Thomas V. Bonoma's research while affiliated with United States University and other places

Publications (58)

Chapter
This chapter explores social psychology by analyzing the fundamental concepts of power and influence. A minimum set of influence relationships are proposed which we think exhaust the kinds of dyadic interactions persons can experience, and which may serve as the basis of a novel and coherent perspective of social psychology. The concept of power, o...
Book
The technological revolution in the social sciences made available a set of research tools and data manipulation techniques that permit the study of complex social processes previously inaccessible or not amenable to our observational powers. One important set of tools took the generic title “experimental games,�? which were characterized by the in...
Article
Eighty female Ss served as targets of contingent promise messages sent intermittently during the course of a prisoner’s dilemma game. Ss were either provided with or lacked intentional reply messages to respond to the source and faced an influencer who rewarded target compliance to her promises 0%, 10%, 90%, or 100% of the time. Ss with reply capab...
Article
A 3 by 3 by 2 design was employed in which 72 male Ss were assigned across three levels of a linearly transformed Prisoner’s Dilemma Game (PDG) pay off matrix, three levels of punishment magnitude, and two levels of threat credibility. Occasional threats of a loss of points were sent by a simulated player during 150 PDG trials. Unanticipated effect...
Article
A 3 by 2 design was employed to study the effects of source capability and of punishment magnitude on the compliance of target individuals to contingent threats intermittently sent by a simulated source in a modified Prisoner’s Dilemma game. Source capability did not produce the hypothesized increasing direct effect on behavioral compliance, but pu...
Article
Intermittent contingent promises were sent to male Ss during a mixed-motive interaction by either a liked or disliked simulated player,. The S compliance was rewarded either 10% or 90% of the time. Although neither factor affected compliance, liking for the promisor did induce more behavioral trust, more cooperation on power-irrelevant interactions...
Article
Subjects were instructed on how to use simple subjective probability and utility scales, and they were asked to actively role-play a decision maker in seven risk-dilemma situations. Each scenario provided subjects with specific subjective expected utility (SEU) information for both a certain and uncertain decision alternative, but left out one crit...
Article
ABSTRACTA theoretical connection was proposed between certain social personality variables, namely locus of control (Internal or External) and trust (High and Low) and the formal decision-making model of Subjective Expected Utility (SEU). Rather than adopting the traditional definition of these variables as “generalized expectancies” for behavior o...
Article
This article reports a first step toward developing some quantifiable dimensions of the industrial buying task group, called the buying center. Group composition and interaction processes were examined for purchases of capital equipment and industrial services in 31 firms. Data were analyzed to test the soundness of a communications network perspec...
Article
This article reports a first step toward developing some quantifiable dimensions of the industrial buying task group, called the buying center. Group composition and interaction processes were examined for purchases of capital equipment and industrial services in 31 firms. Data were analyzed to test the soundness of a communications network perspec...
Article
A random sample of 123 social psychologists at all levels of professional distinction completed a mail questionnaire assessing their cognitive and affective judgments of 10 "role concepts" encountered as part of their professional environment. Clinical, educational, experimental, and social psychologists were all rated on the 17 scales, as were the...
Article
Focusing on the validity of subjective expected utility (SEU) choice models for explaining decision making, this research developed a novel methodology that explains subjective probability and utility scales, assigns values on these defined scales to various consumer decision problems, and has individuals estimate missing decisional components. Res...
Article
A critical overview of some major content and process analysis approaches is offered which argues that current schemes do not “make sense” of verbal group process with maximal coherence. The major causes are identified as (1) the lack of any compelling category organization (low internal coherence) coupled with (2) a general conceptual and empirica...
Article
New ways to view industrial marketing are offered in order to clarify some currently existing confusion in the area. The dyadic or two party model and the systems model are offered as reconceptualizations leading to a better understanding of industrial marketing management. Action implications for business managers and academic researchers are sugg...
Article
Recent developments in the history, philosophy, psychology, and sociology of science raise serious challenges to our traditional notions about the decisive power of experiments in the development of scientific knowledge. These developments suggest that the power of an experiment is only as strong as the clarity af the basic assumptions which underl...
Article
The validity of gaming techniques has come under increasing attack in recent years The present article examines claims for and criticisms of the use of games in the study of conflict. Gaming proponents have cited four major functions of games: (a) an analogy, or model, of actual conflict situations, (b) a heuristic device to provide new ways of thi...
Article
This paper presents some highlights drawn from a two-day workshop on organizational buyer behavior cosponsored by the Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh and the American Marketing Association. The highlights are presented in the form of ideas which are both deserving and in need of further exploration. The highlights are the coll...
Article
The authors selectively overview and review the current “state of art” in the measurement of and theorizing about nonverbal components of interactive behavior. A major function of nonverbal indicators for marketing application is seen to be the “triangulation” or validation effect, whereby unobtrusive and difficult to “manage” nonverbal behaviors c...
Article
The authors selectively overview and review the current "state of art" in the measurement of and theorizing about nonverbal components of interactive behavior. A major function of nonverbal indicators for marketing application is seen to be the "triangulation" or validation effect, whereby unobtrusive and difficult to "manage" nonverbal behaviors c...
Article
The central variables of power, conflict, cooperation and trust have traditionally been employed in a context-irrelevant fashion as general theoretical explanations for many social phenomena at the levels of organisms or persons, groups, organizations, societies and even supranational systems. This paper questions the assumed high cross-system appl...
Article
Two bogus pipeline conditions and a control condition were employed to assess the stereotypes toward blacks held by 120 white male and female college students. One of the bogus pipeline conditions employed standard instructions, while the second included additional instructions designed to minimize possible social undesirability biases. Univariate...
Article
This study investigates the process by which one member of an interpersonal system adjusts his expectations for the other's behavior on the basis of the other's concession rate and his perceived similarity. The process was explored in a bilateral monopoly situation where subjects, 52 eighth grade boys, assumed the role of buyer bargaining against s...
Article
The relationships of liking and respect for a source and compliance to his threats were examined in two studies. In Experiment I, subjects were induced to have high or low attraction for a confederate who subsequently was the source of intermittent threats in the context of a mixed motive game. The confederate punished noncompliance to threats eith...
Article
Forty female subjects were given intermittent options to transmit noncontingent promises of intent to cooperate during the course of a mixed-motive laboratory game. In a 2 x 2 experimental design, a robot target either reciprocated subjects' promise statements or concealed her behavioral intentions, and was either always cooperative or always compe...
Article
Two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the determinants of target compliance to escalatory and deescalatory influence strategies during a two-person, mixed-motive conflict simulation. Both experiments involved the intermittent transmission of contingent threats of punishment with varying magnitudes from a robot to target subjects...
Article
Proposes that a continuing friendly stance following the performance of an initial benevolent act has been predicted by impression management theory. M. R. Rosenzweig (1972) provides a historical example (Benjamin Franklin's use of influence tactics) of social influence and impression management tactics at work outside the laboratory. (PsycINFO Dat...
Article
A robot player sent intermittent threat messages of 10 percent, 50 percent, or 90 percent credibility to 180 subjects, 90 of each sex, during the course of a mixed motive conflict game. The magnitude of the threatened punishment was either low or high. The simulated player was either 0 percent, 50 percent, or 100 percent accommodative in his use of...
Article
An expected value model of coercive power was developed and operationalized within the context of a two-person prisoner's dilemma game modified to permit one player to threaten and provide negative sidepayments to the other player if the latter's strategy choices are noncooperative on specified game trials. Thirteen empirical studies employing this...
Article
Gave a simulated promisor the capability of sending promises and providing rewards to 180 male and female undergraduates during the course of a mixed-motive conflict interaction. Promises were of either high or low reward value and were fulfilled 10, 50, or 90% of the time; the promisor behaved totally, partially, or not at all accommodatively. Whe...
Article
Examines various interpretations of cognitive dissonance. A review of the conditions which have reliably produced dissonance indicates that the phenomenon will occur whenever an individual can be held intentionally responsible for his behaviors and is concerned with the attributions others make about him. A social-psychologically based theory of im...
Article
60 males received either 1, 5, or 9 electric shocks of varying magnitude from a confederate during a 10-trial probability estimation task. Following initial trials, S and confederate reversed roles, and Ss were permitted equal opportunity to counteraggress against the confederate. 1/2 the Ss had been forewarned of role reversal, while the remainder...
Article
Utilizing a 2 x 2 x 2 orthogonal design, the strategy (accommodative or exploitative) of a simulated soure of threats and the wording of the threat (compellent or deterrent modes) were varied for forty subjects (20 male and 20 female college students) participating in a message-modified version of the Prisoner's Dilemma game. The results indicated...
Article
Fifty subjects, 25 males and 25 females, played a Prisoner's Dilemma game which was modified to permit them to send threats to a simulated player which stated that the latter would be penalized if he did not cooperate on the next trial. The simulated target employed one of four patterns of responding to the threat: open defiance, in which the targe...

Citations

... Conflict is ''an interactive state in which the behaviors or goals of one actor are at some degree incompatible with the behaviors or goals of some other actor or actors" (Tedeschi et al., 1973) and is an inextricable feature of relationships. Conflict may emerge from a discrepancy in agenda, personality, status, or context between two or more parties. ...
... Social influence theory deals with how people change their behavior because of influencers' persuasion (Kelman, 1974;Tedeschi et al., 1972). The theory is particularly concerned with specifying the conditions under which social influence is temporary and superficial, or sustained and integrated into people's belief systems (Kelman, 1974). ...
... have been a central point of focus of conflict research since the 1950s (Emerson, 1962;Tedeschi et al., 1973;Thibaut & Kelley, 1959). Increasingly, asymmetric distributions of power have received scholarly attention in this field of research (e.g., Giebels et al., 1998;McAlister et al., 1986;Olekalns, 1991). ...
... Both dimensions are perceived within milliseconds (Fiske et al., 2007), thus explaining why even the shortest exposure to cues of warmth or competence influences human judgment and decision-making (Willis and Todorov, 2006). This further suggests that subtle cues of acknowledgment do not necessarily need to be highly salient or expressive for customers to make inferences, as the mere eye contact from a service worker has been shown to trigger positive warmth and competence perceptions (Wang et al., 2017;Bonoma and Felder, 1977;Kim and Baker, 2019). ...
... The seminal work by Robinson, Faris, and Wind (1967) was the first to use the term BC. Since then, it has emerged as a milestone in the organizational buying behavior (OBB) and business-to-business (B2B) marketing literature (e.g., Johnston & Bonoma, 1981a;Osmonbekov & Johnston, 2018;Webster Jr & Wind, 1972). Although its meaning could be simplified to the identification of individuals who participate in the procurement at one or more locations, the reality is much more challenging. ...
... In the early part of the last century, sales resulted from product availability or proximity to natural resources (e.g., water). During the production era , salespeople paid little attention to buyers' needs and acted mainly as product suppliers (Powers, Koehler, & Martin, 1988), with the assumption that customers would buy whatever was produced (Bonoma, Bagozzi, & Zaltman, 1978). This traditional sales process relied on salespeople's efforts or aspects of their personality to find prospective (Borg & Young, 2014;Evans, 1963). ...
... The most common definition for OC has been given by Mowday (1982). It is defined as the relative strength of an individual's identification with and involvement in a particular organisation. ...
... Further, an increased complexity of the product requires that a larger number of technical experts are involved to develop and evaluate available alternatives (Kotteaku et al., 1995), due to higher information requirements (Geok-Theng et al., 1999). On the contrary, McQuiston (1989) did not find a significant relationship between complexity and the amount of communication in the decision process; moreover, Johnston and Bonoma (1981) did not confirm enhanced divisional involvement with an increase of complexity. With respect to purchase familiarity, OBB researchers agree that a rise in purchase novelty causes increased communication among decision-process participants (McQuiston, 1989) and higher levels of departmental representation in the decision-making process (Johnston and Bonoma, 1981). ...
... Changes in attraction from pre-to postmeasures supported an expectancy theory of attraction. Schlenker et al (1971) found no effect of interpersonal attraction for a simulated source of contingent promises upon S compliance. Tedeschi (1973) has suggested that attraction elicits rewarding or cooperative behavior only when the source of benefits is perceived as acting in an altruistic and nonobligatory fashion. ...
... Theories for the transmission stage can be broken into the nonverbal and the verbal communication realms. Bonoma and Felder (1977) argued that nonverbal communications, such as facial expressions (e.g., smiling), eye contact, nodding, gestures, personal distance, touching, and so on, act as nonverbal cues by marketing personnel and that these cues convey as much information as or more information than verbal communications in interpersonal interactions. Customers may also view nonverbal cues as more authentic than verbal cues and thus hold them to be more diagnostic of the affective state or honesty of the salesperson (Puccinmelli, Motyka, and Grewal 2010). ...