Thomas W. Crowther's research while affiliated with Hochschule für Technik Zürich and other places

Publications (17)

Article
Agricultural diversification is proposed as a solution to achieve food security and sustainability in intensified agriculture, but a large-scale policy implementation is lacking. As a leading agricultural producer, the integration of diversification in major policies in China could provide an important example of how to facilitate a sustainable foo...
Preprint
Background: Although it is well known that microbial communities are extremely diverse, how and why levels of biodiversity are generated and maintained are enduring ecological questions. Janzen’s mountain passes hypothesis assumes that the relatively stable climate regimes of tropical mountains means that species have narrower ranges than montane r...
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Most trees on Earth form a symbiosis with either arbuscular mycorrhizal or ectomycorrhizal fungi. By forming common mycorrhizal networks, actively modifying the soil environment and other ecological mechanisms, these contrasting symbioses may generate positive feedbacks that favour their own mycorrhizal strategy (that is, the con-mycorrhizal strate...
Article
1. Belowground microbial communities drive some of Earth’s largest biogeochemical fluxes, yet they represent a major source of uncertainty in global biogeochemical models. This review synthesizes recent advances in trait‐based soil carbon modeling in order to identify how empirical observations of microbial traits can inform the next generation of...
Preprint
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Climate change is causing shifts in the growing seasons of plants1,2, affecting species performance and interactions3,4 as well as global carbon, water and nutrient cycles5,6. How the timing of autumn leaf senescence in extra-tropical forests will change remains unclear because of the complex seasonal interaction of climate warming, earlier and enh...
Preprint
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Agricultural diversification of intensified farming systems is being proposed as a solution for achieving both food security and agricultural sustainability, but so far there has been little implementation of such policy at a larger scale. In China, major policies promote the “High-standard farmland consolidation” (HSFC) strategy to improve product...
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Most tree species predominantly associate with a single type of mycorrhizal fungi, which can differentially affect plant nutrient acquisition and biogeochemical cycling. Uncertainties in mycorrhizal distributions are non-trivial and current estimates disagree in up to 50% over 40% of the land area, including tropical forests. Remote sensing capabil...
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Research in environmental science relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature at around 2 meter above ground1-3. These climatic grids however fail to reflect conditions near and below the soil surface, where critical ecosystem functions such as soil carbon storage are controlled and most biodiversity resides4-8...
Article
It is well documented that warming can accelerate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, further inducing a positive feedback and reinforcing future climate warming. However, how different kinds of GHGs respond to various warming magnitudes remains largely unclear, especially in the cold regions that are more sensitive to climate warming. Here, we concurr...
Article
Agricultural soil management has a great potential to reduce the anthropogenic emissions of carbon (C), mainly via increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. The global use of agricultural plastic mulches has emerged as a widespread soil management practice due to its apparent economic benefits, especially in the dry croplands of China. Ho...
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Subsoil contains more than half of soil organic carbon (SOC) globally and is conventionally assumed to be relatively unresponsive to warming compared to the topsoil. Here we show substantial changes in carbon allocation and dynamics of the subsoil but not topsoil in the Qinghai‐Tibetan alpine grasslands over 5 years of warming. Specifically, warmin...
Article
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Microbes' role in soil decomposition Soils harbor a rich diversity of invertebrate and microbial life, which drives biogeochemical processes from local to global scales. Relating the biodiversity patterns of soil ecological communities to soil biogeochemistry remains an important challenge for ecologists and earth system modelers. Crowther et al. r...
Preprint
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Fungi play many essential roles in ecosystems. They facilitate plant access to nutrients and water, serve as decay agents that cycle carbon and nutrients through the soil, water and atmosphere, and are major regulators of macro-organismal populations. Although technological advances are improving the detection and identification of fungi, there sti...
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Soil organisms are a crucial part of the terrestrial biosphere. Despite their importance for ecosystem functioning, few quantitative, spatially explicit models of the active belowground community currently exist. In particular, nematodes are the most abundant animals on Earth, filling all trophic levels in the soil food web. Here we use 6,759 geore...
Article
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Several upcoming satellite missions have core science requirements to produce data for accurate forest aboveground biomass mapping. Largely because of these mission datasets, the number of available biomass products is expected to greatly increase over the coming decade. Despite the recognized importance of biomass mapping for a wide range of scien...
Article
Full-text available
2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. In this Letter, the middle initial of author G. J. Nabuurs was omitted, and he should have been associated with an additional affiliation: ‘Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands’ (now added as affiliation 18...

Citations

... The financial sector's growing interest in sustainable investment portfolios also provides opportunities for small-scale agriculture to engage in global carbon markets. Policies need to focus on large-scale implementation of agricultural diversification strategies on smaller field sizes, as implemented in China [45]. ...
... A mycorrhizal association is a symbiotic relationship that occurs between plant roots and soil fungi that increases plant performance by enabling plants to extract nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) more efficiently from the soil, improving plant productivity and resistance to pathogens, which is extensively distributed in forest ecosystems (Van der Heijden et al., 2015). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) form a symbiotic relationship with almost every tree species (Brundrett and Tedersoo, 2018;Averill et al., 2022). As a vital component of N cycling in ecosystems, AMF and EMF are responsible for 20 and 80% of plant N uptake, respectively, (Leigh et al., 2009;Van der Heijden et al., 2015). ...
... Brzostek et al., 2014;Terrer et al., 2016;Averill et al., 2019;Soudzilovskaia et al., 2019), which rely on the assumption that a substantial carbon (C) and nutrient transfer occurs between plant and fungal partners through a symbiotic interface such as arbuscules. Definitions of mycorrhiza types that are based on criteria other than the presence of nutrient exchange interfaces challenge our current understanding of the functioning of mycorrhizal networks (van der Heijden et al., 2015;Tedersoo et al., 2020) and quantitative estimates of mycorrhizal impacts on nutrient and C cycling (Averill et al., 2019;Lu & Hedin, 2019;Braghiere et al., 2021). Although we acknowledge that there is a large physiological diversity in mycorrhiza functioning with regards to the balance between C and nutrient transfer in fully and partly mycoheterotrophic plants such as ferns and herbs featuring the Paris subtype of AM (Merckx, 2013;Giesemann et al., 2021), their role in C and nutrient cycling would not be substantial on a global scale. ...
... The current predictive distribution modelling study was conducted with the finer resolution of climatic data currently available (i.e., 30 arc sec-approx. 1 km at the equator) considering the fact that the climatic conditions of the Himalaya, vary significantly with shortest distances because of the topographically diverse habitats. Secondly, the near-surface climate is as essential as the aerial climatic factors in determining a species' range 108,109 . However, due to the non-availability of the former for future climatic scenarios, the current study relied heavily on aerial climatic data. ...
... A large number of studies in the QTP have conducted manipulation experiments to explore the effects of climate factors and N inputs on N 2 O fluxes (Chen et al., 2017;Hu et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2021a;Wang et al., 2021b;Wei et al., 2014;Zhang et al., 2022). Due to significant heterogeneities among sites and inconsistent sampling schemes (frequency and periods), individual studies cannot facilitate the establishment of a systematic understanding of climatic and N input drivers on N 2 O emission in the QTP. ...
... The bacterial alpha diversity did not significantly differ among the plastisphere samples of different irrigation regimes or plastic debris abundances (Fig. 3B, C). Changes in soil C stocks are the net result of the inputs and outputs in the belowground environment (Mo et al., 2020). Considering the shorter plant growth period and more prolonged planting times of some vegetables, the system can increase the crop residue C inputs via litter and rhizodeposition, which substantially enhances soil microbial diversity and activity and in turn accelerates C mineralization Mo et al., 2020). ...
... Similarly, feeding on flowers may lead to greater larval growth and in some cases has been shown to increase the volume of DNO secretions (Burghardt and Fiedler 1996;Collier 2007;Pierce and Easteal 1986;Wagner and Kurina 1997). The distribution of legumes and their symbiotic bacteria might also exert indirect effects on lycaenid biogeography (Steidinger et al. 2019). Feeding on Fabaceae appears to be an ancestral state of all phytophagous lycaenid subfamilies with the exception of the Lycaeninae (Boyle et al. 2015;Espeland et al. 2018;Fiedler 1991). ...
... Soil carbon (C) mineralization (C min ) and nitrogen (N) mineralization (N min ) involve the conversion of organic to inorganic nutrients, playing critical roles in regulating biogeochemical cycling and thus ecosystem productivity (Colman & Schimel, 2013;Wieder et al., 2013;Crowther et al., 2019;Risch et al., 2019). Over the last few decades, anthropologically elevated atmospheric N deposition have been shown to dramatically alter soil C and N cycling, which is intimately associated with soil C min and N min rates (Contosta et al., 2011;Fujita et al., 2014;Janssens et al., 2010;Liu and Greaver, 2010;Zhou et al., 2014). ...
... Based on our assumption, ne root have stronger growth plasticity than other roots. Under climate change, such as warming, substantial changes in carbon allocation and dynamics of the subsoil (i.e., residing > 20 cm below ground), which contains more than half of the soil organic carbon globally but not topsoil, have been present in alpine grasslands (Jia et al., 2019). Shallow-root in upper soil with depth less than 20 cm, but deep roots can reach depths of 50 cm or more in the soil. ...
... Given the recent advances in, and promising results from, a functional group approach [32] to the investigation of ecosystem processes [33][34][35], we apply this approach to coral reef fishes, with a particular focus on predation on fishes, by fishes. We first surveyed a coral reef fish community and constructed an algorithm to model predator-prey interactions based on the functional constraints imposed by both predators and prey (following [36,37]). ...