Taosheng Liu's research while affiliated with Michigan State University and other places

Publications (75)

Article
Items in working memory (WM) are prioritized if they are relevant to task goals, are physically salient, or have acquired importance from implicit learning. We propose that all forms of prioritization increase the likelihood of recall, but only goal-driven attention will affect the quality of those representations. In a delayed-estimation task with...
Preprint
Does attending to an option lead to liking it? Though attention induced valuation is often hypothesized, evidence for this causal link has remained elusive. We test this hypothesis across two studies by manipulating attention during a preferential decision and its perceptual analog. In a free-viewing task, we found attention biased choice and eye m...
Article
Full-text available
Electroencephalography (EEG) is used in the diagnosis, monitoring, and prognostication of many neurological ailments including seizure, coma, sleep disorders, brain injury, and behavioral abnormalities. One of the primary challenges of EEG data is its sensitivity to a breadth of non-stationary noises caused by physiological-, movement-, and equipme...
Preprint
Electrode "pop" artifacts originate from the spontaneous loss of connectivity between a surface and an electrode. Electroencephalography (EEG) uses a dense array of electrodes, hence "popped" segments are among the most pervasive type of artifact seen during the collection of EEG data. In many cases, the continuity of EEG data is critical for downs...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence that attention can be captured by a feature that is associated with reward. However, it is unclear how associating a feature with loss impacts attentional capture. Some have found evidence for attentional capture by loss-associated stimuli, suggesting that attention is biased toward stimuli predictive of consequence, regardless of...
Article
Full-text available
Although it is well established that feature-based attention (FBA) can enhance an attended feature, how it modulates unattended features remains less clear. Previous studies have generally supported either a graded profile as predicted by the feature-similarity gain model or a nonmonotonic profile predicted by the surround suppression model. To rec...
Conference Paper
Goal. While feature-based attention (FBA) enhances perception to an attended spatial frequency (SF), the precise profile of such attentional modulation remains unclear. The feature-similarity gain model predicts a monotonic modulation profile. However, the surround suppression model suggests a non-monotonic (Mexican hat) profile. Here, we investiga...
Preprint
Full-text available
Selective attention is a core cognitive function for efficient processing of information. Although it is well known that attention can modulate neural responses in many brain areas, the computational principles underlying attentional modulation remain unclear. Here, we show a biased neural coding of feature-based attention in a large fMRI dataset....
Article
Full-text available
Controversy currently exists regarding whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains sensory or non-sensory representations. Here, we tested the nature of VWM representations by leveraging a perceptual surround suppression effect when an item is attended. Participants performed a delayed-estimation task in which they memorized an array of six color...
Article
Previous studies suggest that human frontoparietal network represents feature-based attentional priority, yet the precise nature of the priority signals remains unclear. Here, we examined whether priority signals vary continuously or discretely as a function of feature similarity. In an fMRI experiment, we presented two superimposed dot fields movi...
Article
Feature-based attention prioritizes the processing of non-spatial features across the visual field. Classical studies revealed a feature-similarity gain modulation of sensory neuron's activity. While early studies that quantified behavioral performance have provided support for this model, recent studies have revealed a non-monotonic, surround supp...
Article
Probing how large populations of neurons represent stimuli is key to understanding sensory representations as many stimulus characteristics can only be discerned from population activity and not from individual single-units. Recently, inverted encoding models have been used to produce channel response functions from large spatial-scale measurements...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated how attention to a visual feature modulates representations of other features. The feature-similarity gain model predicts a graded modulation, whereas an alternative model asserts an inhibitory surround in feature space. Although evidence for both types of modulations can be found, a consensus has not emerged in the literature. Here...
Article
Full-text available
A visual feature associated with reward can capture attention when it is neither physically salient nor task relevant. Although such findings suggest that reward acts similarly as physical salience, it is unknown whether reward works independently or interactively with physical salience to modulate attentional priority. Here, we first trained parti...
Article
Computational models of decision making typically assume as people deliberate between options they mentally simulate outcomes from each one and integrate valuations of these outcomes to form a preference. In two studies, we investigated this deliberation process using a task where participants make a series of decisions between a certain and an unc...
Conference Paper
Goal. Attention can be oriented externally to environmental stimuli or internally to memory representations. Both types of attention can modulate visuospatial working memory performance and engage overlapping cortical areas. While the spatial profile of external attention has been characterized, the profile of internal attention remains unclear. Us...
Conference Paper
Goal. Feature-based attention (FBA) enhances attended orientation at the cost of unattended ones. However, the precise attentional modulation profile still remains unclear. While the feature-similarity gain model predicts a monotonic modulation profile, the surround suppression model suggests a non-monotonic (Mexican hat) profile. Here, we systemat...
Article
Full-text available
Our previous work suggests that 2 colors can be consolidated into visual short-term memory (VSTM) in parallel without a loss of memory precision, whereas consolidation of 2 orientations is performed in a strictly serial manner. Those experiments compared VSTM performance for simultaneously and sequentially presented stimuli. However, there is still...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of feature-based attention have associated activity in a dorsal frontoparietal network with putative attentional priority signals. Yet, how this neural activity mediates attentional selection and whether it guides behavior are fundamental questions that require investigation. We reasoned that endogenous fluctuations in the quality of attent...
Article
Channel-encoding models offer the ability to bridge different scales of neuronal measurement by interpreting population responses, typically measured with BOLD imaging in humans, as linear sums of groups of neurons (channels) tuned for visual stimulus properties. Inverting these models to form predicted channel responses from population measurement...
Article
Full-text available
Two broad theories of visual working memory (VWM) storage have emerged from current research, a discrete slot-based theory and a continuous resource theory. However, neither the discrete slot-based theory or continuous resource theory clearly stipulates how the mental commodity for VWM (discrete slot or continuous resource) is allocated. Allocation...
Article
Attention to a feature enhances the sensory representation of that feature. Although much has been learned about the properties of attentional modulation when attending to a single feature, the effectiveness of attending to multiple features is not well understood. We investigated this question in a series of experiments using a color-detection tas...
Poster
Full-text available
Binocular rivalry occurs when two eyes receive conflicting information, leading to perceptual alternations between two eyes’ images. The locus of binocular rivalry has received intense investigation as it is pertinent to the mechanisms of visual awareness. Here we assessed the functional stage of binocular rivalry relative to blind spot filling-in....
Article
Binocular rivalry is an important phenomenon for understanding the mechanisms of visual awareness. Here we assessed the functional locus of binocular rivalry relative to blind spot filling-in, which is thought to transpire in V1, thus providing a reference point for assessing the locus of rivalry. We conducted two experiments to explore the functio...
Article
It is generally accepted that top-down visual attention selects goal-relevant stimuli to facilitate task performance. Hence, fluctuations in endogenous attentional control should influence performance in tasks relying on visual selection. Previous research has implicated a dorsal frontoparietal network in the maintenance of attentional priority for...
Article
Full-text available
Rewarding attention to a particular color results in a subsequent strong capture of attention by that color. However, the effect of associating a particular color with a loss is unclear. Punishing attention to a color might lead to suppression of attention to that color. Alternatively, both rewarded and punished colors might capture attention, if a...
Article
Classic studies of object-based attention have utilized keypress responses as the main dependent measure. However, people typically make saccades to fixate important objects. Recent work has shown that attention may act differently when it is deployed covertly versus in advance of a saccade. We further investigated the link between saccades and att...
Poster
Rewarding attention to a particular color results in a subsequent strong capture of attention by that color. However, the effect of associating a particular color with a loss is unclear. Punishing attention to a color might lead to suppression of attention to that color. Alternatively, both rewarded and punished colors might capture attention, if a...
Poster
Full-text available
The relationship between attention and awareness has intrigued scientists for decades. It is suggested that attention and awareness are two dissociated processes (Koch & Tsuchiya, 2007), based on consideration of previous work on voluntary attention. However, such dissociation can be potentially explained by the fact that voluntary attention can ge...
Article
Humans can flexibly select locations, features, or objects in a visual scene for prioritized processing. Although it is relatively straightforward to manipulate location- and feature-based attention, it is difficult to isolate object-based selection. Because objects are always composed of features, studies of object-based selection can often be int...
Conference Paper
Previous studies have found a dissociation between voluntary attention and awareness. Here, we examined the relationship between involuntary attention and awareness. We presented a masked cue such that participants were unaware of the cue. This was followed by a search array, for which participants detected the presence of a shape target. Even thou...
Article
In the influential two-rectangle paradigm, attention is preferentially allocated to cued objects over noncued objects (Egly et al, 1994). Improved performance within the cued object manifests itself as a manual reaction time and accuracy advantage. However, no study to date has systematically investigated how saccadic reaction time is affected by o...
Article
Attending to a feature enhances visual processing of that feature, but it is less clear what occurs to unattended features. Single-unit recording studies in middle temporal (MT) have shown that neuronal modulation is a monotonic function of the difference between the attended and neuron's preferred direction. Such a relationship should predict a mo...
Article
We investigated the nature of the bandwidth limit in the consolidation of visual information into visual short-term memory. In the first two experiments, we examined whether previous results showing differential consolidation bandwidth for color and orientation resulted from methodological differences by testing the consolidation of color informati...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between visual working memory (VWM) capacity and resolution of representation have been extensively investigated. Several recent ERP studies using orientation (or arrow) stimuli suggest that there is an inverse relationship between VWM capacity and representation resolution. However, different results have been obtained in studies...
Article
Full-text available
Humans can voluntarily attend to a variety of visual attributes to serve behavioral goals. Voluntary attention is believed to be controlled by a network of dorsal frontoparietal areas. However, it is unknown how neural signals representing behavioral relevance (attentional priority) for different attributes are organized in this network. Computatio...
Article
Previous research suggests that there is a limit to the rate at which items can be consolidated in visual short-term memory (VSTM). This limit could be due to either a serial or a limited-capacity parallel process. Historically, it has proven difficult to distinguish between these two types of processes. In the present experiment, we took a novel a...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has suggested that two color patches can be consolidated into visual short-term memory (VSTM) via an unlimited parallel process. Here we examined whether the same unlimited-capacity parallel process occurs for two oriented grating patches. Participants viewed two gratings that were presented briefly and masked. In blocks of trials...
Article
Attending to a feature (e.g., color or motion direction) can enhance the early visual processing of that feature. However, it is not known whether one can simultaneously enhance multiple features. We examined people's ability to attend to multiple features in a feature cueing paradigm. Each trial contained two intervals consisting of a random dot m...
Article
Full-text available
Selective attention to motion direction can modulate the strength of direction-selective sensory responses regardless of their spatial locations. Although such spatially global modulation is thought to be a general property of feature-based attention, few studies have examined visual features other than motion. Here, we used an adaptation protocol...
Article
Full-text available
Sequential sampling models provide a useful framework for understanding human decision making. A key component of these models is an evidence accumulation process in which information is accrued over time to a threshold, at which point a choice is made. Previous neurophysiological studies on perceptual decision making have suggested accumulation oc...
Article
Full-text available
Although considerable research has examined the storage limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM), little is known about the initial formation (i.e., the consolidation) of VSTM representations. A few previous studies have estimated the capacity of consolidation to be one item at a time. Here we used a sequential-simultaneous manipulation to reexami...
Article
Human can flexibly attend to a variety of stimulus dimensions, including spatial location and various features such as color and direction of motion. Although the locus of spatial attention has been hypothesized to be represented by priority maps encoded in several dorsal frontal and parietal areas, it is unknown how the brain represents attended f...
Article
Attending to a feature in one location can produce feature-specific modulation in a different location. This global feature-based attention effect has been demonstrated using two stimulus locations. Although the spread of feature-based attention is presumed to be constant across spatial locations, it has not been tested empirically. We examined the...
Article
How does attention optimize our visual system for the task at hand? Two mechanisms have been proposed for how attention improves signal processing: gain and tuning. To distinguish between these two mechanisms we use the equivalent-noise paradigm, which measures performance as a function of external noise. In the present study we explored how spatia...
Article
Voluntary (endogenous, sustained) covert spatial attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. We asked whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearan...
Article
How does feature-based attention modulate neural responses? We used adaptation to quantify the effect of feature-based attention on orientation-selective responses in human visual cortex. Observers were adapted to two superimposed oblique gratings while attending to one grating only. We measured the magnitude of attention-induced orientation-select...
Article
We investigated the time course of feature-based attention and compared it to the time course of spatial attention in an experiment with identical stimuli and task. Observers detected a speed increment in a compound motion stimulus preceded by cues that indicated either the target location or direction. The cue-target stimulus-onset-asynchrony (SOA...
Article
How humans recognize objects remains a contentious issue in current research on high-level vision. Here, I test the proposal by Wallis and Bülthoff (1999 Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 22-31) suggesting that object representations can be learned through temporal association of multiple views of the same object. Participants first studied image sequ...
Article
Full-text available
Selective attention enhances visual information processing, as measured by behavioral performance and neural activity. However, little is known about its effects on subjective experience. Here, we investigated the effect of transient (exogenous) attention on the appearance of visual motion, using a psychophysical procedure that directly measures ap...
Article
The human visual system possesses a remarkable ability to reconstruct the shape of an object that is partly occluded by an interposed surface. Behavioral results suggest that, under some circumstances, this perceptual process (termed amodal completion) progresses from an initial representation of local image features to a completed representation o...
Article
Full-text available
Human visual performance is better below than above fixation along the vertical meridian-a phenomenon we refer to as vertical meridian asymmetry (VMA). Here, we used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of the VMA. We presented stimuli of two possible sizes and spatial frequencies on the horizontal and vertical meridians and analyzed the fMRI...
Chapter
Two distinct components of attentional control have been documented within sub regions of parietal cortex. First, broad regions of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and frontal eye fields (FEFs) are tonically active when attention is directed to a particular location, feature, or object in a visual scene. This tonic activity in IPS may be the source of a...
Article
When a visual stimulus suddenly appears, it captures attention, producing a transient improvement of performance on basic visual tasks. We investigate the effect of transient attention on stimulus representations in early visual areas using rapid event-related fMRI. Participants discriminated the orientation of one of two gratings preceded or follo...
Article
Two distinct components of attentional control have been documented within subregions of parietal cortex. First, broad regions of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and frontal eye fields (FEFs) are tonically active when attention is directed to a particular location, feature, or object in a visual scene. This tonic activity in IPS may be the source of a s...
Article
To describe retinotopic mapping of the visual cortex when a central scotoma is present. Single observational case report. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope perimetry was used to define the site and stability of fixation and the area of dense scotoma. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the visual cortex was performed while the patient viewed an ex...
Article
During apparent motion, spatially distinct items presented in alternation cause the perception of a visual stimulus smoothly traversing the intervening space where no physical stimulus exists. We used fMRI to determine whether the perceptual 'filling-in' that underlies this phenomenon has an early or late cortical locus. Subjects viewed a display c...
Article
Full-text available
A network of fronto-parietal cortical areas is known to be involved in the control of visual attention, but the representational scope and specific function of these areas remains unclear. Recent neuroimaging evidence has revealed the existence of both transient (attention-shift) and sustained (attention-maintenance) mechanisms of space-based and o...
Article
Full-text available
The human visual system possesses a remark- ableabilityto reconstructtheshapeofanobjectthatispartly occluded by an interposed surface. Behavioral results sug- gest that, under some circumstances, this perceptual process (termed amodal completion) progresses from an initial representation of local image features to a completed representation of a sh...

Citations

... A visual evaluation by board-certified clinical neurophysiologists was conducted, and the generated data was not distinguishable from real data. On a similar approach, Saba-Sadiya et al. [46] employed a convolutional autoencoder, which takes as an input a padded EEG electrode map during 16ms (8x8x8 tensor) with 1 occluded channel, which is expected as the output. They compared it to spherical splines, euclidean distance and geodesic length methods, outperforming them and showing the method is able to restore the missing channel with high fidelity to the original signal. ...
... However, this is no longer possible with thousands of recordings. Methods have been developed to automatically reject artifacts [4,5,11,12,13]. However, first these methods are not compared to human inter-rater reliability so it is difficult to assess their actual performance compared to humans. ...
... In contrast, when individuals believe they cannot act to mitigate prospectively unpleasant outcomes, then more attention (and effort) is allocated to pleasant than to unpleasant outcomes (as shown here, for example). Similar ideas have been raised and supported by the attention capture literature (Becker, Hemsteger, Chantland, & Liu, 2020;Zhuang, Tu, Wang, Ren & Abrams, 2021). In effect, bad news may command more or less attention (and effort) to the extent an individual believes they can do something to change the outcome. ...
... Thus, we can map one space to the other by estimating the strength of the links (i.e., regression weights) between all voxels in a given region and all of the modeled information channels. Note that this analysis framework does not, and cannot, infer 'tuning' properties of neurons within the regions analyzed 107 . Instead, it recovers region-level representations of a feature space (here, spatial position parameterized by polar angle). ...
... Feature-based attention refers to the function of enhancing the representation of image components related to a particular feature regardless of spatial locations (Liu 2019;Liu and Mance 2011;Maunsell and Treue 2006). This cognitive ability formed by the learning and experience is useful during visual searches to look for a target in a cluttered environment to achieve a particular behavioral goal (Zhang and Luck 2009). ...
... In light of the debate on whether memory and perception share representation content (Harrison & Tong, 2009;Serences et al., 2009;Xu, 2017), it is important to examine whether this division between types of attention in perception also applies to VWM. Yet previous studies addressing this have focused on spatial selection (e.g., Bloem et al., 2018;Fang et al., 2019;Sahan et al., 2016;Souza et al., 2018). Given that early models of visual attention were predominantly focused on spatial properties (Downing & Pinker, 1985;Eriksen & Yeh, 1985;Posner et al., 1980), this is hardly surprising. ...
... In contrast, the attended feature can be reliably decoded from distributed activity patterns in both visual and frontoparietal areas (Fig. 1F). We obtained similar results from the other experiments; details can be found in previous publications (Liu et al., 2011;Liu, 2016;Jigo et al., 2018, Gong andLiu, 2019). In total, the dataset contained BOLD responses from 48 subjects, each containing 22 brain areas (11 areas per hemisphere). ...
... An alternative to brain mapping is brain modeling (Kragel et al., 2018), which uses neuroscientific data to predict cognitions and behavior (i.e., any kind of neural metric predicting behavior). Having recently grown in popularity, brain modeling approaches have seen broad applications, some of which involve within-person modeling, including prediction of food craving (Cosme et al., 2019;Cosme and Lopez, 2020), emotion regulation tendencies (Doré et al., 2017), negative affect (Chang et al., 2015), chronic pain (Wager et al., 2013), and vision (Liu et al., 2018;Gardner and Liu, 2019). While brain mapping has generated key discoveries in neuroscience (e.g., Kanwisher, 2017), it can be problematic for evaluating system-based theories. ...
... This conclusion is consistent with the findings of Failing and Theeuwes (2017), who showed that value-driven attentional capture only occurs when the valuable stimulus is initially prioritized for selection. In this sense, goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention may to a large extent gate the sensory input that selection history can shape attention to through learning (see also Gong and Liu, 2018), reflecting an intrinsic interdependence among mechanisms of attentional control. A natural prediction that arises from the dependence of selection history on the resolution of biased competition during learning is that experience-driven orienting should be able to shape the course of further influences of selection history, with selection history gating the teaching signals applied unto itself. ...
... We thus manipulated two factors in our experiments: (I) the distribution from which the values are sampled (Experiment 1a vs. Experiment 1b), and the task complexity (estimating only the average; Exp 1 (a/b) or estimating both the average and the relative-variance (Experiment 2 and 3). Finally, the number of participants (N = 25) in all our experiments was selected based on previous studies that relied on model selection to classify participants to decision strategies (Newell and Shanks, 2003;Glöckner and Betsch, 2008;Pleskac et al., 2019). 9 8 Skewed distributions of values increase the gap between the average and the mid-range making the mid-range strategy a poorer estimator of the average. ...