Theodore M. Singelis's research while affiliated with California State University, Chico and other places

Publications (36)

Article
Based on a theoretical framework describing culturally sensitive (CS) health communication, this experiment tested the relative contributions of surface structure and deep structure in the recall of oral health information from pamphlets varied in written message and images. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, Spanish-speaking Mexican heritage mothers...
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The construct of individualism–collectivism (IND-COL) has become the definitive standard in cross-cultural psychology, management, and related fields. It is also among the most controversial, in particular, with regard to the ambiguity of its dimensionality: Some view IND and COL as the opposites of a single continuum, whereas others argue that the...
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In this study, the authors tested four cultural models—independence, interdependence, conflict, and integration—that describe the hypothesized relationships between dimensions of self-construal and components of subjective well-being among individualistic and collectivistic countries. Collectivistic countries that have undergone rapid socioeconomic...
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We introduce a new construct called Context Differentiation (CD), and describe how it functions on both the individual and cultural levels. We derive several measures of it from a multi-context measure of cultural display rules for emotional expressions obtained from 33 countries, and examine country and cultural differences on it, and relate those...
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This study investigates the dimensionality of a recently developed measure of social beliefs—the Social Axioms Survey (SAS) for American respond-ents. Ethnic group and geographical differences in the endorsement of social beliefs were also assessed with the SAS with samples of college and noncollege students in eight locations in the USA (N = 2,164...
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This study investigates the dimensionality of a recently developed measure of social beliefs—the Social Axioms Survey (SAS) for American respondents. Ethnic group and geographical differences in the endorsement of social beliefs were also assessed with the SAS with samples of college and noncollege students in eight locations in the USA (N = 2,164)...
Article
In this study, we investigate the impact of cultural identity on: (a) motivations for engaging in deceptive communication, (b) the perceived “deceptiveness” of a range of deceptive responses, and (c) the willingness to use various deception strategies. Participants from three different locations (Hong Kong, Hawai'i, and mainland United States) were...
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Despite the importance of the concept of cultural display rules in explaining cultural differences in emotional expression, and despite the fact that it has been over 30 years since this concept was coined (Ekman & Friesen, 1969), there is yet to be a study that surveys display rules across a wide range of cultures. This article reports such a stud...
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This study aimed at adapting the Emotional Contagion Scale to the Brazilian context. Specifically, it intended (1) to know its factor structure and reliability, (2) to test different theoretical models (uni-factor and multifactor), and (3) to know if the scores on the emotional contagion factors vary according to the gender of the participants. Par...
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This study aimed to comprehend the extension of emotional contagion and gender influences on the embarrassment experienced in several social circumstances. It was a correlational study, with 325 participants, 65% of which were female, all aged from 14 to 75 years old (media= 26.7; standard deviation= 10.4). The sample group included students, 87.7%...
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This study aimed to comprehend the extension of emotional contagion and gender influences on the embarrassment experienced in several social circumstances. It was a correlational study, with 325 participants, 65% of which were female, all aged from 14 to 75 years old (media= 26.7; standard deviation= 10.4). The sample group included students, 87.7%...
Article
This article describes the involvement of undergraduate students in research at the California State University (CSU), Chico funded through an Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). CSU, Chico is a “teaching” university and has students with a variety of motivations and abilities. The 3-year research...
Article
Theorists have proposed that men and women and those in various occupational groups should differ in their susceptibility to primitive emotional contagion. Study 1 was designed to explore the extent to which gender and occupation affected respondents' self-reports of emotional contagion, as measured by the Emotional Contagion (EC) scale. As predict...
Article
The metric equivalence of translated scales is often in question but seldom examined. This study presents test-retest data that support the metric equivalence of the Spanish and English language versions of three measures: the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Self-Construal Scale. Participants were random...
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This study aimed at verifying the correlation between the interdependent and independent self-construals (Singelis, 1994; Markus and Kitayama, 1991) and the feeling of embarrassment according to many social circumstances (Miller, 1992). The sample was constituted of 325 people, mainly female participants (65.7%). The instrument was administered to...
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Leung and colleagues have revealed a five-dimensional structure of social axioms across individuals from five cultural groups. The present research was designed to reveal the culture level factor structure of social axioms and its correlates across 41 nations. An ecological factor analysis on the 60 items of the Social Axioms Survey extracted two f...
Article
Social axioms are generalized statement beliefs about oneself, the social and physical environment, or the spiritual world. A recently developed measure of social axioms was validated in a sample of female college students (N=182) from the USA. Five established measures were used to demonstrate convergent validity for the Social Axioms Survey (SAS)...
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The present study was aimed to adapt the Self-Construal Scale for the Brazilian student population, confirming its factor structure. The participants were 400 high school students from three cities from the State of Paraiba, Brazil. Their mean age was 20 years and most of them were women and single. The answers obtained were first subjected to a pr...
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To broaden our conceptual framework for understanding cultural differences, the present article reports two studies that examined whether pancultural dimensions based on general beliefs, or social axioms, can be identified in persons from five cultures. A Social Axioms Survey was constructed, based on both previous psychological research primarily...
Article
This article presents some predictions for the future of cross-cultural social psychology. It begins with the argument that all social psychology is cultural and that there is ever-growing acceptance of this fact. The results of this acceptance will be an increase in the pervasiveness of culture as a variable, a growth in multicultural research tea...
Article
Evidence on the dimensionality of self-construal points to the coexistence of both an independent and an interdependent self-image. Drawing on conceptualizations of the acculturation process, this study is a preliminary examination of the distinctiveness of four hypothesized self-construal patterns: Bicultural, Western, Traditional, and Culturally-...
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A growing body of research supports the notion that individuals simultaneously hold two views of self. Members of collective cultures have stronger interdependent images of self, but less strong independent images, than do individualist groups. University students in Hong Kong (n = 271), Hawaii (n = 146), and mainland United States (n = 232) comple...
Article
A growing body of research supports the notion that individuals simultaneously hold two views of self. Members of collective cultures have stronger interdependent images of self, but less strong independent images, than do individualist groups. University students in Hong Kong (n = 271), Hawaii (n = 146), and mainland United States (n = 232) comple...
Article
This article describes a self-administered questionnaire that allows individuals to determine their own tendencies toward individualism and collectivism. This approach enables trainers to (a) introduce novices to the constructs, (b) clarify that demographic factors and individual experiences, over and above cultural background, shift a person's pos...
Article
Veterans with (n = 10) and without (n = 10) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) participated in an exploratory study of facial reactivity to neutral slides and to slides depicting unpleasant combat-related material that were previously determined to be emotionally evocative. It was found that the zygomaticus major (cheek), masseter (jaw), and late...
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The first part of the study confirmed an additive effect of the newly proposed construct of relationship harmony to self-esteem in predicting life satisfaction across student samples from the United States and Hong Kong. As predicted from the dynamics of cultural collectivism, the relative importance of relationship harmony to self-esteem was great...
Article
This article discusses the background of intergroup communication research, comments on the articles presented in this special issue, and suggests some issues and methods that may be prevalent in the future. It is proposed that intergroup communication research has been influenced by the Western bias toward individual-level analysis, resulting in a...
Article
This study investigates embarrassability and its association to three individual difference variables: 1.(1) social anxiety,2.(2) a person's interdependent self-construal (i.e. interconnectedness), and3.(3) independent self-construal (i.e. bounded, separateness). Previous theories of embarrassment are integrated in relating these individual differe...
Article
This study investigates individual and cultural differences in embarrassability (i.e., susceptibility to embarrassment). Three hypotheses are formulated. First, the strength of the independent self-construal (the image of self as separate from others) is negatively correlated with embarrassability. Second, the strength of the interdependent self-co...
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In developing a new scale, this article makes theoretical and measurement distinctions between vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism. Vertical collectivism includes perceiving the selfas a part (or an aspect) of a collective and accepting inequalities within the collective. Horizontal collectivism includes perceiving the self as a...
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This study develops and demonstrates a theoretical framework and corresponding methodology to link variables at the culture level to the individual level and, then, to specific outcome variables. The authors argue that in order to advance theory about culture's influence on communication, researchers must begin to examine how culture affects indivi...
Article
Focusing on three interactive constraints, this paper aims to extend the findings of Kim reported in 1992 by comparing the ways in which interactive constraints are perceived across individuals with individualistic and collectivistic orientations. We hypothesized that interdependent self-construals would correlate positively with concern for other'...
Article
Following concepts introduced by Markus and Kitayama, this study describes the theoretical and empirical development of a scale to measure the strength of an individual's interdependent and independent self-construals. These two images of self are conceptualized as reflecting the emphasis on connectedness and relations often found in non-Western cu...

Citations

... An additional systematic review supported these results in interventions for chronic disease among Asians in 21 articles across 16 unique interventions (Heo & Braun, 2014). However, a separate clinical trial that tested the functions of surface and deep tailoring in enhancing recall of oral health information among Mexican Americans did not identify significant differences between the two levels of tailoring, though both levels were effective (Singelis, Garcia, Barker, & Davis, 2018). Moreover, because the message tailoring in meta-analyses or systematic reviews were manually coded by researchers for their included studies, the results may reflect biases. ...
... In contrast, Eastern individuals emphasize their selves more as boundless and in relation to their social environments. The cultural differences in the self and their influences have been observed by many researchers, not only in behavioral/psychological studies, [87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97] but also in neural studies. [98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105] These studies have been conducted either in different cultural groups or using cultural (self-construal) priming (or both). ...
... Accordingly, Frank et al. (2015, p. 262) emphasize the independence of the four CPVs: "A more recent approach treats individualism and collectivism as separate, only loosely correlated dimensions and allows for personalities characterized by both high (or low) individualism and collectivism at the same time. Extending this perspective, another approach defines individualism and collectivism as having vertical and horizontal sub-dimensions (Singelis et al. 1995). Scholars note that the four CPVs may be treated as independent constructs, with customers potentially high or low on all four values or any combination in between. ...
... In contrast, in interdependent cultures, people imbue word-deed contradictions with less selfish underpinnings (Effron, Markus, et al., 2018). While observers from independent cultures more readily attribute contradicted words with deeds to flawed personal integrity and self-oriented motives (Friedman et al., 2018), people from interdependent cultures are more likely to see behavioral changes as adaptive to situational and relational demands (Choi et al., 1999;Nisbett et al., 2001) and as maturity rather than hypocrisy in social interactions (Matsumoto et al., 2009). People from interdependent (vs. ...
... Women tend to assume the role of a caretaker in the family (Eagly, 2013). Furthermore, in collectivistic cultural contexts, emotion expressivity tends not to be endorsed (Matsumoto & Fontaine, 2008), a norm that is especially true for negative emotions and for women (Kwon et al., 2013). Therefore, women may have low acceptance of suicide and a high need for indirect self-expression when they face a difficult situation. ...
... Thus, parents' values or orientations are reflected in baby names (e.g., Lieberson & Bell, 1992 ). Some choose popular, typical, and common names for their babies, whereas others choose unique, rare, and uncommon names. Considering that seeking uniqueness is one of the important individualistic tendencies (e.g., Kim & Sherman, 2008 ;Oyserman et al., 2002 ;Taras et al., 2014 ;Vignoles et al 2016 ), giving unique names is regarded as an ...
... Cross-cultural psychology as a discipline had already existed, being part of psychology, but initially coming from anthropology (Pedersen, 1991;Y. Kashima, 1998;Singelis, 2000). Most companies faced problems regarding multiculturalism, and CCM related questions and innovations all started as a Western project, since the companies that went global first were Western too. ...
... (Kwan et al., 1997), 5.67/5.00 (Singelis et al., 1999), and 5.62/5.29 (Ng and Zhu, 2001). The interdependent/independent differences are in fact relatively small in all three studies. ...
... 494). This focus is different from that of Eastern traditions which are more interdependent and collectivistic (Cheng et al., 2011;Gao et al., 2010;Sharf, 2015). As such, it has been argued that applications of mindfulness in the West are prone to cultivating, amplifying, enabling, and aggrandizing the personal self with too little focus on the broader relational and even transcendental aspects of the human experience (Kirmayer, 2015;Sharf, 2015). ...
... Furthermore, it may be useful to adopt a more nuanced model of individualism and collectivism in order to describe the seemingly contradictory findings regarding collectivism and individualism and the complex cultural motives that might underlie these relationships. Fortunately, previous efforts have been undertaken to offer more nuanced models of individualism and collectivism (Singelis, Triandis, Bhawuk, & Gelfand, 1995;Triandis, 2001). Such models highlight multiple types of individualism and collectivism that are important to defining cultural orientation and have proven useful in studying the COVID-19 pandemic response. ...