cooper, 1990;Clements & Schumacher, 2010;Curran, 2006;Hendler et al., 2013;Ito et al., 1996;Ogle & Miller, 2004;see Giancola, 2013, for a summary). In laboratory studies, intoxicated men have been shown to perceive behavior as more hostile, display a greater degree of aggression-oriented goal selection, and utilize more severe aggressive responses more frequently, compared with sober men and with intoxicated and sober women (Ogle & Miller, 2004). ...
... It appears on Maslow's original hierarchical set of five human needs (Maslow, 1973) described as a need for people "to feel like they belong to and are accepted in a social group." Much has been written about social belonging since then (Aguilar et al., 2014;Banchefsky et al., 2019;Mahar et al., 2013;Yeager & Walton, 2011), and research has shown that students who feel they belong have more motivation and engagement along with greater academic success (Trujillo & Tanner, 2014, Hurtado & Carter, 1997, Binning et al., 2020, Walton & Carr, 2012. ...
... Stereotype activation occurs rapidly and involves multiple cognitive processes [8,9,43,70,71]. Due to high temporal resolution (milliseconds), event-related potential (ERP) is optimal for studying the progress of stereotype activation as it unfolds in real-time [72,73]. The various ERP components are also sensitive to different types of cognitive processes, enabling researchers to disentangle the presence and impact of these processes. ...
... A fourth major barrier that can reduce URM students' interest in STEM and lead to dropout is low levels of social connectedness and what researchers have called "belongingness": the perception of acceptance, connection, and social support one receives as well as feelings of mattering and being valued and respected by the community (Baumeister and Leary, 1995;Stachl and Baranger, 2020). A strong connection to one's environment, via positive and frequent interactions with diverse peers, is associated with greater persistence and academic achievement (Walton and Cohen, 2007;Zaniewski and Reinholz, 2016;Ito and McPherson, 2018) and having a sense of belonging is a known indicator for STEM retention (Kim and Sinatra, 2018;Robnett et al., 2018). Research indicates that URM students, particularly at PWIs, experience challenges connecting socially and culturally with the overall campus community, and report greater feelings of isolation than White students (Strayhorn, 2009). ...
... Though no work, to our knowledge, has focused on lay beliefs regarding the scientific process, research examining stereotypes about scientists has found that scientists are perceived as high in agency but low in communion (Brown et al. 2018;Diekman et al. 2011;McPherson, Park, and Ito 2018). 1 Prior research in marketing has demonstrated that warmth and competence, identified as the two broad categories under which most stereotypes about people and groups fall (Cuddy et al. 2008), apply not only to person perception but also to nonhuman entities like organizations (Aaker et al. 2010;Lee, Bolton, and Winterich 2017). We therefore suspect that the scientific process is likely perceived similarly to the scientists working in that domain, such that the scientific process will be perceived as cold, yet competent. ...
... The application of MLM to ERPs provides the capability to go beyond the averaged ERP by examining ERP responses to specific stimuli and events or to the individual-trial level. For example, MLM can examine changes in single-trial ERPs across the course of paradigm (e.g., Berry et al., 2019;Brush et al., 2018;Volpert-Esmond et al., 2018), explore mean-variance relationships of ERP scores within persons (Clayson et al., in press), and model relationships with behavioral performance or other ERPs (Von Gunten et al., 2018). The use of the MLM approaches affords precision in modeling effects and avoids some limitations of repeated measurements analyses of variance (ANOVA), and following the recommended reporting practices outlined by will provide a transparent and replicable analysis for the scientific community. ...
... In contrast, the event-related potential (ERP) technique, derived from the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG), reflects the phasic activity across different neuronal populations following stimulus presentation (Luck and Kappenman, 2017). Studies using the ERP technique assure us that alcohol cue-related activation and dopamine release in nodes of the IS circuit using fMRI-BOLD and PET-raclopride, respectively, reflect alcohol cue-related activation of relevant neuronal populations in a variety of different stimulus presentation paradigms (Bailey and Bartholow, 2016;Bartholow et al., 2018Bartholow et al., , 2010Dickter et al., 2014;Fleming and Bartholow, 2014;Herrmann et al., 2001;Kroczek et al., 2018;Martinovic et al., 2014;Martins et al., 2019;Petit et al., 2012;Ryerson et al., 2017;Shin et al., 2010). ...
... The study found that although boys had higher average scores in the dimensions of self-efficacy, computational thinking, and task value than did girls, there was no significant difference, which is consistent with the results of previous studies (Luo et al., 2021a;Master et al., 2017;Noh & Lee, 2020). However, some scholars have conducted experiments and found gender differences between boys and girls in the context of STEM activities (Lewis et al., 2017;Stringer et al., 2019). A reason for this difference may be differences in students' grades and majors. ...