Thomas F. Babor's research while affiliated with University of Connecticut and other places

Publications (422)

Article
Introduction Drug‐related mortality is a key epidemiological indicator that is collected nationally and internationally. Significant efforts were made in 2006–2007 to improve the quality of data concerning drug‐related mortality in the Czech Republic. The aim of this article is to identify the effect of a quality improvement project on the drug‐ind...
Book
Publishing Addiction Science is a comprehensive guide for addiction scientists facing the complex process of contributing to scholarly journals. Written by an international group of addiction journal editors and their colleagues, it discusses how to write research articles and systematic reviews, choose a journal, respond to reviewers’ reports, bec...
Chapter
This chapter describes the requirements and priorities of service systems designed to treat persons with substance use disorders. Research and theory are reviewed to inform policymakers, program administrators, and treatment providers about the best ways to organize or to expand treatment services using a public health systems approach, which is co...
Article
The gambling industry has grown into a global business in the 21st century. This has created the need for a new emphasis on problem prevention. This article highlights the core themes of the book Setting Limits: Gambling, Science and Public Policy, taking a broad view of the consequences of gambling for society as a burden on health, well‐being and...
Article
Objective: This article summarizes the findings of narrative and systematic literature reviews focused on the relationship between exposure to alcohol marketing and youth drinking, viewed in context of criteria for causality. We also consider the implications of this proposition for alcohol policy and public health. Method: Our descriptive synth...
Article
The second edition of Drug Policy and the Public Good presents up‐to‐date evidence relating to the development of drug policy at local, national, and international levels. The book explores both illicit drug use and nonmedical use of prescription medications from a public health perspective. The core of the book is a critical review of the scientif...
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Background: The alcohol industry recognizes children and pregnant women as population sub-groups vulnerable to the effects of alcohol marketing. Research indicates that heavy alcohol users are also potentially vulnerable to alcohol marketing. The purpose of the current study is to determine if sub-groups defined by psychological characteristics sh...
Article
The articles presented in this issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (Supplement No. 18) describe the rapid improvements over the past decade in methods, theories, and data systems used for needs-based planning of addiction treatment services. In this concluding essay, the editors describe the progress, prospects, and implications of...
Book
Commercial gambling is a recent historical phenomenon. It has developed into a profitable industry that supplies a range of recreational activities to its customers, and is a significant way of collecting money from players to distribute to companies, state budgets, and other beneficiaries. Many of these are civil society organizations, using the m...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on three industry strategies that can be regulated and used as policy levers: marketing, game features, and venue characteristics. Research on potential policy levers typically measures problem gambling or its intensity as the target variable, often in terms of population effects or risk factors related to game features or venu...
Chapter
From its ancient origins in small-scale gaming sites in local communities, gambling in the 21st century has become a global industry and an increasingly standardized pastime across the world. The growth started in the early the 20th century, and accelerated in the past few decades. The history of gambling is a history of regulation. Gambling has al...
Chapter
General population surveys show that gambling is prevalent in many high-income countries. Gambling is not an exclusive activity that only a few people engage in; it has become a popular recreational pursuit, especially in countries where it is legal, accessible, and commercialized. The epidemiological and clinical research reviewed in this chapter...
Chapter
This chapter describes the growth of the global gambling industry in terms of its volume, structure, and the distribution of different types of games in different parts of the world over the past 50 years, especially in the first two decades of the twenty-first century. Globalization of the market through the internet threatens the ability of gover...
Book
Commercial gambling has developed in the past few decades into a complex enterprise that is at once a recreational activity, a global profit-making industry, and a potentially harmful behavior. New technologies, large for-profit corporations, and extended legalization, have changed the contexts and traditional roles of gambling. Using a public inte...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the evidence from previous chapters, leading to three basic conclusions. First, gambling has both malign and benign redistributing effects. The benign effects are those that help fund necessary social activities; the malign effects are those that make the poor even poorer and the unhappy even unhappier. Second, gambling is c...
Chapter
This chapter explores gambling regulation regimes, looking at the different control structures used, and their effectiveness in serving the public interest. Gambling has always been regulated by public policy, and in whichever way the industry is developing, government regulation is always involved. Regimes of gambling regulation involve both publi...
Chapter
This chapter looks at the treatment, intervention, and support services for problem gamblers and their families. Research indicates that such gambling disorder is treatable.The role played by the mutual-help organization, Gamblers Anonymous, the importance of help for family members affected by their relatives’ excessive gambling, and the existence...
Chapter
The hope for the winning line and excitement about the result are the key factors that seduce players, some occasionally and others habitually, to continue the game beyond their resources in time and especially money. The impulse to continue can be restrained by pre-commitments that set an advance limit to amounts of time and money to be spent on t...
Chapter
The total consumption model (TCM) implies that only a small fraction of gamblers account for a very large fraction of all gambling activities and of all gambling expenditures. This does not necessarily mean that every gambler with high gambling expenses has problems, but the probability increases with increasing intensity. Ironically, heavy gambler...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the diverse problems—for individuals, families, communities, and society—which are associated with gambling. A public interest approach must assess the global expansion of gambling in the light of the whole range of its problematic consequences.The burden of gambling problems is not limited to the behavior itself; its consequ...
Chapter
Game operators systematically attempt to attract customers and make them spend more money. The availability of gambling in terms of the ease of customers’ access to games influences both the amount of gambling and the problems arising from it. Regulations on game features, controlling access to funds and other inducements, risk awareness tools, exc...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The aims of this study were to: (1) describe alcohol industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) actions conducted across six global geographic regions; (2) identify the benefits accruing to the industry (‘doing well’); and (3) estimate the public health impact of the actions (‘doing good’). Setting Actions from six global geographic...
Article
Objective: Social networking sites (SNSs) may influence the behavior of SNS users by exposing them to information about the number of other users who engaged with a SNS post (i.e., user engagement) and any comments left in response to a post (i.e., user-generated comments [UGCs]). The current study hypothesized that beer advertisements with higher...
Article
Background: The field of addiction studies (AS) has grown in the last several decades. However, little is known about the structure and conditions of current academic programs. Only two studies have examined AS programs in the U.S., and both were conducted almost 15 years ago. The current study was designed to identify AS programs existing in the U...
Article
Objective: The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed for the World Health Organization (WHO), screens for risks associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol, and seven categories of drugs. Although the ASSIST has acceptable psychometric properties, it is relatively long for a screening test. This study was de...
Article
The name predatory publisher has been applied by academic librarian Jeffrey Beall to describe an open-access, scholarly publishing business model in which publication fees are charged to authors without providing the editorial judgment, peer-review process, and publishing services associated with more established journals. In the addiction field, a...
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Full-text available
Background: The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that clinicians screen all adults for alcohol misuse and provide brief counseling to those engaged in risky or hazardous drinking. The World Health Organization's (WHO's) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is the most widely tested instrument for screening in primary healt...
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Full-text available
Background: Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men. This article describes th...
Article
Aims: The current study was conducted to investigate how changes in the content of a social media ad, user engagement values associated with the ad and user-generated comments (UGCs) associated with the ad can influence the appeal (i.e. source appeal, informational appeal and emotional appeal) of a social media ad. Short summary: Facebook beer a...
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Full-text available
Objective: Current national responses to the monitoring and prevention of alcohol marketing to vulnerable populations, such as youth, typically rely on partial bans, co-regulation and industry self-regulation. Efforts to evaluate compliance with existing regulations are often cumbersome and resource intensive. We sought to develop a short question...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Included in this guide are instructions for the clinical application of the USAUDIT, a new adaptation of the instrument designed to meet NIAAA’s recommended low-risk drinking levels as well as the severity levels recommended by WHO. The guide focuses on primary care settings. Practitioners in other medical and human service settings—such as obstetr...
Article
Background: Individuals who are particularly vulnerable to the influence of alcohol advertising, such as youth, need special protections, yet little research has been done to determine if other vulnerable groups exist. Secondary data analysis was conducted to determine if perceptions of alcohol advertising differ between groups based on their alco...
Article
Background: This study examined whether alcohol brands more popular among youth are more likely to have aired television advertisements that violated the alcohol industry's voluntary code by including youth-appealing content. Methods: We obtained a complete list of 288 brand-specific beer advertisements broadcast during the National Collegiate A...
Article
Aims: The prevalence of alcohol advertising has been growing on social media platforms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alcohol advertising on Facebook for regulatory compliance and thematic content. Methods: A total of 50 Budweiser and Bud Light ads posted on Facebook within 1 month of the 2015 NFL Super Bowl were evaluated for compli...
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Full-text available
Background:: Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men. This article describes t...
Article
Alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease in Africa are expected to rise in the near future, yet. increasing alcohol-related harm receives little attention from policymakers and from the population in general. Even where new legislation is proposed it is rarely enacted into law. Being at the center of social and cultural activi...
Article
Background: Beer marketing in the United States is controlled through self-regulation, whereby the beer industry has created a marketing code and enforces its use. We performed a thematic content analysis on beer ads broadcast during a U.S. college athletic event and determined which themes are associated with violations of a self-regulated alcoho...
Article
This review describes systems-level innovations that may enhance accessibility, economy and integration of treatment services for substance-related disorders. After introducing a conceptual model to describe the resources, qualities and effectiveness of drug treatment services, evidence is reviewed in three areas (primary care, criminal justice, an...
Article
Aims: Since 2003, the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (SAMHSA, CSAT) has awarded 32 Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grants to states, territories and tribal organizations to enhance services for persons with, or at risk for, substance use disorders....
Article
Aims: This paper describes the major findings and public health implications of a cross-site evaluation of a national Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program funded by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Methods: Eleven multi-site programs in two cohorts of SAMH...
Article
Background and aims: The concern that alcohol advertising can have detrimental effects on vulnerable viewers has prompted the development of codes of responsible advertising practices. This paper evaluates critically the concept of vulnerability as it applies to (1) susceptibility to alcohol-related harm and (2) susceptibility to the effects of ma...
Article
Aims: The aims were to: (1) identify, monitor and analyse the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and (2) examine whether the alcohol industry is using these actions to market their products and brands. Methods: Nine health experts from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay con...
Article
Aims: We mapped and described university study programmes in the addictions field (USPA) in Europe, according to degrees, professional backgrounds, titles, methods of delivery, duration, entrance requirements, fees, clinical practice requirements and courses offered. Methods: The study consisted of two parts: 1) a general mapping of USPA – utilisin...
Article
Conflict of interest;gambling industry;National Center for Responsible Gaming;research bias;research funding;research integrity
Article
Babor, T., & Robaina, K. (2016). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): A review of graded severity algorithms and national adaptations. The International Journal Of Alcohol And Drug Research, 5(2), 17-24. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7895/ijadr.v5i2.222Aims: Since it was first released in 1989, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification...
Article
Babor, T., & Robaina, K. (2016). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): A review of graded severity algorithms and national adaptations. The International Journal Of Alcohol And Drug Research, 5(2), 17-24. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7895/ijadr.v5i2.222Aims: Since it was first released in 1989, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification...
Article
Babor, T., & Robaina, K. (2016). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): A review of graded severity algorithms and national adaptations. The International Journal Of Alcohol And Drug Research, 5 (2), 17-24. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7895/ijadr.v5i2.222 Aims: Since it was first released in 1989, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identificati...
Article
Babor, T. (2016). How should we define, document, and prevent conflicts of interest in alcohol research?. The International Journal Of Alcohol And Drug Research, 5(1), 5-7. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7895/ijadr.v5i1.232Aims: Conflicts of interest (COIs) in science and medicine have come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. This article reviews...
Article
Background and aims: To identify the nature of visual alcohol references in alcohol advertisements during televised broadcasts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament matches and to evaluate cross-national differences according to alcohol marketing policy restrictiveness. Design: Content analysis using the Delphi method and identification of in-ga...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men. This article describes the...
Article
Background and aims: Exposure to alcohol marketing is considered to be potentially harmful to adolescents. In addition to statutory regulation, industry self-regulation is a common way to protect adolescents from alcohol marketing exposures. This article critically reviews research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the alcohol industry's c...
Article
Background and aims: With governments increasingly relying on the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes to restrict alcohol marketing activity, there is a need to summarize the findings of research relevant to alcohol marketing controls. This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the content of, and exposure to, a...
Article
Objective: Elvin Morton Jellinek (1890-1963) was one of the founders of modern addiction science. This overview is a brief survey of his life and achievements, intended to re-introduce alcohol scholars to his contributions (and possible failings) as well as stimulate interest and historical research in the field. Method: The article draws largely f...