Thomas E. Joiner's research while affiliated with Florida State University and other places

Publications (753)

Article
Objective: Affective states and rumination have each been linked to suicidal ideation; however, to our knowledge, no studies have examined their interactive effect in predicting suicidal ideation in the short term. The present study examined the concurrent and short-term prospective relationships between affective states, rumination, and suicidal...
Article
Suicide is a public health concern which warrants considerable attention, especially with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study sought to examine the relationship between behavioral, psychological, and economic impacts of COVID-19 on suicidal ideation severity in a sample of 90 undergraduate students who completed a comprehensive su...
Article
Objectives: Suicidal ideation is a pervasive and painful experience that varies considerably in its phenomenology. Here, we consider how one key risk variable might inform our understanding of variation in suicidal ideation: emotion-related impulsivity, the trait-like tendency towards unconstrained speech, behaviour, and cognition in the face of i...
Article
While research on suicidal behavior for people with disability (PWD) suggests they experience higher risk than people without disability, less is known about variations among individuals with different disability types. This nationally representative, cross-sectional study compared differences in suicide-related outcomes (ideation, planning, attemp...
Article
Anecdotal and theoretical work suggests blink rate as an indicator of imminent suicide risk. We sought to empirically examine whether suicide decedents displayed a reduced blink rate in goodbye videos filmed before death, compared to several control groups. Independent raters coded blink rates from videos of 34 suicide decedents and four comparison...
Article
Introduction: Despite increased efforts to prevent suicide, attempts to die by suicide are rising amongst youth in the United States. Testing causal theories that depict suicide attempts from an adolescent development perspective could bolster prevention and intervention efforts. This study using system dynamics modeling to appraise whether a prev...
Article
Background Children and adolescents spend an increasing amount of time with screen media. Identifying correlates of youth mental disorders has become more urgent with rates of depression, self-harm, suicide attempts, and suicide deaths rising sharply among U.S. children and adolescents after 2012. This study examined the relationship between screen...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Suicidal ideation (SI) nearly always precedes lethal suicide attempts. Anger may play a role in SI, but this appears to vary by gender and nuances in this relationship are unclear. Method: We investigated whether levels of (a) anger and (b) SI vary by gender, (c) the cross-sectional relationship between anger and SI, and (d) if gende...
Article
The exact medical complications, leading to the well-known high risk of death in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), remain elusive. Such deaths are often abrupt with no satisfactory explanation. Suspected causes include cardiac QTc prolongation and, in turn, torsade de pointes (TdP). Psychotropic medications often prescribed to these patients are...
Article
There is mounting evidence that young children who express suicidal ideation (SI) have a different conceptualization of death than their peers. This study characterizes 3- to 6-year-olds' depictions of violence, death, and suicidal themes in a story completion task as a function of their history of SI. Participants were 228 children with depression...
Article
To what extent does a suicide attempt impair a person’s future well-being? We estimated the prevalence of future well-being (FWB) among suicide attempt survivors using a nationally representative sample of 15,170 youths. Suicide attempt survivors were classified as having high FWB if they reported 1) a suicide attempt at Wave I; 2) no suicidal idea...
Article
Objectives Discrepancies persist regarding the extent to which different pain measures provide similar information and relate to capability for suicide and self-injurious behaviors. This study examined pain threshold, tolerance, and persistence across four modalities (cold, heat, pressure, shock) and assessed associations with self-reported capabil...
Article
Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death in America. Particularly at risk, Veterans are 1.5 times more likely to die by suicide than non-Veterans, and the suicide rate among service members has risen over the last decade. In the present study, we (1) assessed risk factors for suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide death within and betw...
Article
Theory proposition, empirical evaluation, and resulting support or refutation are core pieces of the scientific process. These steps of theory-testing, however, can be complicated by relative rigidity and dogmatism, in combination with the logistical challenges inherent in conducting comprehensive, real-world tests of theories explicating complex s...
Article
COVID-19 emerged in 2019 and has since killed more than two and a half million people worldwide. Several studies have investigated the role of COVID-19 on the prevalence of mental health outcomes, with general findings indicating elevated rates of mental health issues as compared to the pre-COVID-19 era. However, the effect of specific demographic...
Article
Objective: This study employed network analysis to characterize central autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits and suicide symptoms within an active duty military sample as well as to identify symptoms that may bridge between ASD traits and suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and behaviors). Method: Participants were active duty U.S. military se...
Article
Both a hypoactive reward system and maternal depression are associated with the onset of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in youth. Recent research indicates that blunted reward processing and maternal history of depression may interact to predict increases in depressive symptoms, however, the role of specific maternal depressive symptoms has not be...
Article
Background Social support has been identified as a protective factor against suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Research has not conclusively identified the component of social support most implicated in suicidal thoughts and behaviors: 1) frequency of social contact or 2) closeness of relationships. This study examined the relationships between thes...
Article
Introduction: Suicidal ideation (SI) represents one of the most prominent predictors of suicidal behavior (SB). Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) was developed from Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (ITS) to assess the two core drivers of SI proposed by the theory. Despite the relevance of suicide-related ideations and ITS, there is a lack of p...
Article
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) are thought to result from, at least in part, abnormalities in various neural systems. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a useful method for studying neural activity and can be leveraged to study neural deficits related to STBs; however, it is unknown how effective ERPs are at differentiating various STB gro...
Article
Interoceptive dysfunction (ID) is associated with self-injurious behaviors, as disconnection from the body is thought to enable bodily harm. This study tested differences in ID among those with and without history of self-injurious behaviors, as well as the relationship between ID and lethality of past suicide attempts. Adults (N = 344; 61.3% femal...
Article
Suicide-specific rumination, a repetitive mental fixation on one's suicidal thoughts and intentions, may influence the transition from suicidal thoughts to behaviors. Research on suicide-specific rumination has been hindered by the lack of an independent measurement tool. This article presents the development and validation of a self-report measure...
Article
Background : The present study explored group differences in suicide-related variables between those with and without psychosis within the context of a psychiatric inpatient sample that included a range of affective disorder diagnoses. Methods : 54 individuals with psychosis and 103 individuals without psychosis (but experiencing other severe and...
Article
Background Events from spring to fall 2020, including the COVID-19 pandemic, hate crimes, and social unrest, may have impacted mental health, particularly mood and anxiety disorders. This study compares rates of positive screens for anxiety and depressive disorders in separate U.S. national samples from 2019 and April to September 2020. The analysi...
Article
Suicide risk screening depends heavily on accurate patient self-report. However, past negative experiences with mental health care may contribute to intentional nondisclosure of suicide risk during screening. This study investigated among 282 men older than age 50 whether likelihood for current explicit risk nondisclosure was associated with previo...
Article
Full-text available
Insomnia symptoms are common among individuals with psychiatric disorders, and associated with increased symptom severity. However, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) has rarely been psychometrically evaluated in a psychiatric sample. Furthermore, the latent structure of the ISI has not been evaluated using factor mixture modeling, which improves up...
Article
Empirically informed theories of suicide highlight the importance of identifying factors that lead from suicide ideation to suicidal behavior. Interoceptive dysfunction may be one such differentiating factor. Interoceptive dysfunction refer to a disconnection from the internal sensations of the body which can cause difficulty in truly understanding...
Article
Background People with psychotic disorders are at an increased risk of suicide, but there is little understanding of suicidal ideation (SI) in this population. The Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide posits that perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belonginess (TB) contribute to SI. To our knowledge there are no studies using ecolog...
Article
We aimed to demonstrate the utility of an item-level network analysis approach to suicide risk by testing the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) among 402 psychiatric inpatients. We hypothesized that specific thwarted belongingness (TB) or perceived burdensomeness (PB; Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire items) facets would positive...
Article
Stress and blunted reward processing are risk factors for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The experience of acute stress reduces fMRI correlates of reward-related neural activity; however, few studies have examined how acute stress impacts measures of reward derived from event-related potentials (ERPs). The current study examined the impact of an...
Article
Objective: Suicide attempts and self-injurious behaviors (SIBs) are known to be elevated among people with bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of the current study was to examine the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) as a framework for understanding, assessing, and mitigating suicidal behavior among women with BN. The IPTS suggests tha...
Article
Rumination, a passive, repetitive perseveration on the causes, meaning, and consequences of one’s distress, has been linked to suicidal ideation and behavior. Less is known, however, about which specific characteristics of rumination confer risk for suicide-related outcomes. This study examined associations between four features of rumination—frequ...
Article
Full-text available
Detection of underreporting in suicide risk assessment remains a significant concern in clinical practice. The aim of this research is to examine whether underreporting based on elevated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) K-r and L-r scale scores may aid in identifying patients with suppressed scores on the...
Article
Full-text available
Dual-process models of cognition distinguish relatively automatic from relatively controlled processes in terms of their interactive impact on perception, judgment, and behavior. Such models have advanced explanation and prediction in a variety of domains across psychology but have yet to be comprehensively applied to the pressing societal and publ...
Article
Capability-based models propose that people die by suicide because they want to, and they can. Despite the intuitive appeal of this hypothesis, longitudinal evidence testing its predictive validity has been limited. This study tested the predictive validity of the desire-capability hypothesis. A total of 1,020 self-injuring and/or suicidal adults w...
Article
Aim Prior studies suggest that individuals may respond inconsistently to different assessments of suicide attempt (SA) history; yet, little is known regarding why inconsistent reporting of SA history may occur. The overarching goal of this study was to examine individuals’ self-reported reasons for inconsistently responding to different self-report...
Article
Full-text available
Capability for suicide is frequently assessed using the Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale (ACSS) or the Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale-Fearlessness About Death (ACSS-FAD); however, the measurement invariance of these self-report measures across relevant demographic groups has not been tested. The current study aimed to examine the measur...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide rates are elevated in individuals with chronic illness, yet few studies have examined risk factors for suicide in this population. Drawing from theoretical models and risk factors identified in the suicide literature more broadly, this article provides a conceptual overview of cognitive (e.g., pain catastrophizing, self-criticism), affectiv...
Article
Suicide-specific rumination, characterized by perseveration on and difficulties disengaging from suicidal thoughts and ideas, has been linked to increased suicide risk; however, previous studies were limited by the use of a cross-sectional design and relatively lower risk samples. This study aimed to replicate and extend previous findings by examin...
Article
Full-text available
Impairments in interoception have been linked to self-injurious behaviors, and capability for suicide may account for this relationship. However, past studies have relied primarily on self-report and unidimensional measures. The present study aimed to replicate and extend previous findings by examining the relationship between interoceptive dysfunc...
Article
This study evaluated the measurement and construct validity of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Form (EDE-QS) in a transgender and gender diverse sample. Participants who self-identified as transgender and gender diverse (N = 71) completed self-report measures of demographics, gender-related experiences, and disordered eating/bod...
Article
Background Agitation is an important transdiagnostic factor for several mental health disorders and a significant risk factor for dangerous or maladaptive coping behaviors. How an individual responds to experiences of agitation itself may also play a crucial role in conferring risk towards maladaptive behaviors. Specifically, ruminating on high aro...
Article
Over 48,000 people died by suicide in 2018 in the United States, and more than 25 times that number attempted suicide. Research on suicide has focused much more on risk factors and adverse outcomes than on protective factors and more healthy functioning. Consequently, little is known regarding relatively positive long-term psychological adaptation...
Preprint
BACKGROUND People with suicidal thoughts are more inclined to seek technology-delivered interventions than in-person forms of treatment, making mobile apps for suicide prevention an ideal platform for treatment delivery. OBJECTIVE This review examines apps designed for suicide prevention, with a specific focus on user engagement. METHODS All apps...
Article
Full-text available
Background People with suicidal thoughts are more inclined to seek technology-delivered interventions than in-person forms of treatment, making mobile apps for suicide prevention an ideal platform for treatment delivery. This review examines apps designed for suicide prevention, with a specific focus on user engagement. Objective This study aims t...
Article
Most suicide deaths in the United States are enacted with a firearm, and recent and first-time purchasers of firearms represent at-risk groups. This study aimed to examine differences in indicators of suicide risk among individuals who either (a) reported current firearm ownership/access or (b) denied current firearm ownership/access but reported a...
Article
Objective The present study directly compared three perspectives of suicidality: Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS), Hopelessness Theory, and a perspective emphasizing emotion dysregulation. Method 219 adults seeking outpatient psychological services completed questionnaires during intake between November 2015 and February 2019. Patients were...
Article
Objectives There is a dearth of research on suicidal thoughts and behaviors among eating disorder patients diagnosed with binge eating disorder (BED) or other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED). This pilot study evaluated presence and severity of suicidal thoughts and behaviors by eating disorder diagnosis in a transdiagnostic clinical ea...
Article
Objective This study aims to document the impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on mental health. Method We compared a nationally representative online sample of 2,032 U.S. adults in late April 2020 to 19,330 U.S. adult internet users who participated in the 2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) using the Kessler‐6 scale of mental distress in the...
Article
Individuals with bulimia nervosa report elevated rates of childhood maltreatment, which appears to increase risk for co-occurring substance use problems and negatively impact clinical course. The current study sought to examine the mechanistic pathways by which specific forms of childhood maltreatment may give rise to substance use problems among i...
Article
Individuals with bulimia nervosa often experience suicidal ideation. Identity disturbance, or unstable sense of self, has been connected both to eating disorders and to suicidality. This study sought to test whether identity problems were related to severity of current suicidal ideation in a sample of women with bulimic-spectrum pathology, above an...
Article
Full-text available
To date, the field has been unable to provide a definitive answer on which suicide risk assessment measure or set of measures is most useful in applied clinical settings. This study pits several psychometrically sound suicide risk assessment measures against one another, to determine which tool optimally assesses the likelihood of future suicide-re...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide is a leading cause of morbidity, yet a significant challenge to receiving adequate support is an unwillingness to disclose mental health issues. The current study explores reasons for nondisclosure among emergency personnel, a population at risk of developing mental health problems. Twenty-nine police, ambulance, and fire and rescue agencie...
Article
Full-text available
Background The disruptions to daily life caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic may have impacted mental health, particularly mood disorders. This study aimed to compare prevalence rates of anxiety disorder and depressive disorder in national samples in the U.S. before and during the pandemic. Methods Participants (n = 336,525)...
Article
Objective: Rates of some psychological disorders are higher among enlisted U.S. military personnel than socio-demographically matched civilians. Indirect evidence suggests some internalizing and externalizing psychological problems among enlistees onset prior to enlistment. However, the consistency and strength of the associations between pre-enlis...
Article
Objective To describe the development, application, and benefits of a set of common data elements (CDE) utilized by the Military Suicide Research Consortium (MSRC). Approach: Civilian and military suicide research experts selected items from measures representing a broad range of suicide-specific constructs, and created new items for certain constr...
Article
Objective Amidst restrictions to reduce the spread of COVID‐19, jokes have surfaced regarding weight gain during the pandemic. The current study documents perceived changes since COVID‐19 and compares these to observed longitudinal changes in reported weight, BMI, and how college students described their weight from January to April 2020. Method U...
Article
Background: Previous work suggests that reasons for living (RFL) are associated with suicide ideation; however, the relationship between RFL and suicide attempts among individuals with suicide ideation remains unclear. Such an examination is necessary to delineate whether RFL are associated with suicide attempts above and beyond their association w...
Article
Older adults experience increased risk for suicide compared to the general population, and the circumstances surrounding the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may potentiate this risk. We discuss how current COVID-19 pandemic-related policies are likely to harm older adults disproportionately. COVID-19 pandemic social distancing policies and ethi...
Article
Objective To describe the development and approach of a Dissemination and Implementation (D&I) core created within the Military Suicide Research Consortium, a funding consortium of the Department of Defense, to promote the D&I of findings from funded research. Approach The approach of the D&I Core is described as it developed over the past four ye...
Article
In this meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between various forms of sleep problems and loneliness. A total of 84 articles (110 samples, N = 227,112) were identified for inclusion. Random effects models revealed a significant medium association between overall sleep problems and loneliness ( r = .3...
Article
Objective Research has established pairwise relationships between suicidal ideation (SI), low Body Trust, elevated agitation, and eating disorders, but knowledge of how these aspects relate in a single model is lacking. This study tested an indirect pathway with low Body Trust relating to severity of SI via agitation in a clinical eating disorder s...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ‐15) is a self‐report measure of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, two constructs associated with suicidal ideation. The objective of the current study was to translate the INQ‐15 from English to Italian (INQ‐15‐I) and to test its factor structure, reliability, and validity in I...
Preprint
It is well known that most people who think about suicide do not attempt or die by suicide. Capability for suicide, a construct proposed by Joiner (2005) within the interpersonal theory of suicide, was relatively novel in that it explained a potential mechanism by which individuals move from thinking about suicide to engaging in suicidal behavior....
Article
Purpose The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prompted concerns about an increased risk for psychological distress, broadly and suicide mortality, specifically; it is, as yet, unclear if these concerns will be realized, but they are plausible. Design/methodology/approach The authors demonstrate why researchers, clinicians, policymakers and...
Article
Introduction Each year, a substantial proportion of trainees who enter the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Basic Military Training (BMT) are unable to complete training. Reentry to civilian life poses significant challenges, including finding employment, establishing a new career path, and paying for education. To our knowledge, no study has examined the ass...
Article
Research is needed to examine factors that contribute to psychological well-being among military service members. This study examined associations between various indices of psychological well-being, resilience, and help-seeking stigma among New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) personnel (N = 2,805). Participants completed self-report measures of psych...
Article
The interpersonal theory of suicide hypothesizes that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and hopelessness lead to active suicidal thoughts and individuals with active suicidal thoughts and elevated capability for suicide are most likely to attempt suicide. We retrospectively and prospectively tested this theory in a large sample of 7...
Article
Objective The Suicide Risk Assessment and Management Decision Tree (DT) is a clinician‐administered assessment that leads to risk categorizations that correspond with actionable strata. This study investigated the construct validity and test–retest reliability of the DT risk categories across two time points. Method Outpatients (N = 731) completed...
Data
Supporting Information of: Iliceto P, D'Antuono L, Fino E, et al. Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire‐15 (INQ‐15‐I). J Clin Psychol. 2020;1–18. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.23026
Article
People with eating disorders (ED) have elevated rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. We used network analysis to identify symptoms that bridge EDs and suicidality, as well as central symptoms within the network, among 3 groups of adults. Participants were either (a) clinical psychiatric outpatients without current EDs (n = 538), (b) clinical p...