Thoralf M. Sundt's research while affiliated with Rochester Clinical Research and other places

Publications (164)

Article
Ninety-three endarterectomies for carotid stenosis were monitored with cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements, and 113 with both CBF measurements and a continuous electroencephalogram (EEG). Significant CBF increase occurred only when carotid endarterectomy was for a stenosis greater than 90%. A high correlation between CBF and EEG indicated when a...
Chapter
The anatomic distribution of cerebral blood flow has been investigated extensively over the past several decades and has been found to be homogenetic or heterogenetic depending upon the methodology used. Blood flow, as determined by autoradiography, has shown a heterogenous distribution in various animal studies. This technique is limited to only o...
Article
On June 30, Mrs. Jean Lawe will step down as Managing Editor of the Journal of Neurosurgery. She has worked on the Journal since 1965, when Dr. Louise Eisenhardt retired as the first Editor. Since that time the Journal has grown in size and circulation, and production has become fully computerized. In her valedictory, Mrs. Lawe summarizes her years...
Article
This study was undertaken to examine further the effects of hypocapnia and the contribution of hypotension to the haemodynamic consequences of cerebral arteriovenous fistula ablation in the rat chronic carotid-jugular fistula model. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the (14)C-iodoantipyrine technique under halothane anaesthesia 12...
Article
With reference to vascular malformations, the term cavernous has architectural as well as histologic connotations. It refers to a compact pattern of growth wherein no intervening brain parenchyma is evident, as well as to the histological nature of the vessels, which are hyaline and collagenous in appearance, lacking the microscopic features of art...
Article
Twenty-three cases of transitional cavernous aneurysms are presented. Aneurysms of this subgroup (of a total of 118 cases of cavernous sinus aneurysms) arise entirely from within the cavernous sinus but project into the extracavernous intradural subarachnoid space, thus resembling other intracranial aneurysms in their increased risk of rupture. Six...
Article
Full-text available
Arteriovenous (AV) fistulas of cerebral and spinal arteries are characterized angiographically by an immediate AV transition without a capillary bed or "nidus" as occurs in AV malformations (AVM's). The clinical presentation, morphology, radiology, and treatment of 12 patients with cerebral AV fistulas and of 12 patients with spinal AV fistulas are...
Article
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of referral bias on survival in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The characteristics of 49 patients with aneurysmal SAH from a single community were compared with those of 328 patients referred from outside the community, all treated in the same medical care setting. In addition, refe...
Article
Full-text available
An alternative theory is proposed to explain the brain edema and hemorrhage that may occur after resection of high-flow intracerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM's). This theory, termed "occlusive hyperemia," is based on a retrospective analysis of operative dictations along with postoperative imaging studies (191 angiograms and 273 computeriz...
Article
A series of 280 cases of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) treated surgically between June, 1970, and June, 1989, is reviewed with particular focus on the preoperative seizure history and follow-up seizure status. Follow-up evaluation (mean duration 7.5 years) was achieved in 98% of cases and was accomplished through re-examinations, tel...
Article
High-energy phosphate levels were measured in the canine cerebral artery during chronic vasospasm. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and vasospasm were induced by percutaneous injections of autologous venous blood into the cisterna magna. Narrowing of the artery was confirmed by angiography 7 days later. Levels of adenosine phosphates (adenosine triphosphate...
Article
To evaluate the prognostic importance of coronary artery disease among patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, 177 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota who underwent carotid endarterectomy during the period 1970 through 1988 were followed up to July 1, 1989. Patients were stratified as to the presence (n = 64) or absence (n = 93) of overt cor...
Article
Endothelium-dependent relaxations are inhibited during chronic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in the canine basilar artery, although the luminal release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is maintained. The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying the impaired vascular reactivity and in particular whether the loss of...
Article
Atherosclerotic plaques that develop in the extracranial circulation are usually extensively vascularized by vasa vasorum. However, human vasa vasorum associated with intracranial atherosclerosis has not been adequately addressed. Anterior and posterior circulation specimens from fresh autopsy material were studied under the magnification of a diss...
Article
In a series of 252 consecutive patients who underwent 282 carotid endarterectomies, we conducted clinical and angiographic follow-up for 2 to 6 years (mean, 3.2 years). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was done postoperatively in 95% of cases. Clinical follow-up was achieved in 97% of cases, and DSA follow-up was obtained in 66% of cases. The...
Article
Cerebral capillaries in cats subjected to variations in carbon dioxide tensions were studied using carbon black perfusion fixation. Five animals each were grouped into hypocapnia, normocapnia, and hypercapnia and 500 cortical, 250 white matter and 250 caudate nucleus capillaries per group were analyzed at 400 x magnification. Capillary diameters we...
Article
Because of a suspicion that intraoperative penicillin antibiotics might be causing early postoperative seizures in craniotomy patients, a deliberate effort was initiated in 1987 to avoid these agents in favor of nonpenicillin antibiotics. This permitted a retrospective comparison of the incidence of early postoperative seizures in craniotomy patien...
Article
The dihydropyridine calcium antagonists nimodipine (NMD), PN200-110, and nicardipine were compared with phenytoin (PHT) as potential anticonvulsants in electrocortical shock (ECS)-induced seizures in the white New Zealand rabbit. Before treatment, seizure duration ranged from 43.8 ± 5.1 to 49.6 ± 5.2 s with an ECS stimulus of 10-V, 100-Hz, 0.1-ms p...
Article
The effects of the novel dihydronaphthyridine Ca2+ antagonist CI-951 on focal cerebral ischemia were assessed during MCA occlusion in 30 white New Zealand rabbits under 1.0% halothane anesthesia. In vivo brain pHi and focal CBF were measured with umbelliferone fluorescence. Baseline normocapnic brain pHi and CBF were 7.02 +/- 0.02 and 48.4 +/- 2.9...
Article
The management of the case of a 9-year-old boy with progressive cognitive impairment due to arteriovenous fistulae at the apex of the inferior sagittal sinus is reported. This represents a unique location for an extraparenchymal deep central arteriovenous malformation. The patient underwent staged ablation of the lesion by surgery. The postoperativ...
Article
Perturbations in cerebral hemodynamics at the time of ablation of an arteriovenous shunt have been regarded as important in the pathogenesis of swelling and hemorrhage complicating resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). A carotid-jugular fistula model in the rat had previously been investigated and found to simulate in part the nonhemorrh...
Article
A model of a carotid-jugular fistula in the rat was created such that the arterial feeding vessel is derived from the intracranial arterial circulation and the venous drainage communicates with a major intracranial venous drainage system. This fistula was created in 28 rats on the right side with an additional 11 rats designed as controls with a ri...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the hypotheses that structural stiffening of the arterial wall contributes to chronic cerebral vasospasm, and that alteration in properties of smooth muscle takes place after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage and subsequent chronic vasospasm were induced in dogs by two cisternal injectio...
Article
Three cases of large cerebral arteriovenous fistulae are presented in which surgical ablation was complicated by brain swelling from hyperperfusion breakthrough believed to be caused by acute intraoperative hypoperfusion superimposed on chronic preoperative hypoperfusion. On the basis of these cases, experimental data, and theoretical consideration...
Article
A retrospective angiographic analysis was designed to extrapolate the frequency of angiographically defined asymptomatic intracranial aneurysms in the anterior circulation from a relatively unbiased clinical series. A total of 9295 angiograms were reviewed from January, 1980, to January, 1987, and, based on these, 278 patients with minimal bias for...
Article
In this study, 24 aneurysms occurring in 23 patients under the age of 18 years (mean 12 years) are analyzed. The male:female ratio was 2.8:1, and the youngest patient was 3 months old. Mycotic lesions and those associated with other vascular malformations were excluded. Forty-two percent of the aneurysms were located in the posterior circulation, a...
Article
Three cases are described of infants who developed malignant brain swelling (and in one case hemorrhage) after surgery for vein of Galen malformations. The cause for the brain swelling was felt to be due to hyperperfusion, or the "normal perfusion pressure breakthrough" syndrome. Although well-described for cerebral parenchymal arteriovenous malfor...
Article
The natural history of postirradiation extracranial cerebrovascular disease is uncertain. Previous reported cases spanning 20 years of carotid surgery are difficult to evaluate, because patients may sometimes have unspecified symptoms, physical examinations, postoperative results, and follow-up. Also, the evolution of carotid surgery over the past...
Article
: The natural history of postirradiation extracranial cerebrovascular disease is uncertain. Previous reported cases spanning 20 years of carotid surgery are difficult to evaluate, because patients may sometimes have unspecified symptoms, physical examinations, postoperative results, and follow-up. Also, the evolution of carotid surgery over the pas...
Article
The alterations in metabolism and cerebral blood flow that occur following transient focal ischemia were studied in rabbits anesthetized with halothane and subjected to transient occlusion of an M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The parameters measured included intracellular brain pH and focal cortical blood flow (fCBF)--assessed by t...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of the loss of endothelium-dependent relaxation observed in chronic cerebral vasospasm. A bioassay system was developed to measure the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) from canine basilar arteries. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was induced in dogs by two injections of autolog...
Chapter
In the last decade a wealth of information has emerged regarding the pivotal role of Ca2+ in neuronal function. It is also apparent that abnormal calcium metabolism will initiate pathophysiological states leading to neuronal injury. Considering that extracellular calcium concentration is approximately 10−3 versus an intracellular concentration of 1...
Article
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the major complications following carotid endarterectomy. In the patient population undergoing this type of surgery, cardiac symptoms are common. There is evidence that isoflurane can modify myocardial flow in compromised coronary circulation states to produce an experimentally demonstrable 'steal' phenomenon. T...
Article
The management results in 244 patients admitted to one institution within 3 days of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from January, 1979, to December, 1985, were analyzed with respect to the timing of surgical intervention. Twenty-six patients died prior to surgery. Patients surviving to surgery were divided into three groups according to th...
Article
To investigate the alteration of endothelium-dependent responses in chronic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), experiments were carried out in the double-hemorrhage canine model. After the presence of vasospasm was confirmed by cerebral angiography on Days 0 and 7, pharmacological studies on the basilar artery were conducted in vitro on...
Article
Between 1974 and 1982, an anastomosis between a pedicle of the superficial temporal artery (STA) and a cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was performed in 163 carotid systems in 157 patients for internal carotid artery occlusion in whom postoperative angiograms were available for analysis. The angiographic opacification of the arte...
Article
We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy at our institution during the period from January 1970 through December 1986 to determine the frequency of postoperative occlusions and the role of heparin-induced thrombosis in patients with such occlusions. After 2,527 carotid endarterectomies, a total of 19 occlusions o...
Article
A series of 14 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage after carotid endarterectomy is reviewed. This complication occurred in 0.6% of 2362 consecutive carotid endarterectomies performed at the Mayo Clinic from 1972 through 1986. All hemorrhages occurred within the first 2 weeks after operation and were ipsilateral to the side of the operation. Eigh...
Article
Nineteen patients experienced progressive or episodic weakness of one lower extremity caused by severe stenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery. The majority of patients (84.2%) had occlusion or severe stenosis at the origin. Based on clinical profiles, angiographic findings, and cerebral blood flow patterns, we concluded that the patho...
Chapter
This chapter is based on a survey of 46 institutions and 3,328 carotid endarterectomies performed in the year 1981. It was a retrospective study sponsored by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. The purpose of this audit was to determine the relative safety of carotid endarterectomy in institutions of various sizes and academic affili...
Article
Nimodipine, a dihydropyridine that interacts with a Ca++ channel-associated binding site, when delivered (30 to 150 micrograms/kg) intra-arterially (ia) to enflurane-anesthetized cats, produced a dose-dependent suppression of seizures evoked by pentylenetetrazol. A comparable suppression was produced by clonazepam (1 to 30 micrograms/kg, ia). Pheny...
Article
Data from the records of patients who underwent 2223 carotid endarterectomies at the Mayo Clinic between January 1, 1972, and December 31, 1985, were abstracted to compare the effects of isoflurane, enflurane, and halothane on the critical cerebral blood flow (CBF) (i.e., the CBF below which the majority of patients develop EEG ischemic changes wit...
Article
Mounting evidence suggests that chronic cerebral vasospasm may be linked to the inflammatory response that follows subarachnoid hemorrhage. Twenty-one patients judged to be at high risk for vasospasm because of either poor admitting grade or a large amount of subarachnoid blood shown by computed tomography were treated with a course of high dose me...
Article
: Mounting evidence suggests that chronic cerebral vasospasm may be linked to the inflammatory response that follows subarachnoid hemorrhage. Twenty-one patients judged to be at high risk for vasospasm because of either poor admitting grade or a large amount of subarachnoid blood shown by computed tomography were treated with a course of high dose...
Article
Based on accumulating evidence of the role of xanthine oxidase (XO) in generating oxygen free radicals and causing tissue damage during ischemia, we examined the possible role of XO in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). After inducing SAH in dogs by two autologous blood injections 2 days apart, chronic vasos...
Article
Neurologic deficits evident when patients initially awaken from surgery are generally due to intraoperative embolization or inadequate cerebral protection in patients with marginal cerebral perfusion; neurologic deficits occurring in the immediate postoperative period are usually related to acute carotid occlusion or embolization. However, in a sma...
Article
Full-text available
We report that regional CBF determined by the initial slope technique using 133Xe and 85Kr in cats and rabbits can be significantly influenced by the size of the field of measurement. The clearance curves of umbelliferone, a lipid-soluble intracellular pH fluorescent indicator, from a visually avascular 80-micron field were used to cross-correlate...
Article
Full-text available
A prospective evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) (ipsilateral middle cerebral artery distribution) was determined using a 133Xe clearance technique in 31 ASA P.S. II-III patients anesthetized with isoflurane-50% N2O in O2 for carotid endarterectomy. Each patient was monitored with 16-channel EEG throughout anesthesia and surgery. Cri...
Article
The international, multicenter, randomized trial of extracranial–intracranial arterial anastomoses (EC–IC bypass)1 , 2 has been applauded and cited as a standard for future studies of this type.3 The eminence of the primary investigators, the multiple statistical analyses to which the data were submitted, and the eloquence of the presentation have...
Article
Experience in cardiovascular and peripheral vascular surgery with saphenous vein bypass conduits is reviewed. It is clear that meticulous technique and graft preparation are crucial to short-term and long-term patency. The risk of early thrombosis is related to damage to the graft 's native intima, graft flow, and coagulability of the patient 's bl...
Article
The authors report the results of a long-term follow-up study of 130 patients with 161 unruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms. Their findings suggest that unruptured saccular aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter have a very low probability of subsequent rupture. The mean diameter of the aneurysms that subsequently ruptured was 21.3 mm, compare...
Article
Intracellular brain pH, cortical blood flow (CBF), and electrocorticograms were recorded in regions of severe and moderate ischemia in 10 control rabbits and 10 rabbits given mannitol, 1 gm/kg, after occlusion of a major branch of the middle cerebral artery. Pooling the data from all 20 animals, preocclusion CBF was 46.4 +/- 3.6 ml/100 gm/min and i...
Article
Although approximately 500,000 patients suffer from a stroke each year in the United States, treatment of these patients to date has consisted primarily of prevention, supportive measures, and rehabilitation. The modification of experimental cerebral infarction by new pharmacologic agents, along with encouraging results from the restoration of bloo...
Article
Uric acid (UA) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in 15 dogs and the entrance and effect of allopurinol, a specific inhibitor of enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO), in brain were measured by sampling CSF in dogs. Allopurinol was administered intravenously 25 mg/kg every 6 h for 48 h. Drug level as well as UA level in plasma and CSF was mea...
Article
The adverse effect of a minimal cerebral blood flow (CBF) in models of global ischemia has been noted by many investigators. One factor believed important in this situation is the level of blood glucose, since a continued supply of this metabolite results in increased tissue lactate, decreased brain pH, and increased cell damage. The authors have e...
Article
Nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker with high affinity for central dihydropyridine Ca2+ channels, produced a dose-dependent suppression of electrically induced seizures in the rabbit. Verapamil, a diphenylalkylamine which acts at peripheral Ca2+ channels, was ineffective. Phenytoin was less effective than nimodipine. These results suggest that ca...
Article
The authors report their experience with the use of saphenous vein bypass grafts for treating advanced occlusive disease in the posterior circulation (77 patients, all of whom had failed medical management and showed severe ischemic symptoms), deteriorating patients with giant aneurysms of the posterior circulation (nine patients), progressive isch...
Article
The authors have designed a miniclip and a microclip for occlusion of small perforating vessels deep in the operative wound. These clips are intended for permanent occlusion but may be for temporary hemostasis.
Article
A multicenter retrospective audit of carotid endarterectomies performed during 1981 was completed with 46 institutions contributing 3,328 cases. Overall, there was a 2.5% risk of transient neurological dysfunction following surgery and a 6% risk of stroke or death. The intra-institutional combined major morbidity and mortality varied from 21% to 0....
Article
Intracellular brain pH, cortical blood flow, and electroencephalograms (EEG's) were recorded in severely and moderately ischemic regions in 10 control and 10 nimodipine-treated rabbits prior to and following major branch occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Preocclusion cortical blood flow was 51 ml/100 gm/min and intracellular brain pH w...
Article
Current research suggests that Ca2+ flux into the neuron may be a critical factor in the genesis of seizures. We report herein the influence of nimodipine, a selective central nervous system calcium channel blocker, in 60 rabbits with seizures that had been induced through ischemia, postischemia reperfusion, pentylenetetrazol, and bicuculline. In 3...
Article
Carotid body tumors are a rare but potentially difficult surgical entity. Their pathology, physiology, and natural history are reviewed along with surgical results reported in the literature. A surgical approach for removal of these tumors is presented which differs significantly from the recommended techniques in that emphasis is placed on intraop...
Article
Among 1992 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy from January 1972 through December 1984, 57 operations were performed in 51 patients for recurrent carotid stenosis. Thirty-four of these cases had undergone initial surgery at this institution while 23 had endarterectomy elsewhere. Fifty-two of the 57 operations were for symptomatic disease whi...
Article
In pentobarbital-anesthetized cats, over arterial paCO2 values of 20-60 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow (CBF, Xenon) and cardiac output (CO, thermal dilution) show positively inflicted curves with slopes significantly greater than zero. To examine the role of the locus coeruleus (LC) in these responses, bilateral stereotactic thermo-coagulation lesions...
Article
Full-text available
Intracellular brain pH and indicator tissue perfusion were measured with a lipid-soluble, pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator in 10 rabbits who had either severe or moderate focal ischemia depending on whether the middle cerebral artery was occluded at its main trunk or bifurcation. Preocclusion tissue indicator perfusion was 50.1 ml/100 g/min and i...
Article
The relative risk of shunting versus not shunting during carotid endarterectomy was analyzed retrospectively in 1935 cases undergoing carotid endarterectomy for carotid ulcerative stenosis. The need for shunting was based on a correlation between electroencephalographic changes and a fall in cerebral blood flow below the critical level required for...
Article
Results, complications, and operative techniques of the surgical management of 20 aneurysms of the distal extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) in 19 patients are reviewed. The proximity of these aneurysms to the styloid process is not considered as a chance occurrence, and the possibility is raised that these lesions are related to trauma fro...
Article
Among 1992 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy from January 1972 through December 1984, 57 operations were performed in 51 patients for recurrent carotid stenosis. Thirty-four of these cases had undergone initial surgery at this institution while 23 had endarterectomy elsewhere. Fifty-two of the 57 operations were for symptomatic disease whi...
Article
Eighty-six consecutive patients in 1982 underwent 99 endarterectomies and routine postoperative digital subtraction angiography. Ten vessels were closed primarily and 89 with a patch graft. Minor morbidity was 2%, major morbidity 0%, and mortality 1%, but these varied according to the patient's preoperative medical and neurological function and ang...
Article
We studied 36 patients (21 women and 15 men) with spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid arteries. The ages of these patients ranged from 21 to 63 years. Focal unilateral headache was the most common symptom. Other common clinical manifestations (in decreasing order of frequency) included focal cerebral ischemic symptoms, oculosympathetic p...
Article
Emergency revascularization procedures for patients with acute stroke are controversial. Thirty-four patients with acute internal carotid artery occlusion documented at the time of emergency endarterectomy were analyzed. Before operation, all these patients had profound neurological deficits including hemiplegia and aphasia. There was a 94% success...
Article
A combination of the Sundt-Kees reinforcing aneurysm clip applied to a Drake aneurysm clip in a piggyback fashion was studied for possible defects due to corrosion and or tissue toxicity. These two clips, which are made of similar metal (301 stainless steel), showed little or no defects when immersed in 5% saline or when implanted in rats for 6 mon...