Terrence E Deal's research while affiliated with University of Southern California and other places

Publications (61)

Chapter
This chapter focuses on the human side of organizations. It starts by summarizing the assumptions underlying the human resource view. Next, the chapter examines how people's needs are either satisfied or frustrated at work. Then, it discusses today's changing employment contract and its impact on both people and organizations. The human resource fr...
Chapter
This chapter begins with a historical tour of theory and research on leadership, examining quantitative and qualitative strands that have run in parallel to one another. This leads to an exploration of the idea of leadership—what it is, what it is not, and what it can and cannot accomplish. The chapter discusses the differences between leadership a...
Chapter
This chapter begins with the examination of the structural frame by highlighting its core assumptions, origins, and basic forms. It then explains the basic issues in designing an organization's social architecture, describes the major options, and discusses imperatives to consider when designing a structure to fit the challenges of a unique situati...
Chapter
This chapter explores the structural features of small groups and teams to show how restructuring can improve group performance. It begins by describing various design options for teams, accenting the relationship between design and task. Next, using sports as an analogy, it discusses patterns of team configuration, coordination, and interdependenc...
Chapter
These chapters discusses how organizational complexity intersects with fallacies of human thinking to obscure what is really going on and lead managers into astray. It then describes some of the peculiarities of organizations that make them so difficult to figure out and manage. The chapter also explores how the deeply held and well-guarded mental...
Chapter
This chapter seeks to explain why political processes are universal, why they would not go away, and how they can be handled adroitly. It first describes the political frame's basic assumptions and explains how they work. Next, the chapter depicts organizations as freewheeling coalitions rather than as formal hierarchies. Organizations are coalitio...
Chapter
This chapter illustrates the process by following a new principal through his first week in a deeply troubled urban high school. Had this been a corporation in crisis, a struggling hospital, or an embattled public agency, the basic leadership issues would have been much the same. The discussed protagonist is familiar with the frames and reframing....
Chapter
Ethics ultimately must be rooted in soul: an organization's commitment to deeply rooted identity, beliefs, and values. Each frame offers a perspective on the ethical responsibilities of organizations and the moral authority of leaders. This chapter argues that ethics must reside in soul, a sense of bedrock character that anchors core beliefs and va...
Chapter
This chapter presents a classic case of a team that achieved a state of transcendence. Tracy Kidder spent a year embedded in a group of engineers, intimately observing it in operation. Kidder's Soul of a New Machine is the dazzling and detailed account of the extensive period of time he spent at the minicomputer firm Data General in the 1970s with...
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A skilled and motivated work force providing the speed and flexibility required by new market imperatives has increased the importance of human resource management issues at a time when traditional sources of competitive advantage have become easier to imitate. Systematic and interrelated human resource management practices provide a sustainable co...
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Dramaturgical and institutional theorists have explored the role of theater in organizations. This chapter begins by discussing their views and then describes structure and other organizational processes as theater. Institutional theory, a fairly recent addition to the management literature, draws on ideas from earlier dramaturgical theories. Insti...
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The symbolic frame forms an umbrella for ideas from several disciplines, including organization theory and sociology. The symbolic frame interprets and illuminates the basic issues of meaning and belief that make symbols so potent. It depicts a world distinct from popular canons of rationality, certainty, and linearity. This chapter discusses symbo...
Chapter
This chapter opens by examining the innovation process at two different companies (Ford Motor Company and Six Sigma). It then discusses a multiframe analysis to show how participation, training, structural realignment, political bargaining, and symbolic rituals of letting go can help achieve more positive outcomes. It further deals with a discussio...
Chapter
Organizations are both arenas for internal politics and political agents with their own agendas, resources, and strategies. In the discussion of organizations as arenas, this chapter examines the political dimensions of organizational change, contrasting directives from the top with pressures from below. It illustrates several forms that ecosystems...
Chapter
In a world of chronic scarcity, diversity, and conflict, the nimble manager walks a tightrope: developing a direction, building a base of support, and cobbling together working relations with both allies and opponents. This chapter discusses why this is vital and then lays out the basic skills of the manager as politician. It also tackles ethical i...
Chapter
Harmonizing the frames and crafting inventive responses to new circumstances are essential to both management and leadership. This chapter considers questions about using the frames in combination. It begins by visiting the turbulent world of managers, and then explores what happens when people diverge in viewing the same challenge. The chapter als...
Chapter
This chapter begins by looking at basic sources of effective (or ineffective) interpersonal relations at work. It then describes theories of interpersonal competence and emotional intelligence, and explaining how they influence office relationships and theories of interpersonal competence and emotional intelligence, explaining how they influence of...
Chapter
Managers can use frames as scenarios, or scripts, to generate alternative approaches to challenging circumstances. Each of the frames generates its own possibilities, creatively translated into alternative scenarios. They can also be misapplied or misused. Success depends on the skill and artistry of the person following a given script. This chapte...
Chapter
At any given moment, an organization's structure represents its best effort to align internal activities with outside pressures and opportunities. This chapter draws on the work of Henry Mintzberg and Sally Helgesen, and describes two views of the alternatives organizations may consider in aligning structure with mission and environment. It present...
Article
Today's leaders require the proper mental models for our “VUCA (volatile‐uncertain‐complex‐ambiguous)” world, in the estimation of Bolman and Deal. Although mental models are known by a variety of terms (such as paradigms and mind‐sets), here they are called frames. Bolman and Deal write that a “frame is an amalgam of beliefs and assumptions that y...
Book
Full-text available
İÇİNDEKİLER Önsöz 5 Kitabın Anahatları 9 Teşekkür 13 Türkçe Önsöz 19 Kısım 1: Örgütleri Anlamak 25 Bölüm 1:Giriş: Yeni Bir Çerçeveden Bakmanın Gücü 27 Bölüm 2:Basit Fikirler, Karmaşık Örgütler 49 Kısım 2: Yapısal Çerçeve 69 Bölüm 3:Örgütlenme 71 Bölüm 4:Yapı ve Yeniden Yapılandırma 95 Bölüm 5:Grup ve Takımları Oluşturma 121 Kısım 3: İnsan Kaynaklar...
Article
Bolman and Deal (1984, 1991) have developed four perspectives, or frames, for understanding organizations and leadership: structural, human resource, political, and symbolic. This paper reports two studies that operationalize that model. The first study uses critical incidents written by managers to assess how many and which frames they use. Most i...
Article
Purpose In many companies, executives function as either the analyst or the caregiver. The authors believe there are two more appropriate leadership roles – wizard and warrior. Design/methodology/approach The authors conclude that the responsibilities of the analyst and the caregiver could often successfully be delegated to managers below C‐level....
Article
The modern business environment is wild, messy, and unpredictable. That's why the two operating frameworks that leaders have typically relied on—the caregiver and the analyst—are no longer enough. Two additional frameworks—the wizard and the warrior—can help leaders make sense of the political and symbolic predicaments that organizations face daily...
Article
The experience of Mikhail Gorbachev provides important lessons for leaders in the 1990s. Leadership is a process of mutual influence that produces collective action in the service of shared or compatible goals and values, usually in a context of conflict and uncertainty. The job of the leader is not to control the tides but to know where they are g...
Article
Describes five qualities of effective leaders: Focus, passion, wisdom, courage, and integrity. Asserts that these qualities are rooted in faith and soul. Uses Harry Potter and Beowulf stories to illustrate spiritual development. Describes four gifts leaders can bestow on others: Authorship, love or caring, power, and significance. Authors wrote boo...
Article
Prelude: In Search of Soul and Spirit The Search 1. The Heart of Leadership Lies in the Hearts of Leaders 2. The Human Heart is More than a Pump 3. The Journey of a Soul 4. Discovering New Teachers INTERLUDE: Reclaiming Your Soul Conviction 5. A Place to Start 6. Vicissitudes of the Journey INTERLUDE: Leaning into Your Fear Gifts 7. Gifts of Leader...
Article
Analyzes the case of an engineers' work team outlined by T. Kidder (1981) in terms of the cognitive maps or frames used by the group. It is suggested that with multiple frames each frame can be coherent, parsimonious, and powerful; the collection can be more comprehensive; and leaders are enabled to reframe. In common use are 4 perspectives or dist...
Article
Research suggests four different metaphors of schools as organizations: (1) factory; (2) family; (3) jungle; and (4) cathedral. Each implies a leadership role and an ethical responsibility for board members. Integrating all four images might help provide a better map of the board's governance task and improve the board's ability to make wise decisi...
Article
This document examines the orientations or "frames" that leaders use to guide their understanding of their work. Four distinct frames that characterize ways leaders think about and respond to everyday issues and problems are examined: (1) the structural frame; (2) the human resource frame; (3) the political frame; and (4) the symbolic frame. Leader...

Citations

... In light of this perspective, leadership assumes a central role in the development of an inclusive culture. The visionary and charismatic leader is considered a kind of "prophet" and "hero" [50], who inspires and facilitates consensus and integration. ...
... Educational systems "mirror" or "signal" back to their diverse stakeholders their values and expectations for schooling, and the ability to do so is rewarded with recognition and essential resources for sustaining the system. Numerous indicators, such as reports of low-test scores, achievement gaps, low rates of school completion, underprepared teachers, and weak cross-national comparisons, can undermine a school or system's claims of legitimacy (Crowson & Deal, 2020). ...
... School principals direct and guide teachers to perform their duties to achieve this ultimate ambition. The advancement of teacher efforts is under the specific authority of principal leadership to advocate teaching and learning in a school principal leadership to advocate teaching and learning in a school (Bolman, 2018). To strengthen the process, it is crucial to segment teachers' jobs into subcategories of planned goal frameworks, multidimensional job performance constructs, teacher performance factors, competence standards, and KPIs, to manage and measure job performance such as teaching planning, classroom organization, monitoring and evaluation, classroom atmosphere and discipline, and teacher leadership (Atefeh, 2018). ...
... The concept of power generally refers to the ability to have the desired behaviours exhibited; including formal and informal, and legal and illegal methods (Hoy & Miskel, 2010, p. 203). There is no guarantee that power-holders in organisations use their power in a sensible and fair way (Bolman & Deal, 2008, p. 238). In this regard, the fact in which sources the lecturers receive their power is of crucial importance. ...
... Theory is "a plan or scheme existing in the mind only, but based on principles verifiable by experiment or observation" and organization theory is pluralist, with many ideas competing for attention, emanating from contrasting beliefs about the nature of organization" (Bolman and Deal 1991). Other definition of organization theory is the study of how organizations function and how they affect and are affected by the environment in which they operate. ...
... Thirdly, supplying professional development is displayed from the role of the school principal to prepare teachers and parents with the program that can upgrade their competencies to become more experienced teachers and educators (Bolman & Deal, 2017;DeArmas, 2015). Fourthly, promoting a positive learning climate is referred to as the role of the school principal to provide teachers and students with the school environment including programs and facilities that are effectively helping them out to teach and learn (Badri, Amani-Saribaglou, Ahrari, Jahadi, & Mahmoudi, 2014;Halverson, Grigg, Prichett, & Thomas, 2007). ...
... But to engage student learning in those competencies experiential educators may deliberately place students in emotionally difficult situations. The management education literature has described, in detail, activities in which educators deceive students (Barkacs & Barkacs, 2017;Taras & Steel, 2007), position them in intentionally ambiguous and unmanaged situations, sometimes for an entire term (Chappell & Thomas, 2019), simulate power abuses (Bolman & Deal, 2017a, 2017b), model dictatorial managerial disrespect (Fornaciari & Lund Dean, 2005), and embarrass, shame or ridicule students (Stewart, LaDuke, Bracht, Sweet, & Gamarel, 2003), all in the name of learning. Certainly, many experiential activities do not 8 involve negative or difficult emotional engagement, but many do, and that fact raises our concerns. ...
... A key difference between experiential and passive pedagogy is that experiential learning by design taps into student emotional engagement and personal commitment to their own learning (see Kirschner et al., 2006 andSchmidt et al., 2007 for a seminal debate about active vs passive teaching modes and learning outcomes). The management and business education literature is replete with examples of the important learning outcomes for which experiential activities work well, including managing self and others in ambiguous or uncertain situations (e.g., Welsh & Dehler, 2013), navigating organizational power dynamics (Bolman & Deal, 2017;Fornaciari & Lund Dean, 2005), and collaborating and communicating in diverse contexts (Arbaugh, 2018;Whetten & Cameron, 2018). ...
... Ogawa and Bossert (2000) reference the work of Sergiovanni and Durkheim regarding the importance of shared meanings and values among constituents in order to achieve common goals. To be an effective leader, I need to create organizational structures that allow for relationships to develop among all stakeholders so that people can achieve their own goals that coincide with organizational goals (McGregor, 1960 as cited by Bolman & Deal, 2000). ...
... Heuristic devices in research aimed at pointing out a particular mechanism of change often disguise the complexity and interrelated nature of change strategies, as well as the complexity of organizations such as colleges and universities (Kezar, 2013;Poole & Van de Ven, 2004). Practitioners often also adopt single theories of change based on biases in their perspective and in an effort to reduce complexity (Bensimon, 1989;Bolman & Deal, 2007). Our research on the AAU STEM Initiative-a project that deployed multiple theories of change-allowed for the study of utilizing multiple theories of change, exploring advantages as well as potential challenges. ...