T. Gaier's research while affiliated with California Institute of Technology and other places

Publications (94)

Article
The feasibility of using CMOS technology for RF amplification in atmospheric remote sensing receiver is studied. The design and measurement results of a 200-GHz low-noise amplifier which is fabricated using a 32-nm SOI CMOS technology are presented. The 8-stage amplifier in a common-source configuration achieves a 9-dB noise figure and 25-dB gain w...
Article
Full-text available
We present polarization observations of two Galactic plane fields centered on Galactic coordinates (l,b)=(0 deg,0 deg) and (329 deg, 0 deg) at Q- (43 GHz) and W-band (95 GHz), covering between 301 and 539 square degrees depending on frequency and field. These measurements were made with the QUIET instrument between 2008 October and 2010 December, a...
Article
Full-text available
We present polarization measurements of extragalactic radio sources observed during the Cosmic Microwave Background polarization survey of the Q/U Imaging Experiment (QUIET), operating at 43 GHz (Q-band) and 95 GHz (W-band). We examine sources selected at 20 GHz from the public, $>$40 mJy catalog of the Australia Telescope (AT20G) survey. There are...
Conference Paper
In this paper we propose a parallel two-finger unit transistor MMIC low-noise amplifier design technique which enables the design of wideband and high linearity low-noise amplifiers with very stable, predictable, and repeatable operation. We prove the feasibility of the proposed design technique by demonstrating a three-stage LNA packaged in a WR10...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we demonstrate non-destructive cryogenic probing of monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers at W-band and discuss the implications for the development of large-format focal plane arrays for radio astronomy. Using a purpose-built cryogenic probe station to measure S-parameters and noise temperature of MMIC low-noise...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the design and characterization of W-band IQ sub-harmonic MMIC mixers based on the UMS BES Schottky diode process. The mixers were characterized at 300 K and 20 K physical temperature. They are a key component for the compact heterodyne multi-chip modules to be used in the 16-element Argus focal plane array, which will be deploy...
Conference Paper
A compact W-band heterodyne receiver module populated with MMIC LNAs designed and fabricated using a 35 nm InP HEMT process, and an IQ mixer designed and fabricated using the UMS Schottky diode process is developed as the prototype for Argus, a 16-pixel focal plane array to be deployed on the 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Vi...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI), designed and developed as part of the Planck space mission, the ESA programme dedicated to precision imaging of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Planck-LFI will observe the full sky in intensity and polarisation in three frequency bands centred at 30, 44 and 70 GHz, while higher fre...
Article
Full-text available
The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the cosmic microwave background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales(~1°). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeter...
Article
Recent advances in the development of InP HEMT amplifiers have produced a breakthrough in the cryogenic noise performance of these devices. Caltech's Cahill Radio Astronomy Lab (CRAL), JPL and Northrop Grumman (NGAS) are working to produce new amplifiers which can exploit this improved performance for radio astronomy. In parallel, these new amplifi...
Conference Paper
We present two low-noise amplifiers for the frequency range of 160 to 270 GHz. The amplifiers were fabricated using a 35-nm InP HEMT technology and designed for room temperature and cryogenic operation. A four-stage amplifier in a common-source topology and a three-stage amplifier utilizing a cascode stage at the output achieve 15 to 25-dB on-wafer...
Article
Full-text available
We discuss the design and expected performance of STRIP (STRatospheric Italian Polarimeter), an array of coherent receivers designed to fly on board the LSPE (Large Scale Polarization Explorer) balloon experiment. The STRIP focal plane array comprises 49 elements in Q band and 7 elements in W-band using cryogenic HEMT low noise amplifiers and high...
Article
Full-text available
The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95 GHz. The 43 GHz results have been published in a previous paper, and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95 GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hr of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent...
Article
Full-text available
The Phoenix Mars Mission discovered physical and thermodynamical evidence for liquid brines at its landing site. The passive instrument proposed here is capable of testing the hypothesis that brines are common in the martian shallow subsurface.
Conference Paper
We present noise temperature and gain measurements of a W-band heterodyne module populated with MMIC LNAs designed and fabricated using a 35 nm InP HEMT process. The module has a WR-10 waveguide input. GPPO connectors are used for the LO input and the I and Q IF outputs. The module is tested at both ambient (300 K) and cryogenic (25 K) temperatures...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we describe two monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) low noise amplifiers (LNAs) for W-Band which have a noise temperature of 30K or better over a wide bandwidth when cryogenically cooled. The LNAs were designed and fabricated in NGC's InP HEMT MMIC process having 35 nm gate length and employing an InAs Composite Chan...
Article
In this work, we discuss advances in high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low noise amplifier (LNA) monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMICs) for use as front end amplifiers in ultra-low noise receivers. Applications include focal plane arrays for studying the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation and foreground...
Article
Current satellite ocean altimeters include nadir-viewing, co-located 18-37 GHz multi-channel microwave radiometers to measure wet-tropospheric path delay. Due to the area of the surface instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) at these frequencies, the accuracy of wet path retrievals begins to degrade at approximately 40 km from the coasts. Higher-frequ...
Article
Full-text available
The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) employs coherent receivers at 43 GHz and 94 GHz, operating on the Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert in Chile, to measure the anisotropy in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). QUIET primarily targets the B modes from primordial gravitational waves. The combination of these frequencies...
Article
Full-text available
Critical microwave component and receiver technologies are under development to reduce the risk, cost, volume, mass, and development time for a high-frequency microwave radiometer needed to enable wet-tropospheric correction in the coastal zone and over land as part of the NRC Decadal Survey-recommended Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mis...
Article
Although hyperspectral infrared sounders, such as AIRS and IASI, have become important weather and climate sensors for both operational and research use, microwave sounders, in spite of their coarser spatial resolution and poorer sounding accuracy, still play a crucial role. That is because infrared sounders do not sample certain weather and climat...
Article
Full-text available
SWAS and Odin provided stringent upper limits on the gas phase water abundance of dark clouds (x(H2O) < 7x10^-9). We investigate the chemistry of water vapor in starless cores beyond the previous upper limits using the highly improved angular resolution and sensitivity of Herschel and measure the abundance of water vapor during evolutionary stages...
Article
Full-text available
We present the first results of a high-spectral-resolution survey of the carbon-rich evolved star IRC+10216 that was carried out with the HIFI spectrometer onboard Herschel. This survey covers all HIFI bands, with a spectral range from 488 to 1901GHz. In this letter we focus on the band-1b spectrum, in a spectral range 554.5-636.5GHz, where we iden...
Article
Full-text available
Aims. This paper describes the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared ( HIFI) that was launched onboard ESA's Herschel Space Observatory in May 2009. Methods. The instrument is a set of 7 heterodyne receivers that are electronically tuneable, covering 480-1250 GHz with SIS mixers and the 1410-1910 GHz range with hot electron bolometer (HEB) mix...
Conference Paper
Weather forecasting, hurricane tracking and atmospheric science applications depend on humidity sounding of atmosphere. Current instruments provide these measurements from ground based, airborne and LEO satellites by measuring radiometric temperature on the flanks of the 183 GHz water vapor line. We have developed miniature low noise receivers that...
Article
Full-text available
The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on-board the ESA Planck satellite carries eleven radiometer subsystems, called Radiometer Chain Assemblies (RCAs), each composed of a pair of pseudo-correlation receivers. We describe the on-ground calibration campaign performed to qualify the flight model RCAs and to measure their pre-launch performances. Each RC...
Article
Full-text available
Astronomy and Astrophysics Vol.520 Nr.1, art. no. aa12860-09 In this paper we present the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI), designed and developed as part of the Planck space mission, the ESA programme dedicated to precision imaging of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Planck-LFI will observe the full sky in intensity and polarisation in three f...
Article
Full-text available
The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers have been tested extensively during several dedicated campaigns. The present paper reports the principal noise properties of the LFI radiometers. A brief description of the LFI radiometers is given along with details of the test campaigns relevant to determination of noise properties. Current es...
Article
Full-text available
We give the calibration and scientific performance parameters of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) measured during the ground cryogenic test campaign. These parameters characterise the instrument response and constitute our best pre-launch knowledge of the LFI scientific performance. The LFI shows excellent $1/f$ stability and rejection of...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI), designed and developed as part of the Planck space mission, the ESA program dedicated to precision imaging of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Planck-LFI will observe the full sky in intensity and polarisation in three frequency bands centred at 30, 44 and 70 GHz, while higher frequ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) programme within the ESA Planck mission. The LFI instrument has been developed to produce high precision maps of the microwave sky at frequencies in the range 27-77 GHz, below the peak of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation spectrum. The scientific goals are described...
Article
Full-text available
We give a description of the design, construction and testing of the 30 and 44 GHz Front End Modules (FEMs) for the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission to be launched in 2009. The scientific requirements of the mission determine the performance parameters to be met by the FEMs, including their linear polarization characteristics. T...
Article
Full-text available
70 GHz radiometer front-end and back-end modules for the Low Frequency Instrument of the European Space Agency's Planck Mission were built and tested. The operating principles and the design details of the mechanical structures are described along with the key InP MMIC low noise amplifiers and phase switches of the units. The units were tested in s...
Article
Full-text available
Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of compone...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present the latest advancements of active sub-MMW integrated circuits (S-MMIC) based on 35 nm InP HEMT technology. The current state-of-the-art results include the first demonstrated LNA, PA and fundamental oscillator modules above 300 GHz.
Article
The Jet Proportion Laboratory's High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) is a 25 channel cross-tracking scanning microwave sounder with channels near the 60 and 118 GHz oxygen lines and the 183 GHz water vapor line. It has participated in three previous hurricane field campaigns, CAMEX-4 (2001), TCSP (2005) and NAMMA (2006). The HAMSR instrum...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the HEMT Advanced Cosmic Microwave Explorer (HACME), a balloon-borne experiment designed to measure subdegree-scale cosmic microwave background anisotropy over hundreds of deg2, using a unique two-dimensional scanning strategy. A spinning flat mirror that is canted relative to its spin axis modulates the direction of beam response in a...
Article
Full-text available
The Princeton IQU Experiment (PIQUE) and the Cosmic Anisotropy Polarization Mapper (CAPMAP) are experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on sub-degree scales in an area within 1° of the North Celestial Pole using heterodyne correlation polarimeters and off-axis telescopes located in central New Jerse...
Article
In this letter, a new power amplifier topology is demonstrated which allows the use of large (120 mum/transistors) at extremely high frequency. This is accomplished by using compact matching networks consisting of coplanar waveguide transmission lines and metal-insulator-metal capacitors to match each of the three amplifier stages. The resulting am...
Conference Paper
In this paper, a new balanced sub-millimeter wave power amplifiers is presented. The amplifier uses CPW-grounded MIM capacitors to form low-loss, lumped element matching networks and uses a branchline coupler to achieve requisite quadrature phase shifts. The balanced amplifier achieves 12-dB small signal gain and 6.1-mW output power (not saturated)...
Article
We present on-wafer power measurements of 35 nm gate length InP HEMT amplifiers at 330 GHz. Various amplifiers are examined. The maximum output power of 1.78 mW is measured from a three stage amplifier. Additional output power may be possible but limited by our input power source level to saturate amplifiers. This result is the highest frequency on...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present the latest advancements of short gate length InGaAs/InAlAs/InP high electron mobility transistor (InP HEMT) devices that have achieved extremely high extrapolated Fmax above 1 THz. The high Fmax is validated through the first demonstrations of sub-MMW MMICs (s-MMICs) based on these devices including the highest fundamental...
Article
Full-text available
We present new measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization from the final season of the Cosmic Anisotropy Polarization MAPper (CAPMAP). The data set was obtained in winter 2004-2005 with the 7 m antenna in Crawford Hill, New Jersey, from 12 W-band (84-100 GHz) and 4 Q-band (36-45 GHz) correlation polarimeters with 3.3' and 6....
Article
In this letter, we describe the design, fabrication, simulation, and measured performance of a single-stage and three-stage 320 GHz amplifier using Northrop Grumman Corporation's (NGC) 35-nm InP high electron mobility transistor submillimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuit (S-MMIC) process. On-wafer S-parameter measurements using an extended wa...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present the latest advancements of sub 50 nm InGaAs/lnAIAs/lnP high electron mobility transistor (InP HEMT) devices that have achieved extrapolated Fmax above 1 THz. This extrapolation is both based on unilateral gain (1.2 THz) and maximum stable gain/maximum available gain (1.1 THz) extrapolations, with an associated fT of 385 GH...
Article
The measurement of atmospheric humidity, temperature and precipitation are highly important for weather forecasting, atmospheric science and calibration of primary measurements. Radiometer measurements in the vicinity of oxygen and water molecule absorption lines at millimeter wave frequencies provide this data. We have characterized a broadband am...
Conference Paper
In this paper, an amplifier with a significant amount of gain is demonstrated at sub-millimeter wave frequencies (f > 300-GHz) for the first time. The three stage amplifier uses advanced InP HEMT transistors to realize 16-dB gain at 340-GHz and > 20 dB gain at 280-GHz. The amplifier demonstrates > 100 GHz of bandwidth with gain > 10 dB. This paper...
Article
We describe the measurement of the noise of a 270-GHz low noise amplifier using wafer-probe techniques. The measurement includes deembedding to the coplanar waveguide input of the chip. The noise was measured at a variety of bias conditions and found to be a minimum of 7.5 dB. The gain of the chip is measured to be 11.4 dB, consistent with -paramet...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present a MMIC amplifier which demonstrates ˜12-dB gain at a center frequency of 245-GHz. The MMIC is intended to demonstrate the potential of power amplification at short-millimeter wave frequencies. Each stage of the three stage amplifier utilizes a 1:2 output split to reach a total output periphery of 80-μm. The combination of h...
Article
rdquoWe report the first submillimeter-wave monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier with 4.4-dB measured gain at 308-GHz frequency, making it the highest frequency MMIC amplifier reported to date. In this letter, a 35-nm InP high-electron mobility transistor process has been successfully developed with a projected maximum available...
Conference Paper
A new InP HEMT process has been developed with 35nm gate length and improved Ohmic contact. A gate-source capacitance of 0.4pF/mm is achieved with the reduced gate length, a 30% improvement over our baseline 70nm device. The contact resistance is successfully reduced to 0.07 with the newly designed contact layer combined with an alloyed Au/Ge/Ni/Au...
Conference Paper
We have recently developed a sub-50nm gate length InP HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) process with a peak transconductance of 2000 mS/mm at 1V. A 3-stage single-ended common source 150-220 GHz MMIC LNA demonstrates greater than 20 dB gain at 200 GHz (> 7 dB gain per stage) and is >5 dB higher LNA gain compared to the same MMIC design fabri...
Article
In this letter, the first 270-GHz millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier is demonstrated. Peak measured gain of 11.6-dB is measured for the three stage amplifier realized in coplanar waveguide. Further, positive S21 gain is measured to 340GHz making this the highest frequency MMIC amplifier reported to date. The high frequency circuit...
Article
In this letter, 254-, 314-, and 346-GHz fundamental oscillators are demonstrated. These are the highest frequency oscillators using three-terminal devices reported to date. The performance is enabled through a 35-nm InP HEMT process with maximum frequency of oscillation (f<sub>max</sub>) of 600GHz. These first-pass designs use coplanar waveguide (C...
Article
Full-text available
Low noise amplifier (LNA) chains at 100GHz were constructed to be used as highly sensitive detectors in the development of the Haystack Ultra-wideband Satellite Imaging Radar (HUSIR). Three separately packaged MMICs are combined to provide a highly sensitive millimeter-wave detector. The LNA chip is a 0.1 micron InP based chip (1). This is followed...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present two single stage MMIC amplifiers with the first demonstrating a measured S<sub>21</sub> gain of 3-dB at 280-GHz and the second demonstrating 2.5-dB gain at 300-GHz, which is the threshold of the sub-millimeter wave regime. The high-frequency operation is enabled by a high-speed InP HEMT with a 35-nm gate. This is the first...
Article
The Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR) is a new concept for a microwave sounder, intended to be deployed on NOAA's next generation of geostationary weather satellites, the GOES-R series. A ground based prototype has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) sponsorship,...
Article
Full-text available
The ESA Planck satellite is designed to achieve precision imaging of the Cosmic Microwave Background with an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity, spectral range and sky coverage. The Low Frequency Instrument is one of two complementary instruments, and covers 30, 44, and 70 GHz with an array of wideband pseudo-correlation,...
Conference Paper
We present a 150-215 GHz InP HEMT MMIC with greater than 12dB gain across this band. The MMIC is a 3-stage, single-ended microstrip design implemented using 0.07 mum T-gate InP HEMT MMIC technology with 50 mum substrate
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geo STAR represents a new approach to microwave atmospheric sounding that is now under development. It has capabilities similar to sensors currently operating on low earth orbiting weather satellites but is intended for deployment in geostationary orbit - where it will complement future infrared sounders and enable all-weather temperature and humid...
Article
Full-text available
Polarization results from the Cosmic Anisotropy Polarization MAPper (CAPMAP) experiment are reported. These are based upon 433 hours, after cuts, observing a 2 square degree patch around the North Celestial Pole (NCP) with four 90 GHz correlation polarimeters coupled to optics defining $4\arcmin$ beams. The E-mode flat bandpower anisotropy within $...
Conference Paper
GeoSTAR is a new microwave atmospheric sounder under development, with capabilities similar to sensors now operating on low Earth orbiting weather satellites. GeoSTAR is intended for deployment in geostationary orbit - where it complements future infrared sounders and enables all-weather temperature and humidity soundings and rain mapping. The requ...
Article
Full-text available
The LFI (Low Frequency Instrument) on board the ESA Planck satellite is constituted by an array of radiometric detectors actively cooled at 20 K in the 30-70 GHz frequency range in the focal plane of the Planck telescope. In this paper we present an overview of the LFI instrument, with a particular focus on the radiometer design. The adopted pseudo...
Conference Paper
We have developed a broadband 180° phase switch using one-sided planar grounded slotline design. The design is based upon a grounded coplanar waveguide (CPW) to slotline transition acting as a balun. This design offers several advantages over existing topologies making it well suited to monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) integration. Th...